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Infection and mental illness

Melissa Lieberman, Melissa E Houser, Anne-Pier Voyer, Shelley Grady, Debra K Katzman
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the medical and psychological characteristics of children under the age of 13 years with avoidant restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) and anorexia nervosa (AN) from a Canadian tertiary care pediatric eating disorders program. METHOD: Participants included 106 children assessed between 2013 and 2017 using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5). Data were collected through clinical interviews, psychometric questionnaires, and chart review...
February 1, 2019: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Gerod Hall, Tejinder Singh, Sung Woo Lim
We assessed the influence of supportive housing, incarceration, and health service use on markers of HIV infection for people living with HIV and serious mental illness or substance use disorder (SUD) participating in a New York City supportive housing program (NY III). Using matched administrative data from 2007 to 2014, we compared survivor time without AIDS, achievement of undetectable viral load, and maintenance of viral suppression between NY III tenants (n = 696), applicants placed in other supportive housing programs (n = 333), and applicants not placed in supportive housing (n = 268)...
January 25, 2019: AIDS and Behavior
Annette Opitz-Welke, Marc Lehmann, Peter Seidel, Norbert Konrad
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases, substance dependencies, and dental diseases are the most important health problems affecting incarcerated persons. In Germany, for example, prisoners are 48 to 69 times more likely to be infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) than the general population, and 7 to 12 times more likely to be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The prevalence of mental illnesses is also markedly higher in the incarcerated than in the general population...
November 30, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Calvin Ke, Eric Lau, Baiju R Shah, Thérèse A Stukel, Ronald C Ma, Wing-Yee So, Alice P Kong, Elaine Chow, Philip Clarke, William Goggins, Juliana C N Chan, Andrea Luk
Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) increases hospitalization risk. Young-onset T2D (YOD) (defined as onset before age 40 years) is associated with excess morbidity and mortality, but its effect on hospitalizations is unknown. Objective: To determine hospitalization rates among persons with YOD and to examine the effect of age at onset on hospitalization risk. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Hong Kong. Participants: Adults aged 20 to 75 years in population-based (2002 to 2014; n = 422 908) and registry-based (2000 to 2014; n = 20 886) T2D cohorts...
January 15, 2019: Annals of Internal Medicine
Stephanie J Kim, Michael J Peluso, Yongmei Wang, Daniel Bikle, Dolores Shoback, Sarah Kim
Hypercalcemia in HIV patients has been previously reported, but 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D-mediated hypercalcemia, due to increased activity of extrarenal 1-alpha hydroxylase, is rarely described with HIV-related infections or malignancies. We describe a case of 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D-mediated hypercalcemia in a patient presenting with progressive cognitive decline and weakness. Initial evaluation revealed a new diagnosis of HIV, for which he was started on antiretroviral therapy (ART). He was also noted to have mild asymptomatic hypocalcemia, likely from his acute illness and malnutrition, which was not further investigated at the time...
June 2019: Bone Reports
Gang Han, Xiaofang Qiao, Zhiming Ma
Intra-abdominal infection complicated with hypothyroidism is very common. It mostly featured decreased T3, with or without decreased T4, and without elevated thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH). This particular type of hypothyroidism was called "low T3 syndrome" or "thyroid illness syndrome", and is called "non-thyroid illness syndrome" increasingly in recent years. Its pathogenesis has not been fully understood, and probably is associated with abnormality of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, disorder of peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism, change in thyroid hormone binding protein, regulation of triiodothyronine receptors, effect of cytokines, and lack of trace element selenium...
December 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Dmitriy Vazenmiller, Olga Ponamaryova, Larisa Muravlyova, Vilen Molotov-Luchanskiy, Dmitriy Klyuyev, Riszhan Bakirova, Zhanna Amirbekova
AIM: The purpose of the present research was to study the content of erythropoietin and hepcidin in serum in pregnant women with iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia of chronic inflammation. METHODS: The authors examined 98 pregnant women who were observed in LLP (Regional obstetric-gynaecological centre) in Karaganda. The including criteria for pregnant women in the study was the informed consent of the woman to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria were oncological diseases, HIV-infection, tuberculosis, severe somatic pathology, mental illness, drug addiction...
November 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Ji-Yeon Shin, Jiseun Lim, Myung Ki, Yeong-Jun Song, Heeran Chun, Dongjin Kim
Magnitudes of health inequalities present consequences of socioeconomic impact on each health problem. To provide knowledge on the size of health problems in terms of socioeconomic burden, we examined the magnitudes and patterns of health inequalities across 12 health problems. A total of 17,292 participants older than 30 years were drawn from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010⁻2012). The age-adjusted prevalence ratios were compared across socioeconomic positions (SEPs) based on income, education, and occupation...
December 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Viviane Labrie, Lena Brundin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Aja Louise Murray, Daniela Kaiser, Sara Valdebenito, Claire Hughes, Adriana Baban, Asvini D Fernando, Bernadette Madrid, Catherine L Ward, Joseph Osafo, Michael Dunne, Siham Sikander, Susan Walker, Vo Van Thang, Mark Tomlinson, Manuel Eisner
Prenatal intimate partner violence (P-IPV) can have significant adverse impacts on both mother and fetus. Existing P-IPV interventions focus on the safety of the mother and on reducing revictimization; yet expanding these to address the adverse impact on the fetus has considerable potential for preventing long-term negative developmental outcomes. In this review, we draw together evidence on major pathways linking exposure to P-IPV and child outcomes, arguing that these pathways represent potential targets to improve P-IPV intervention efforts...
December 4, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Isra Alsaady, Ellen Tedford, Mohammad Alsaad, Greg Bristow, Shivali Kohli, Matthew Murray, Matthew Reeves, M S Vijayabaskar, Steven J Clapcote, Jonathan Wastling, Glenn A McConkey
Toxoplasma gondii is associated with physiological effects in the host. Dysregulation of catecholamines in the central nervous system has previously been observed in chronically-infected animals. In the study described here, the noradrenergic system was found to be suppressed with decreased levels of norepinephrine (NE) in brains of infected animals and in infected human and rat neural cells in vitro The mechanism responsible for the NE suppression was found to be down-regulation of dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) gene expression, encoding the enzyme that synthesizes norepinephrine from dopamine with down-regulation observed in vitro and in infected brain tissue, particularly in the dorsal locus coeruleus/pons region...
December 3, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Rosalie Corona, Kristina B Hood, Firoza Haffejee
HIV continues to be a health priority in South Africa. Consistent condom use helps prevent HIV, yet less than half of South African emerging adults use condoms consistently. Cultural beliefs about illnesses (e.g., being thin is perceived to be a sign of HIV infection) suggest that body image perceptions may play a role in emerging adults' condom use outcomes. We explored the relationships between body image perceptions (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body consciousness) and condom use outcomes (e.g., attitudes, negotiation efficacy, past use) in a sample of South African emerging adults...
November 30, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Joshua Parreco, Nawara Alawa, Rishi Rattan, Jun Tashiro, Juan E Sola
BACKGROUND: Most studies of readmission after trauma are limited to single institutions or single states. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors for readmission after trauma for mental illness including readmissions to different hospitals across the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Nationwide Readmission Database for 2013 and 2014 was queried for all patients aged 13 to 64 y with a nonelective admission for trauma and a nonelective readmission within 30 d...
December 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Valentina Pugliese, Antonella Bruni, Elvira Anna Carbone, Giuseppina Calabrò, Gregorio Cerminara, Gaia Sampogna, Mario Luciano, Luca Steardo, Andrea Fiorillo, Cristina Segura Garcia, Pasquale De Fazio
Maternal stress and medical illnesses during early life are well-documented environmental indicators of an increased risk of schizophrenia. Few studies, conversely, have confirmed an association with major affective disorders. The present study examined the impact of maternal stress, medical illnesses and obstetric complications on the development of severe mental disorder in 240 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder and matched with 85 controls...
November 13, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Jeffrey K Hom, Danica Kuncio, Caroline C Johnson, Kendra Viner
Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) infections contribute significant morbidity in the United States, particularly among those with a history of incarceration, homeless-ness, and/or co-morbid mental illness. Data from the Philadelphia Department of Public Health's viral hepatitis registry were matched at the person-level to the city's shelter, jail, and mental health system datasets (vulnerability datasets), and descriptive statistics were calculated. Between January 2010 and December 2014, 29,807 cases of HCV and 133 cases of HBV/HCV were reported...
2018: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Sheng-Yun Huang, Jeng-Hsiu Hung, Li-Yu Hu, Min-Wei Huang, Shyh-Chyang Lee, Cheng-Che Shen
Depressive disorder is a severe mental disorder associated with functional and cognitive impairment. Numerous papers in the literature investigated associations between sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and psychiatric illnesses. However, the results of these studies are controversial.We explored the relationship between depressive disorder and the subsequent development of STIs including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, primary, secondary, and latent syphilis, genital warts, gonorrhea, chlamydial infection, and trichomoniasis...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Răzvan Alexandru Radu, Elena Oana Terecoasă, Amalia Ene, Ovidiu Alexandru Băjenaru, Cristina Tiu
Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a very rare condition with different autoimmune, infectious and paraneoplastic aetiologies or in most cases idiopathic. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman who was admitted in our department in early fall for altered mental status, opsoclonus, multifocal myoclonus, truncal titubation and generalized tremor, preceded by a 5 day prodrome consisting of malaise, nausea, fever and vomiting. Brain computed tomography and MRI scans showed no significant abnormalities and cerebrospinal fluid changes consisted of mildly increased protein content and number of white cells...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Thenmalar Vadiveloo, Peter T Donnan, Callum J Leese, Kirstin J Abraham, Graham P Leese
OBJECTIVES: A population based study was undertaken to determine the mortality and morbidity for people with hypoparathyroidism compared to the general population. METHODS: In this study, patients identified with chronic hypoparathyroidism using data-linkage from regional datasets were compared to five age and gender matched controls from the general population. Data from biochemistry, hospital admissions, prescribing and the demographic dataset were linked. Outcomes for mortality and specified conditions were examined for all patients and sub-divided into post-surgical and non-surgical cases of hypoparathyroidism...
October 30, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Karine Dubé, Sara Gianella, Susan Concha-Garcia, Susan J Little, Andy Kaytes, Jeff Taylor, Kushagra Mathur, Sogol Javadi, Anshula Nathan, Hursch Patel, Stuart Luter, Sean Philpott-Jones, Brandon Brown, Davey Smith
BACKGROUND: The U.S. National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) have a new research priority: inclusion of terminally ill persons living with HIV (PLWHIV) in HIV cure-related research. For example, the Last Gift is a clinical research study at the University of California San Diego (UCSD) for PLWHIV who have a terminal illness, with a prognosis of less than 6 months. DISCUSSION: As end-of-life (EOL) HIV cure research is relatively new, the scientific community has a timely opportunity to examine the related ethical challenges...
October 20, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Corona Solana, Diana Pereira, Raquel Tarazona
Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic mental disorder characterized by delusions and hallucinations. Several evidences support the link of schizophrenia with accelerated telomeres shortening and accelerated aging. Thus, schizophrenia patients show higher mortality compared to age-matched healthy donors. The etiology of schizophrenia is multifactorial, involving genetic and environmental factors. Telomere erosion has been shown to be accelerated by different factors including environmental factors such as cigarette smoking and chronic alcohol consumption or by psychosocial stress such as childhood maltreatment...
October 18, 2018: Brain Sciences
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