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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30877883/circulating-long-non-coding-rna-colon-cancer-associated-transcript-2-protected-by-exosome-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-colorectal-cancer
#1
Lili Wang, Weili Duan, Suzhen Yan, Yujiao Xie, Chuanxin Wang
BACKGROUND: Colon cancer-associated transcript 2 (CCAT2) plays a crucial role in several cancers. However, the clinical significance of circulating CCAT2 expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not previously been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the potential role of CCAT2 and its clinical significance of circulating expression level in CRC. METHODS: We detected the expression of CCAT2 in 75 pairs of tumorous and adjacent non-tumorous tissues derived from CRC patients by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
March 13, 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30876419/exosomes-in-gastric-cancer-roles-mechanisms-and-applications
#2
REVIEW
Min Fu, Jianmei Gu, Pengcheng Jiang, Hui Qian, Wenrong Xu, Xu Zhang
Exosomes are nanosized extracellular vesicles that can be released by almost all types of cells. Initially considered as the garbage bins acting to discard unwanted products of cells, exosomes are now recognized as an important way for cellular communication by transmitting bioactive molecules including proteins, DNA, mRNAs, and non-coding RNAs. The recent studies have shown that exosomes are critically involved in human health and diseases including cancer. Exosomes have been suggested to participate in the promotion of tumorigenesis, tumor growth and metastasis, tumor angiogenesis, tumor immune escape, and tumor therapy resistance...
March 15, 2019: Molecular Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30872795/hypoxia-induced-tumor-exosomes-promote-m2-like-macrophage-polarization-of-infiltrating-myeloid-cells-and-microrna-mediated-metabolic-shift
#3
Jung Eun Park, Bamaprasad Dutta, Shun Wilford Tse, Nikhil Gupta, Chee Fan Tan, Jee Keem Low, Kheng Wei Yeoh, Oi Lian Kon, James P Tam, Siu Kwan Sze
Developing tumors rapidly outgrow their oxygen supply and are subject to hypoxia, which stimulates hypersecretion of tumor-derived exosomes that promote angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunosuppression, but the molecular mediators of these pathological effects remain poorly defined. Using quantitative proteomics, we identified that exosomes produced by hypoxic tumor cells are highly enriched in immunomodulatory proteins and chemokines including CSF-1, CCL2, FTH, FTL, and TGFβ. Modeling exosome effects on tumor-infiltrating immune cells, we observed a potent ability of these hypoxia-induced vesicles to influence macrophage recruitment and promote M2-like polarization both in vitro and in vivo...
March 12, 2019: Oncogene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30870158/extracellular-vesicles-from-interferon-%C3%AE-primed-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-reduce-escherichia-coli-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-rats
#4
Amir K Varkouhi, Mirjana Jerkic, Lindsay Ormesher, Stéphane Gagnon, Sakshi Goyal, Razieh Rabani, Claire Masterson, Chris Spring, Paul Z Chen, Frank X Gu, Claudia C Dos Santos, Gerard F Curley, John G Laffey
WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: Mesenchymal stromal cells are multipotent adult stem cells with the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell types and have immunomodulatory properties that have been shown to have substantial therapeutic promise in preclinical acute lung injury modelsMesenchymal stromal cells release extracellular vesicles, which are small, spherical membrane fragments comprising distinct populations including both exosomes and microvesicles, which have therapeutic effects in several disease modelsMesenchymal stromal cells are activated or primed by the injury microenvironment, which may be replicated by prior activation of the mesenchymal stromal cells WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: In a rat model of Escherichia coli-induced pneumonia, extracellular vesicles derived from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells primed with interferon-γ more effectively attenuated E...
March 11, 2019: Anesthesiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30868891/exosomal-mirna423-5p-mediated-oncogene-activity-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-a-potential-diagnostic-and-biological-target-for-cancer-therapy
#5
W Ye, X Deng, Y Fan
Exosomes are considered important "messengers" between cells and their cargo, and some of the miRNAs composing their cargo may be involved in oncogenic activity. Exosomal miRNA423-5p (Ex-miRNA423-5p) is upregulated in gastric cancer and associated with its poor prognosis. However, the role of exosome-derived miRNAs in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is still unclear and needs further study. In our work, we found that the level of Ex-miRNA423-5p was significantly increased in the serum of PTC patients compared with the serum of normal healthy people, and in vitro, we demonstrated that miRNA423-5p entered thyroid cancer cells through exosomes from thyroid cancer cell supernatant...
March 7, 2019: Neoplasma
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30866952/hypoxic-bmsc-derived-exosomal-mirnas-promote-metastasis-of-lung-cancer-cells-via-stat3-induced-emt
#6
Xina Zhang, Buqing Sai, Fan Wang, Lujuan Wang, Yuhui Wang, Leliang Zheng, Guiyuan Li, Jingqun Tang, Juanjuan Xiang
BACKGROUND: Metastasis is the main cause of lung cancer mortality. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are a component of the cancer microenvironment and contribute to cancer progression. Intratumoral hypoxia affects both cancer and stromal cells. Exosomes are recognized as mediators of intercellular communication. Here, we aim to further elucidate the communication between BMSC-derived exosomes and cancer cells in the hypoxic niche. METHODS: Exosomal miRNA profiling was performed using a microRNA array...
March 13, 2019: Molecular Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30864689/proteomics-profiling-of-plasma-exosomes-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-a-potential-role-in-the-coagulation-cascade-diagnosis-and-prognosis
#7
Wei Zhang, Xiaoxuan Ou, Xiaohua Wu
Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal type of cancer among all gynecological malignancies. The majority of patients are diagnosed with ovarian cancer at the late stages of the disease. Therefore, there exists an imperative need for the development of early ovarian cancer diagnostic techniques. Exosomes, secreted by various cell types, play pivotal roles in intercellular communication, which emerge as promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for ovarian cancer. In this study, we present for the first time, at least to the best of our knowledge, the proteomics profiling of exosomes derived from the plasma of patients with ovarian cancer via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC‑MS/MS) with tandem mass tagging (TMT)...
March 7, 2019: International Journal of Oncology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30864674/role-of-tumor%C3%A2-derived-extracellular-vesicles-in-cancer-progression-and-their-clinical-applications-review
#8
Fuhao Qiao, Peng Pan, Jiaping Yan, Jing Sun, Yan Zong, Zhiyong Wu, Xiaoqin Lu, Na Chen, Rui Mi, Yongbin Ma, Yuan Ji
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including micro‑vesicles and exosomes, are heterogeneous small membranous vesicles shed from the surface of myriad cells and are crucial in mediating intercellular communication. The vertical trafficking of cargo to the plasma membrane and subsequent redistribution of surface lipids may contribute to EV formation. Tumor‑derived extracellular vesicles (TD‑EVs) can carry complex, bioactive cargo, such as nucleic acids and proteins, during tumor metastasis. Paracrine information gets relayed by TD‑EVs to adjacent tumor cells and this allows a crosstalk between malignant cells...
March 12, 2019: International Journal of Oncology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30864655/the-malignant-role-of-exosomes-in-the-communication-among-colorectal-cancer-cell-macrophage-and-microbiome
#9
Jinjie Wu, Haiyan Li, Hongyu Xie, Xianrui Wu, Ping Lan
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complex and heterogeneous malignant cancer characterized by its high prevalence and poor prognosis. Among different etiologies, impairment of immune surveillance and dysbiosis are important events to mediate the invasion and metastasis of CRC. Although aberrant distribution of macrophages and microbiota exhibits distinct properties to modulate the malignant behaviors of CRC, the crosstalk among macrophages, microbiomes and tumor cells remains unclear. Exosomes are intercellular messengers carrying different cargo to regulate the biological and pathologic changes of recipient cells...
March 13, 2019: Carcinogenesis
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30857972/optimization-of-cell-culture-conditions-for-exosome-isolation-using-mini-size-exclusion-chromatography-mini-sec
#10
Nils Ludwig, Beatrice M Razzo, Saigopalakrishna S Yerneni, Theresa L Whiteside
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are emerging as a major intercellular communication system engaged in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Tumor-derived exosomes (TEX) are a subset of EVs of special interest as potential cancer biomarkers. Supernatants of tumor cell lines are widely used as the source of pure TEX for molecular/genetic studies. To optimize TEX isolation and characterization for these studies, we evaluated culture conditions for different tumor cell lines and used mini size exclusion chromatography (mini-SEC) for TEX isolation...
March 8, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30857545/effects-of-exosomes-on-pre-metastatic-niche-formation-in-tumors
#11
REVIEW
Yaxin Guo, Xiang Ji, Jinbo Liu, Dandan Fan, Quanbo Zhou, Chen Chen, Weiwei Wang, Guixian Wang, Haijiang Wang, Weitang Yuan, Zhenyu Ji, Zhenqiang Sun
A pre-metastatic niche is a microenvironment prepared for the colonization of circulating tumor cells in specific organs. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles with a variety of biological functions. Exosomes play an irreplaceable role in the development of pre-metastatic niches, and mainly function as communication medium. In this review, we analyzed the effects of exosomes on pre-metastatic niches from various perspectives, including inflammation, immune response, angiogenesis, organotropism, matrix remodeling and biomarker expression...
March 11, 2019: Molecular Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30854665/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-promotes-liver-cancer-cells-to-release-exosomal-mir-23a-3p-and-up-regulate-pd-l1-expression-in-macrophages
#12
Jiatao Liu, Lulu Fan, Hanqing Yu, Ju Zhang, Yong He, Dechun Feng, Fang Wang, Xiaoqiu Li, Qingqing Liu, Yuhuan Li, Zhenli Guo, Bin Gao, Wei Wei, Hua Wang, Guoping Sun
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress promotes tumor cell escape from immunosurveillance. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ER stress induces hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells to release exosomes, which attenuate antitumor immunity by modulating the expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) on macrophages. In this study, we demonstrated that expression of several ER stress markers (glucose-regulated protein 78 [GRP78], activating transcription factor 6 [ATF6], PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase [PERK], inositol-requiring enzyme 1α [IRE1α]) was up-regulated in HCC tissues and negatively correlated with the overall survival and clinicopathological scores in HCC patients...
March 10, 2019: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30853898/microglia-derived-microvesicles-affect-microglia-phenotype-in-glioma
#13
Alfonso Grimaldi, Carmela Serpe, Giuseppina Chece, Valentina Nigro, Angelo Sarra, Barbara Ruzicka, Michela Relucenti, Giuseppe Familiari, Giancarlo Ruocco, Giuseppe Rubens Pascucci, Francesca Guerrieri, Cristina Limatola, Myriam Catalano
Extracellular-released vesicles (EVs), such as microvesicles (MV) and exosomes (Exo) provide a new type of inter-cellular communication, directly transferring a ready to use box of information, consisting of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. In the nervous system, EVs participate to neuron-glial cross-talk, a bidirectional communication important to preserve brain homeostasis and, when dysfunctional, involved in several CNS diseases. We investigated whether microglia-derived EVs could be used to transfer a protective phenotype to dysfunctional microglia in the context of a brain tumor...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30850595/apoptotic-tumor-cell-derived-microrna-375-uses-cd36-to-alter-the-tumor-associated-macrophage-phenotype
#14
Ann-Christin Frank, Stefanie Ebersberger, Annika F Fink, Sebastian Lampe, Andreas Weigert, Tobias Schmid, Ingo Ebersberger, Shahzad Nawaz Syed, Bernhard Brüne
Tumor-immune cell interactions shape the immune cell phenotype, with microRNAs (miRs) being crucial components of this crosstalk. How they are transferred and how they affect their target landscape, especially in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), is largely unknown. Here we report that breast cancer cells have a high constitutive expression of miR-375, which is released as a non-exosome entity during apoptosis. Deep sequencing of the miRome pointed to enhanced accumulation of miR-375 in TAMs, facilitated by the uptake of tumor-derived miR-375 via CD36...
March 8, 2019: Nature Communications
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30849983/the-role-of-exosomal-noncoding-rnas-in-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Yan Xie, Wei Dang, Siwei Zhang, Wenxing Yue, Li Yang, Xingyu Zhai, Qijia Yan, Jianhong Lu
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) membranes enclose nanosized vesicles with a size range of 30-150 nm and are plentiful in our body in both physiological and pathological conditions. Exosomes, a type of EV, are important mediators of intracellular communication among tumor cells, immune cells, and stromal cells. They can shuttle bioactive molecules, such as proteins, lipids, RNA, and DNA; however, the precise function of EVs remains largely unknown. In recent years, tumor-associated cargo in exosomes has been a hot topic in research, especially with respect to noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs)...
March 9, 2019: Molecular Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30847303/putative-role-of-circulating-human-papillomavirus-dna-in-the-development-of-primary-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-middle-rectum-a-case-report
#16
Maria Raffaella Ambrosio, Remo Vernillo, Sabrina De Carolis, Antonietta Carducci, Lucia Mundo, Alessandro Ginori, Bruno Jim Rocca, Valerio Nardone, Alessandra Lucenti Fei, Tommaso Carfagno, Stefano Lazzi, Monica Cricca, Piero Tosi
Here we present the case of a patient affected by rectal squamous cell carcinoma in which we demonstrated the presence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) by a variety of techniques. Collectively, the virus was detected not only in the tumor but also in some regional lymph nodes and in non-neoplastic mucosa of the upper tract of large bowel. By contrast, it was not identifiable in its common sites of entry, namely oral and ano-genital region. We also found HPV DNA in the plasma-derived exosome. Next, by in vitro studies, we confirmed the capability of HPV DNA-positive exosomes, isolated from the supernatant of a HPV DNA positive cell line (CaSki), to transfer its DNA to human colon cancer and normal cell lines...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30842627/programming-of-macrophages-by-uv-irradiated-apoptotic-cancer-cells-inhibits-cancer-progression-and-lung-metastasis
#17
Yong-Bae Kim, Young-Ho Ahn, Ji-Hae Jung, Ye-Ji Lee, Jin-Hwa Lee, Jihee Lee Kang
Apoptotic cell clearance by phagocytes is essential in tissue homeostasis. We demonstrated that conditioned medium (CM) from macrophages exposed to apoptotic cancer cells inhibits the TGFβ1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration, and invasion of cancer cells. Apoptotic 344SQ (ApoSQ) cell-induced PPARγ activity in macrophages increased the levels of PTEN, which was secreted in exosomes. Exosomal PTEN was taken up by recipient lung cancer cells. ApoSQ-exposed CM from PTEN knockdown cells failed to enhance PTEN in 344SQ cells, restore cellular polarity, or exert anti-EMT and anti-invasive effects...
March 6, 2019: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30840288/interaction-between-bone-marrow-derived-dendritic-cells-and-mir-21-of-tubular-renal-epithelial-cells-under-hypoxia
#18
Y-R Liang, T Zhang, P Jia, X-L Xu, Y Fang, X-Q Ding
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the intracellular response and role of microRNA 21 in the regulation of dendritic cell maturation and function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) isolated from male C57BL/6J mice and primary renal tubular epithelial cells were used as primary cells to perform this study. Flow cytometry was used to determine BMDCs and analyze the apoptosis effect. Transmission electron microscopy was used for the identification of the diameter of exosomes...
February 2019: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30837627/the-landscape-of-d16her2-splice-variant-expression-across-her2-positive-cancers
#19
Chiara Costanza Volpi, Filippo Pietrantonio, Annunziata Gloghini, Giovanni Fucà, Silvia Giordano, Simona Corso, Giancarlo Pruneri, Maria Antista, Chiara Cremolini, Elena Fasano, Serena Saggio, Simona Faraci, Maria Di Bartolomeo, Filippo de Braud, Massimo Di Nicola, Elda Tagliabue, Serenella Maria Pupa, Lorenzo Castagnoli
The HER2 splice variant characterized by the deletion of exon 16 and denominated as d16HER2, is associated with HER2-positive breast cancer (BC) aggressiveness, stemness, and trastuzumab susceptibility and is considered to be a "flag" of HER2 dependence. However, with the exception of quantitative real-time PCR analysis, easily reproducible assays are still lacking to clinically detect and quantify the d16HER2 expression. Further, no data on d16HER2 expression and its potential role are available in HER2-positive gastrointestinal malignancies...
March 5, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30835829/long-noncoding-rnas-biomarker-based-cancer-assessment
#20
REVIEW
Mohammad Sarfi, Maryam Abbastabar, Ehsan Khalili
Cancer diagnosis have mainly relied on the incorporation of molecular biomarkers as part of routine diagnostic tool. The molecular alteration ranges from those involving DNA, RNA, noncoding RNAs (microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs [lncRNAs]) and proteins. lncRNAs are recently discovered noncoding endogenous RNAs that critically regulates the development, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells. They are dysregulated in different types of malignancies and have the potential to serve as diagnostic markers for cancer...
March 5, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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