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Rat inflammation

Yongbin Ma, Liyang Dong, Dan Zhou, Li Li, Wenzhe Zhang, Yu Zhen, Ting Wang, Jianhua Su, Deyu Chen, Chaoming Mao, Xuefeng Wang
Peripheral nerve injury results in limited nerve regeneration and severe functional impairment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a remarkable tool for peripheral nerve regeneration. The involvement of human umbilical cord MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (hUCMSC-EVs) in peripheral nerve regeneration, however, remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated functional recovery and nerve regeneration in rats that received hUCMSC-EV treatment after nerve transection. We observed that hUCMSC-EV treatment promoted the recovery of motor function and the regeneration of axons; increased the sciatic functional index; resulted in the generation of numerous axons and of several Schwann cells that surrounded individual axons; and attenuated the atrophy of the gastrocnemius muscle...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Barbara Shukitt-Hale, Nopporn Thangthaeng, Marshall G Miller, Shibu M Poulose, Amanda N Carey, Derek R Fisher
Daily supplementation of blueberries (BBs) reverses age-related deficits in behavior in aged rats. However, it is unknown whether BB is more beneficial to one subset of the population dependent on baseline cognitive performance and inflammatory status. To examine the effect of individual differences on the efficacy of BB, aged rats (17 mo old) were assessed for cognition in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) and divided into good, average, and poor performers based on navigation errors. Half of the rats in each cognitive group were then fed a control or a 2% BB diet for 8 weeks before re-testing...
February 17, 2019: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Joneth Fernandes, Girdhari Lal Gupta
Depression is a heterogeneous disorder and associated with inflammatory responses. The influences of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on neuroinflammation associated depression-like behavior have not been investigated yet, and associated biochemical changes are currently unclear. Therefore, we assessed the effects of NAC on neuroinflammation associated depression-like behavior induced through chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in rats. The antidepressant-like effect of NAC was depicted using the sucrose preference test and the forced swimming test (FST) while CUMS-induced alteration in the locomotor index was measured using the open field test (OFT) and actophotometer...
February 14, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Zhiwen Jiang, Yanan Song, Jing Qiao, Yan Yang, Wei Zhang, Wanshun Liu, Baoqin Han
Chitosan as a natural bioactive biopolymer has been commonly employed in guidance conduit for repairing peripheral nerve injury, due to its excellent properties of low toxicity, antibacterial properties, high biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this study, chitin and CM-chitosan were prepared from pharmaceutical grade chitosan. Moreover, a novel composite chitosan-based nerve graft comprising microporous chitin-based conduit and internal CM-chitosan fiber was constructed and applied to bridge sciatic nerve across a 10-mm defect in SD rats...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
E Martianova, V A Aniol, A O Manolova, A A Kvichansky, N V Gulyaeva
Lentiviral transduction is a powerful tool and widely used in neuroscience research to manipulate gene expression of cells. However, the injection of lentiviral vectors in the brain is not totally benign, it potentially induces focal neuroinflammation. Upon inflammation, microglial cells get activated and can induce major changes in tissue environment, which may interfere with experimental results. In the current study, two weeks after the injection of control viral construction in the dentate gyrus (DG) of rats, an activation of microglia was detected...
February 13, 2019: Acta Histochemica
Yina Liu, Shengtian Mu, Xu Li, Yingjian Liang, Liang Wang, Xiaochun Ma
BACKGROUND: Unfractionated heparin (UFH) has been shown to ameliorate lung edema and lung vascular leakage in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury. Impaired tight junction (TJ) function is a sign of sepsis-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury (ALI), which is closely related to the downregulated expression of TJ-specific proteins or the upregulated expression of inflammatory cytokines. Because UFH has been intensively studied in modulating inflammation, we hypothesize that UFH may play a positive role in treating sepsis-induced ARDS/ALI by protecting TJs...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Surgical Research
Shipin Zhang, Kristeen Ye Wen Teo, Shang Jiunn Chuah, Ruenn Chai Lai, Sai Kiang Lim, Wei Seong Toh
The efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapies is increasingly attributed to paracrine secretion, particularly exosomes. In this study, we investigated the role of MSC exosomes in the regulation of inflammatory response, nociceptive behaviour, and condylar cartilage and subchondral bone healing in an immunocompetent rat model of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA). We observed that exosome-mediated repair of osteoarthritic TMJs was characterized by early suppression of pain and degeneration with reduced inflammation, followed by sustained proliferation and gradual improvements in matrix expression and subchondral bone architecture, leading to overall joint restoration and regeneration...
February 8, 2019: Biomaterials
Ming-Xiang Cheng, Jin-Zheng Li, Yong Chen, Ding Cao, Jian-Ping Gong, Bing Tu
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) / vascular endothelial growth factor -c (VEGF-C) signaling is reported to negatively regulate TLR4-triggered inflammation of macrophages. This study aims to clarify whether the VEGFR-3/VEGF-C signaling can suppress Kupffer cells (KCs) activation and attenuate hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) after liver transplantation. METHODS: A rat model of liver transplantation was performed. Donor livers were perfused with VEGF-C injection via portal vein during cold preservation, and controls were perfused with UW solution...
February 13, 2019: Transplant Immunology
Aidan C Smith, Ryan C Holden, Sherry M Rasmussen, Michael R Hoane, Michael J Hylin
Age is a consistent predictor of outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although children and adolescents have the highest rate of hospitalizations and long-term disabilities, few preclinical studies have attempted to model and treat TBI in this population. Studies using nicotinamide (NAM), a soluble B-group vitamin, in older animals (3-6 months) have shown improved functional recovery in experimental models of TBI. The purpose of this study was two-fold: to examine the preclinical efficacy of NAM at different doses on behavioral outcomes in juvenile rats and examine the microglial response over time...
February 13, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Damla Binnetoglu, Ahmet Hacimuftuoglu, Feyza Aricioğlu
AIMS: The effects of agmatine, an endogenous substance known to have a neuroprotective effect against neurotoxicity has been investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The primary neuron culture obtained from neonatal rats was exposed to toxicity with paclitaxel and cisplatin and the effect of agmatine on both acute (1 h) and chronic (24 h) exposure was demonstrated by biochemical and molecular analyses. It was demonstrated that the effect of agmatine before and after agmatine was induced by neurotoxicity before agmatine and the effect of agmatine on the formed and occuring toxicities...
February 13, 2019: Life Sciences
Ewerton Zaniboni, Leonardo Bagne, Thaís Camargo, Maria Esméria Corezola do Amaral, Maira Felonato, Thiago Antônio Moretti de Andrade, Gláucia Maria Tech Dos Santos, Guilherme Ferreira Caetano, Marcelo Augusto Marreto Esquisatto, Milton Santamaria, Fernanda Aparecida Sampaio Mendonça
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the bone remodeling during orthodontic movement with corticotomy when submitted to low-intensity electrical stimulation application (microcurrent-MC) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty Wistar rats were divided into the following 5 groups: (C) submitted to tooth movement; (Cort) tooth movement/corticotomy; (Cort-L) tooth movement/corticotomy/laser AsGaAl 808 nm (4.96J/50s); (Cort-Mc) tooth movement/corticotomy/microcurrent (10 μA/5 min); (Cort-L-Mc) tooth movement/corticotomy and laser/microcurrent alternated...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Oral Investigations
Siwen Zhang, Pingping Li, Zhengwei Yuan, Jichun Tan
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine adhesion (IUA) is a major cause of female secondary infertility. We previously demonstrated that menstrual blood-derived stromal cell (MenSC) transplantation helped severe IUA patients have pregnancy and endometrium regeneration. We also initiated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) acted as a beneficial supplement in MenSC culturing and a potential endometrial receptivity regulator. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effect of combined transplantation of MenSCs with PRP in rat IUA models and the mechanisms of MenSCs in endometrium regeneration...
February 15, 2019: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Matthew G Permenter, Bonna C McDyre, Danielle L Ippolito, Jonathan D Stallings
BACKGROUND: Heat illness remains a significant cause of morbidity in susceptible populations. Recent research elucidating the cellular mechanism of heat stress leading to heat illness may provide information to develop better therapeutic interventions, risk assessment strategies, and early biomarkers of organ damage. microRNA (miRNA) are promising candidates for therapeutic targets and biomarkers for a variety of clinical conditions since there is the potential for high specificity for individual tissues and unique cellular functions...
February 15, 2019: BMC Genomics
Yan Zhou, Jianghua Ming, Yaming Li, Ming Deng, Qing Chen, Yonggang Ma, Zhonghui Chen, Yubiao Zhang, Shiqing Liu
Ligustilide (LIG) is the main lipophilic component of the Umbelliferae family of pharmaceutical plants, including Radix angelicae sinensis and Ligusticum chuanxiong. LIG shows various pharmacological properties associated with anti-inflammation and anti-apoptosis in several kinds of cell lines. However, the therapeutic effects of LIG on chondrocyte apoptosis remain unknown. In this study, we investigated whether LIG had an anti-apoptotic activity in sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-stimulated chondrocyte apoptosis and could delay cartilage degeneration in a surgically induced rat OA model, and elucidated the potential mechanisms...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Roohi Mirza, Bhupesh Sharma
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with two major behavioral symptoms i.e. repetitive behavior and social-communication impairment. The unknown etiology of ASD is responsible for the difficulty in identifying the possible therapeutic modulators for ASD. Valproic acid (VPA) is an anticonvulsant drug in both human and rodents with teratogenic effects during pregnancy. Therefore, prenatal exposure of VPA induced autism spectrum disorder like phenotypes in both human and rodents. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) is widely localized in the brain...
February 12, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
Vajir Malek, Nisha Sharma, Himanshu Sankrityayan, Anil Bhanudas Gaikwad
AIMS: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and natriuretic peptides system (NPS) perturbations govern the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Hence, in search of a novel therapy against DN, present study targeted both, NPS and RAS simultaneously using a neprilysin inhibitor (NEPi) in combination with either angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) or angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activator. METHODS: We induced diabetes in male Wistar rats by a single dose of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg, i...
February 12, 2019: Life Sciences
Cecilie Bay-Richter, Eskild Petersen, Nico Liebenberg, Betina Elfving, Gregers Wegener
Toxoplasma gondii (TOX) is an intracellular parasite which infects warm-blooded animals including humans. An increasing number of clinical studies now hypothesize that latent toxoplasmosis may be a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disease. For depression, the results have been varied and we speculate that genetic background is important for the response to latent toxoplasmosis. The main objective of this study was to elucidate gene - environment interactions in the behavioural response to TOX infection by use of genetically vulnerable animals (Flinders sensitive line, FSL) compared to control animals (Flinders resistant line, FRL)...
February 12, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Grażyna Wójcicka, Mariusz Zaręba, Anna Warpas, Anna Jamroz-Wiśniewska, Marta Rusek, Grażyna Czechowska, Jerzy Bełtowski
Inflammation and oxidative stress are the two processes crucial in atherogenesis. Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), a plasma lipoprotein-associated enzyme, degrades pro-inflammatory lipids generated within oxidatively modified lipoproteins. Extensive evidence shows that incretin-based drugs, a new class of anti-diabetic agents, can provide cardiovascular protection that cannot be attributed to their glucose-lowering effects. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the antiatherogenic effects of the GLP-1(glucagon-like peptide-1) receptor agonist (exenatide) and DPP-4(dipeptidyl peptidase-4) inhibitors (sitagliptin) may occur via the regulation of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity/mass and inhibition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in the fructose-fed rats...
February 12, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Min Zhang, Yan Chen, Mei-Ju Yang, Xin-Rong Fan, Hui Xie, Ling Zhang, Yu-Song Nie, Miao Yan
The purpose of this study was to investigate the renal protective effect of celastrol on diabetic rats. Furthermore, the mechanism of its action was discussed whether it was related to MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway. There were a total of 36 rats. Six rats were randomly chosen as the control group. The remaining 30 rats were given 1% streptozotocin intraperitoneal injection (50 mg/kg) and were randomly divided into five groups: the model control group, the low-dose celastrol group, the high-dose celastrol group, the Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycosides group, and the MAPK/NF-κB inhibitor group...
February 15, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
QianQian Han, QianQian Liu, Hui Zhang, Meili Lu, Hongxin Wang, Futian Tang, Yingjie Zhang
BACKGROUND Simvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, has been reported to exert multiple protective effects on the cardiovascular system. However, the molecular mechanism remains to be examined. The present study was designed to study the effects of simvastatin on cardiac hypertrophy in diabetic rats and to explore its potential mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into a control (Con) group, a streptozotocin (STZ) group, and a STZ+simvastatin (STZ+SIM) group. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by using dihydroethidium (DHE) staining...
February 15, 2019: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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