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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763304/potential-public-health-benefits-from-cat-eradications-on-islands
#1
Luz A de Wit, Donald A Croll, Bernie Tershy, Maria Dolores Correa, Hector Luna-Pasten, Paulo Quadri, A Marm Kilpatrick
Cats (Felis catus) are reservoirs of several pathogens that affect humans, including Toxoplasma gondii. Infection of pregnant women with T. gondii can cause ocular and neurological lesions in newborns, and congenital toxoplasmosis has been associated with schizophrenia, epilepsy, movement disorders, and Alzheimer's disease. We compared seroprevalence of T. gondii and risk factors in people on seven islands in Mexico with and without introduced cats to determine the effect of cat eradication and cat density on exposure to T...
February 14, 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745661/leukocytoclastic-vasculitis-secondary-to-clozapine
#2
Shatavisa Mukherjee, Nikhil Era, Mala Mukherjee, Santanu Kumar Tripathi
Leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV) may be secondary to drugs, underlying infection, collagen vascular disorders, or malignancy. Drug-induced vasculitis contributes to 10% of vasculitic skin lesions cases usually developing within 7-21 days of treatment initiation. The present case highlights a report of LCV in a 59-year-old male with a history of paranoid schizophrenia on clozapine therapy. The report upsurges the need to promote awareness and expedite diagnosis and treatment of drug-induced LCVs.
January 2019: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30716470/maternal-immune-activation-impairs-cognitive-flexibility-and-alters-transcription-in-frontal-cortex
#3
Dionisio A Amodeo, Chi-Yu Lai, Omron Hassan, Eran A Mukamel, M Margarita Behrens, Susan B Powell
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia is increased by prenatal exposure to viral or bacterial infection during pregnancy. It is still unclear how activation of the maternal immune response interacts with underlying genetic factors to influence observed ASD phenotypes. METHODS: The current study investigated how maternal immune activation (MIA) in mice impacts gene expression in the frontal cortex in adulthood, and how these molecular changes relate to deficits in cognitive flexibility and increases in repetitive behavior that are prevalent in ASD...
February 1, 2019: Neurobiology of Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30685531/large-scale-study-of-toxoplasma-and-cytomegalovirus-shows-an-association-between-infection-and-serious-psychiatric-disorders
#4
Kristoffer Sølvsten Burgdorf, Betina Trabjerg, Marianne Giørtz Pedersen, Janna Nissen, Karina Banasik, Ole Birger Pedersen, Erik Sørensen, Kaspar René Nielsen, Margit Hørup Larsen, Christian Erikstrup, Peter Bruun-Rasmussen, David Westergaard, Lise Wegner Thørner, Henrik Hjalgrim, Helene Martina Paarup, Søren Brunak, Carsten B Pedersen, E Fuller Torrey, Thomas Werge, Preben Bo Mortensen, Robert Yolken, Henrik Ullum
BACKGROUND: Common infectious pathogens have been associated with psychiatric disorders, self-violence and risk-taking behavior. METHODS: This case-control study reviews register data on 81,912 individuals from the Danish Blood Donor Study to identify individuals who have a psychiatric diagnosis (N=2,591), have attempted or committed suicide (N=655), or have had traffic accidents (N=2,724). For all cases, controls were frequency matched by age and sex, resulting in 11,546 participants...
January 24, 2019: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30639164/assessment-of-cognitive-impairment-in-hsv-1-positive-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-patients-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Joanna D Tucker, Andrea S Bertke
A common characteristic among schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients is cognitive dysfunction, especially for memory and attention. Recent evidence has suggested that cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients could be associated with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection, due to the ability of HSV-1 to infect neurons in the temporal lobe, which plays a key role in the formation of memory and processing of sensory input. The objective of this review is to analyze the aggregate neuropsychological testing data from previous studies regarding the impact of HSV-1 infection on cognitive function in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder...
January 11, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30632082/effects-of-cigarette-smoking-and-clozapine-treatment-on-20-year-all-cause-cardiovascular-mortality-in-schizophrenia
#6
Patrick A Stolz, Heidi J Wehring, Fang Liu, Raymond C Love, Marcus Ellis, Bethany A DiPaula, Deanna L Kelly
To estimate 20-year mortality risk in people with schizophrenia treated with second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) and examine the effects of cigarette smoking on mortality. Of the 1199 individuals with schizophrenia in the study, estimated 20-year all-cause mortality risk by Kaplan Meier Curve was 30% and leading causes of death included 27% cardiovascular disease, 13% cancer, 12% non-HIV infection, 5% respiratory causes, 20% other causes and 18% had unknown cause of death. For all-cause mortality, we found that white race and male sex were significant risk factors (HR = 1...
January 10, 2019: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30590095/brain-changes-in-a-maternal-immune-activation-model-of-neurodevelopmental-brain-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Lara Bergdolt, Anna Dunaevsky
The developing brain is sensitive to a variety of insults. Epidemiological studies have identified prenatal exposure to infection as a risk factor for a range of neurological disorders, including autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Animal models corroborate this association and have been used to probe the contribution of gene-environment interactions to the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we review the behavior and brain phenotypes that have been characterized in MIA offspring, including the studies that have looked at the interaction between maternal immune activation and genetic risk factors for autism spectrum disorder or schizophrenia...
December 24, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30589911/latent-toxoplasmosis-and-olfactory-functions-of-rh-positive-and-rh-negative-subjects
#8
Jaroslav Flegr, Manfred Milinski, Šárka Kaňková, Martin Hůla, Jana Hlaváčová, Kateřina Sýkorová
BACKGROUNDS: The prevalence of toxoplasmosis is higher in schizophrenics than in the general population. It has been suggested that certain symptoms of schizophrenia, including changes in olfactory functions, are in fact symptoms of toxoplasmosis that can be easily detected in schizophrenics only due to the increased prevalence of toxoplasmosis in this population. Schizophrenics have impaired identification of odors and lower sensitivity of odor detection, however, no information about these parameters of non-schizophrenic Toxoplasma-infected subjects is available...
2018: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30583085/latent-toxoplasmosis-and-psychiatric-symptoms-a-role-of-tryptophan-metabolism
#9
Cecilie Bay-Richter, Henriette Nørmølle Buttenschøn, Ole Mors, Amanda Eskelund, David Budac, Linda Kærlev, Gregers Wegener
Toxoplasma gondii (TOX) is a common parasite which infects approximately one third of the human population. In recent years, it has been suggested that latent toxoplasmosis may be a risk factor for the development of mental disorders, particularly schizophrenia and anxiety. With regards to depression the results have been varied. The main objective of this study was to examine subpopulations from the Danish PRISME and GENDEP populations for TOX IgG antibodies. These consisted of: a group with symptoms of anxiety, a group suffering from burnout syndrome, as well as two different subpopulations with depression of differing severity...
March 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30582116/microglia-activation-in-the-offspring-of-prenatal-poly-i-c-exposed-rats-a-pet-imaging-and-immunohistochemistry-study
#10
Xue Li, Xin Tian, Luxian Lv, Gangrui Hei, Xufeng Huang, Xiaoduo Fan, Jinming Zhang, Jianjiang Zhang, Lijuan Pang, Xueqin Song
Background: The well-known 'pyrotherapy' of Julius Wagner-Jauregg might be the beginning of the study on the immunological concepts of schizophrenia. As the primary immune effector cells in the brain, microglia play a pivotal role in neuroinflammatory processes. Maternal viral infection during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for psychiatric disorders with presumed neurodevelopmental origin, including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. The present study was to quantify microglia activation in vivo in the mature offspring of rats exposed to polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilicacid (Poly I:C) during pregnancy using 11 C-PK11195 positron emission tomography (PET) and immunohistochemistry...
2018: General psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30581203/exploring-the-associations-of-herpes-simplex-virus-infection-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia-studies-in-india
#11
REVIEW
Smita Neelkanth Deshpande, Vishwajit Laxmikant Nimgaonkar
Background: Cognitive dysfunctions being core features of schizophrenia (SZ), cause disability, increase burden and are refractory to treatment. Viral infections are not risk factors for SZ, but growing evidence indicates infection with some neurotropic viruses, particularly Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV -1) as a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction. Studies in India: Three research studies in India are described. In the first, participants were evaluated for HSV-1 infection and cognitive functions (cases 198 and controls 100)...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30572456/mass-spectrometry-identification-of-potential-biomarker-proteins-in-the-150-kd-electrophoretic-band-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#12
Ruihuan Xu, Jingwen Liang, Yi Luo, Xing Wan, Kang Li, Liguo Qi, Wenbin Yuan, Jianxia Chen, Ze Wu, Mingbang Wang, Jiaxiu Zhou, Yingjun Xie, Shaoming Zhou, Fusheng He
BACKGROUND: Diagnosing schizophrenia is primarily based on the presentation of defined signs and symptoms, none of which is pathognomonic for this group of syndromes. However, few significant genome-wide associations between schizophrenia and individual have detected. Protein profiling of candidate serum biomarkers in schizophrenia is therefore an area of great interest. METHODS: In the present study, we used a combination of 7% polyethylene glycol (PEG) enrichment of immune complexes and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to separate abnormal band, then analyse the band with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS)...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30552634/in-schizophrenia-increased-plasma-igm-iga-responses-to-gut-commensal-bacteria-are-associated-with-negative-symptoms-neurocognitive-impairments-and-the-deficit-phenotype
#13
Michael Maes, Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sunee Sirivichayakul, André F Carvalho
Increased gut permeability (leaky gut) with increased translocation of Gram-negative bacteria plays a role in the gut-brain axis through effects on systemic immune-inflammatory processes. Deficit schizophrenia is characterized by an immune-inflammatory response combined with a deficit in natural IgM antibodies to oxidative-specific epitopes (OSEs), which are a first-line defense against bacterial infections. This study measured plasma IgA/IgM responses to 5 Gram-negative bacteria in association with IgM responses to malondialdehyde (MDA) and azelaic acid in 80 schizophrenia patients (40 with the deficit syndrome and 40 without) and in 38 healthy controls...
December 15, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30536298/-acute-dystonia-in-a-patient-with-an-elevated-clozapine-level-due-to-an-infection
#14
H C van Mierlo, C D Schubart, N M S Golüke, K M Bessembinders, J K Tijdink
Acute dystonia is a side-effect associated with the use of antipsychotics. We describe the case of a 75-year-old patient with late-onset schizophrenia who used clozapine. During a hospital admission due to pneumonia, she developed a form of acute dystonia consisting of a rotational torticollis, which disappeared rapidly after treatment with biperiden. Blood examination showed an increase of the clozapine level, probably due to the infection. This case report shows that acute dystonia, although very rare, can occur during treatment with clozapine; therefore awareness is needed of the circumstances that can alter clozapine levels...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30516814/a-nationwide-study-in-denmark-of-the-association-between-treated-infections-and-the-subsequent-risk-of-treated-mental-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents
#15
Ole Köhler-Forsberg, Liselotte Petersen, Christiane Gasse, Preben B Mortensen, Soren Dalsgaard, Robert H Yolken, Ole Mors, Michael E Benros
Importance: Infections have been associated with increased risks for mental disorders, such as schizophrenia and depression. However, the association between all infections requiring treatment and the wide range of mental disorders is unknown to date. Objective: To investigate the association between all treated infections since birth and the subsequent risk of development of any treated mental disorder during childhood and adolescence. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based cohort study using Danish nationwide registers...
December 5, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30513128/bacterial-infections-among-patients-with-psychiatric-disorders-relation-with-hospital-stay-age-and-psychiatric-diagnoses
#16
Michael Belz, Nico Rehling, Ulrike Schmidt, Jens Wiltfang, Bernhard Kis, Claus Wolff-Menzler
The prevalence of infections is supposed to be higher in older patients and to extend the length of hospital stays. This study aimed, first, to test this supposition within a large psychiatric population which we divided into four clusters of psychiatric ICD-10 diagnoses: F00-F03 (dementias), F10 (substance disorders), F20-29 (schizophrenia, schizophreniform and other non-mood psychotic disorders), F32-F33 (major depressive disorders). Second, despite the increasing evidence for the role of infections in psychiatric disorders, it is, to the best of our knowledge, largely unknown whether the rates of infections with pathogens of the four most frequent germ families differ between psychiatric diseases...
2018: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30508574/n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-clozapine-abrogates-poly-i-c-induced-immune-alterations-in-primary-hippocampal-neurons
#17
Bruna Mara Machado Ribeiro, Adriano José Maia Chaves Filho, Deiziane Viana da Silva Costa, Antônio Teles de Menezes, Anna Carolina Carvalho da Fonseca, Clarissa S Gama, Vivaldo Moura Neto, David Freitas de Lucena, Mariana Lima Vale, Danielle S Macêdo
The viral mimetic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) is an important tool to study the consequences of viral infection to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, based on the premise of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3 PUFAs) as supplemental treatment to antipsychotics in schizophrenia, we investigated the involvement of NFkB pathway in the effects of n3 PUFAs or of the atypical antipsychotic clozapine in hippocampal poly I:C-challenged neurons. Primary hippocampal neuronal cultures were exposed to n3 PUFAs (DHA4...
March 2, 2019: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30486356/incidence-rates-and-risk-of-hospital-registered-infections-among-schizophrenia-patients-before-and-after-onset-of-illness-a-population-based-nationwide-register-study
#18
Monika Pankiewicz-Dulacz, Egon Stenager, Ming Chen, Elsebeth Stenager
Infections in schizophrenia patients are associated with an increased premature mortality. However, our knowledge about the burden of infections in schizophrenia is scarce. The aims of this study were to (1) determine the prevalence of clinically important hospital registered infections in the period of five years prior to and five years after the diagnosis, (2) estimate the risk of infections before and after the schizophrenia diagnosis and, (3) evaluate the impact of comorbidity on the risk of infections in schizophrenia...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30478008/herpes-simplex-virus-1-infection-and-valacyclovir-treatment-in-schizophrenia-results-from-the-vista-study
#19
Alan Breier, Robert W Buchanan, Deepak D'Souza, Keith Nuechterlein, Stephen Marder, Walter Dunn, Sheldon Preskorn, Matthew Macaluso, Brent Wurfel, Gerald Maguire, Rishi Kakar, Diane Highum, Debra Hoffmeyer, Evagelos Coskinas, Robert Litman, Jenifer L Vohs, Alexander Radnovich, Michael M Francis, Emmalee Metzler, Andrew Visco, Nicole Mehdiyoun, Ziyi Yang, Ying Zhang, Robert H Yolken, Faith B Dickerson
BACKGROUND: Several studies have implicated herpes simplex virus-type 1 (HSV-1) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. A recent trial demonstrated that the anti-viral medication valacylovir, which prevents replication of activated HSV-1, improved selected cognitive deficits in people with schizophrenia. In this study, we examined demographic and illness related differences between HSV-1 positive versus HSV-1 negative subjects with early phase schizophrenia and attempted to replicate the previous valacyclovir treatment results in this population...
November 23, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30464763/microglia-immune-regulators-of-neurodevelopment
#20
REVIEW
Maureen Cowan, William A Petri
Microglia, the tissue-resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), have characterized roles in combating infection, clearing cellular debris, and maintaining tissue homeostasis. In addition to these typical immunological roles, microglia have been revealed to be active players in complex neurodevelopmental programs such as neurogenesis and synaptic pruning, during which they interact with neurons and macroglia to provide trophic support, respond to cytokine, and metabolic signals derived from the local neural environment, and drive the refinement of functional neuronal circuits...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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