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Xuan Yang, Fredrik Berthold, Lars A Berglund
Eco-friendly materials based on well-preserved and nanostructured wood cellulose fibers are investigated for the purpose of load-bearing applications, where optical transmittance may be advantageous. Wood fibers are subjected to mild delignification, flow orientation, and hot-pressing to form an oriented material of low porosity. Biopolymer composition of the fibers is determined. Morphology is studied by SEM, cellulose orientation is quantified by x-ray diffraction, and effect of beating is investigated. Hot-pressed networks are impregnated by MMA monomer and polymerized to form thermoplastic wood fiber/PMMA biocomposites...
February 14, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Daxian Cao, Yingjie Xing, Karnpiwat Tantratian, Xiao Wang, Yi Ma, Alolika Mukhopadhyay, Zheng Cheng, Qing Zhang, Yucong Jiao, Lei Chen, Hongli Zhu
Batteries constructed via 3D printing techniques have inherent advantages including opportunities for miniaturization, autonomous shaping, and controllable structural prototyping. However, 3D-printed lithium metal batteries (LMBs) have not yet been reported due to the difficulties of printing lithium (Li) metal. Here, for the first time, high-performance LMBs are fabricated through a 3D printing technique using cellulose nanofiber (CNF), which is one of the most earth-abundant biopolymers. The unique shear thinning properties of CNF gel enables the printing of a LiFePO4 electrode and stable scaffold for Li...
February 13, 2019: Advanced Materials
Xiang Yi Chen, Hao Ran Low, Xin Yi Loi, Laura Merel, Mohd Amin Mohd Cairul Iqbal
Graphene oxide (GO) is a potential material for wound dressing due to its excellent biocompatibility and mechanical properties. This study evaluated the effects of GO concentration on the synthesis of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC)-grafted poly(acrylic acid) (AA)-graphene oxide (BNC/P(AA)/GO) composite hydrogel and its potential as wound dressing. Hydrogels were successfully synthesized via electron-beam irradiation. The hydrogels were characterized by their mechanical properties, bioadhesiveness, water vapor transmission rates (WVTRs), water retention abilities, water absorptivity, and biocompatibility...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Miina Ojansivu, Ahmad Rashad, Astrid Elisabet Ahlinder, Jonathan Massera, Ayush Mishra, Kristin Syverud, Anna Finne-Wistrand, Susanna Miettinen, Kamal Mustafa
A challenge in the extrusion-based bioprinting is to find a bioink with optimal biological and physicochemical properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of wood-based cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and bioactive glass on the rheological properties of gelatin-alginate bioinks and the initial responses of bone cells embedded in these inks. CNF modulated the flow behavior of the hydrogels, thus improving their printability. Chemical characterization by SEM-EDX and ion release analysis confirmed the reactivity of the BaG in the hydrogels...
February 12, 2019: Biofabrication
Zita Maria Jessop, Ayesha Al-Sabah, Neng Gao, Stuart Kyle, Bethan Thomas, Nafiseh Badiei, Karl Hawkins, Iain S Whitaker
One of the main challenges for extrusion 3D bioprinting is the identification of non-synthetic bioinks with suitable rheological properties and biocompatibility. Our aim was to optimise and compare the printability of crystal, fibril and blend formulations of novel pulp derived nanocellulose bioinks and assess biocompatibility with human nasoseptal chondrocytes for cartilage bioprinting. 
 Methods: The printability of crystalline, fibrillated and blend formulations of nanocellulose was determined by assessing resolution (grid-line assay), post-printing shape fidelity and rheology (elasticity, viscosity and shear thinning characteristics) and compared these to pure alginate bioinks...
February 11, 2019: Biofabrication
Wenyang Xu, Binbin Zhang Molino, Fang Cheng, Paul J Molino, Zhilian Yue, Dandan Su, Xiaoju Wang, Stefan M Willför, Chunlin Xu, Gordon G Wallace
Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) in the form of hydrogels stand out as a platform biomaterial in bioink formulation for 3D printing because of their low cytotoxicity and structural similarity to extracellular matrices. In the present study, 3D scaffolds were successfully printed with low-concentration inks formulated by 1 w/v % 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO) -oxidized CNF with less than 1 w/v % gelatin methacrylate (GelMA). Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) measurements showed strong interaction between the two biopolymers...
February 11, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Athanasios Mantas, Valentine Labbe, Irena Loryan, Albert Mihranyan
The formulation of arylpropionic acid derivatives (profens), which are poorly soluble Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) Type II drugs, has a strong impact on their therapeutic action. This article shows that heat-treated powder mixtures of free acid profens with high surface area Cladophora cellulose induces drug amorphization and results in enhanced solubility and bioavailability. Similar mixtures produced using conventional low surface area cellulose, i.e., microcrystalline cellulose, does not produce the same effect...
February 6, 2019: Pharmaceutics
Yvette Pötzinger, Lisa Rahnfeld, Dana Kralisch, Dagmar Fischer
The synergy of the local delivery of nucleic acids using a hydrogel-based gene activated matrix (GAM) might support regenerative processes on a genetic level by concurrently providing a cell-friendly microenvironment. To investigate bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) as GAM, two plasmids (pSV-β-Gal and pGL3) were incorporated by reswelling and injection techniques forming matrix and core-shell systems as determined by SEM and staining experiments. The release was found to be dependent on the type of BNC, the plasmid and the loading technique, and lasted over at least 20 days...
April 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Hongjie Dai, Huan Zhang, Liang Ma, Hongyuan Zhou, Yong Yu, Ting Guo, Yuhao Zhang, Huihua Huang
This study develops a green method to fabricate pH/magnetic sensitive hydrogels based on pineapple peel carboxymethyl cellulose (PCMC), regenerated nanocellulose (rPPNc), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), accompanied by in situ incorporation of Fe3 O4 . The rPPNc was obtained through a two-stage method involving ionic liquid swelling followed by dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis. The SEM images revealed the porous structure of the hydrogels. The hydrogels showed a magnetic responsive behavior due to incorporation of Fe3 O4 , and an enhanced thermal stability at high temperature due to incorporations of rPPNc and Fe3 O4 ...
April 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Leonardo Chávez-Guerrero, Julio Silva-Mendoza, Selene Sepúlveda-Guzmán, Norberto Alan Medina-Aguirre, Sofia Vazquez-Rodriguez, María Elena Cantú-Cárdenas, Nora Aleyda García-Gómez
Cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer on earth, is produced at different ratios by all land plants. Since the morphology and crystallinity of cellulose are key factors involved in its enzymatic hydrolysis, in the present work, we tackled the study of the effects of such variables on the nanocellulose conversion into glucose. Cellulase from Trichoderma sp at 37 °C was used to produce glucose, the best results were found for the cellulose nanoplatelets (S-CNP) after 60 h of hydrolysis, which afforded a conversion of 47% to glucose, in contrast to 15% for the non-purified sample (W-CP) and 22% for microcrystalline cellulose (MCC20) used as control...
April 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Lingling Liu, Fanbin Kong
Three types of nanocellulose (NC), namely cellulose nano-fibrils (CNF), TEMPO-oxidized CNF and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), were studied in terms of their effects on in vitro digestion of whey protein isolate (WPI). The behavior of NC itself during digestion was monitored by particle size, confocal microscopy imaging, viscosity, and zeta potential. 1% CNF and 4% CNC significantly retarded free amino nitrogen (FAN) diffusion (23% and 50% respectively) mainly due to high viscosity. 4% CNC also significantly reduced %FAN release during intestinal digestion...
April 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Monika Szymańska-Chargot, Monika Chylińska, Piotr M Pieczywek, Artur Zdunek
Cellulose is the major polysaccharide of cell walls in every plant, making it one of the most abundant natural polymers on Earth. However, despite many decades of investigations, the supramolecular structure of cellulose and especially its variation in the cell walls of different plants have still not been fully revealed. In the present study, cellulose from the parenchymatic tissue of apple fruits and carrot roots was isolated, and nanocellulose was further prepared by high-intensity ultrasonication. AFM revealed that the obtained nanocellulose differed in dimension between the two plant species...
April 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Hye-Jin Hong, Hayoung Yu, Minsang Park, Hyeon Su Jeong
Nanocellulose is a promising biosorbent for the recovery of precious metals from waste streams. A variety of nanocelluloses exhibit significant different properties that depend on the natural source and type. In this study, cellulose nanofibrils(P-CNF) and cellulose nanocrystals(P-CNC) obtained from hard wood pulp and CNF from tunicates(T-CNF) were evaluated for their ability to recover platinum(Pt) after modification with polyethyleneimine(PEI). The PEI grafting density on each nanocellulose was distinct, resulting in significant variations in the Pt adsorption performance...
April 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yu-Ju Lin, Jo Anne Shatkin, Fanbin Kong
The mucoadhesive properties of three types of nanocellulose (CNF, CNC, and Tempo-CNF) was investigated in the digestive condition with ex vivo and in vitro assays. In the ex vivo flow-through method, three nanocellulose materials showed different levels of retention on porcine gastric and intestinal mucosal surfaces. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed that retention of CNF could be due to entanglement with the mucosal layer, while retention of Tempo-CNF could be due to instantaneous gelling on the mucosal surface...
April 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Mandana Tavakolian, Jade Lerner, Fernando Medina Tovar, Jérémy Frances, Theo G M van de Ven, Ashok Kakkar
HYPOTHESIS: Dendrimer-directed assembly of electrosterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose (ENCC) to form network structures was studied. ENCC is a member of the family of hairy nanocelluloses and consists of a crystalline rod and dicarboxylated cellulose chains ("hairs") protruding from both ends, which are very reactive. We hypothesized that covalent linking of ENCC and dendrimers should lead to self-assembled hybrid network structures in which dendrimeric nodes connect cellulose nanorods...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Sanja Jeremic, Lidija Djokic, Vladimir Ajdačić, Nina Božinović, Vladimir Pavlovic, Dragan D Manojlović, Ramesh Babu, Ramsankar Senthamaraikannan, Orlando Rojas, Igor Opsenica, Jasmina Nikodinovic-Runic
Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) emerged as an attractive advanced biomaterial that provides desirable properties such as high strength, lightweight, tailorable surface chemistry, hydrophilicity, and biodegradability. BNC was successfully obtained from a wide range of carbon sources including sugars derived from grass biomass using Komagataeibacter medellinensis ID13488 strain with yields up to 6 g L-1 in static fermentation. Produced BNC was utilized in straightforward catalyst preparation as a solid support for two different transition metals, palladium and copper with metal loading of 20 and 3 wt%, respectively...
January 30, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sanna Siljander, Pasi Keinänen, Anastasia Ivanova, Jani Lehmonen, Sampo Tuukkanen, Mikko Kanerva, Tomas Björkqvist
In this article, we introduce for the first time, a method to manufacture cellulose based electrically conductive non-woven three-dimensional (3D) structures using the foam forming technology. The manufacturing is carried out using a minimum amount of processing steps, materials, and hazardous chemicals. The optimized solution applies a single surfactant type and a single predefined portion for the two main processing steps: (1) the dispersing of nanocellulose (NC) and carbon nanotubes (CNT) and (2) the foam forming process...
January 31, 2019: Materials
Lucie Bacakova, Julia Pajorova, Marketa Bacakova, Anne Skogberg, Pasi Kallio, Katerina Kolarova, Vaclav Svorcik
Nanocellulose is cellulose in the form of nanostructures, i.e., features not exceeding 100 nm at least in one dimension. These nanostructures include nanofibrils, found in bacterial cellulose; nanofibers, present particularly in electrospun matrices; and nanowhiskers, nanocrystals, nanorods, and nanoballs. These structures can be further assembled into bigger two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) nano-, micro-, and macro-structures, such as nanoplatelets, membranes, films, microparticles, and porous macroscopic matrices...
January 29, 2019: Nanomaterials
Liang Liu, Long Bai, Anurodh Tripathi, Juan Yu, Zhiguo Wang, Maryam Borghei, Yimin Fan, Orlando J Rojas
High yield (> 85%), low-energy deconstruction of never-dried residual marine biomass is proposed following hydrolysis for partial deacetylation and microfluidization. This process results in chitin nanofibrils (nanochitin, NCh) of ultra-high axial size (aspect ratios of up to 500), one of the largest for bio-derived nanomaterials. The nanochitins are colloidally stable in water (ξ-potential = +95 mV) and produce highly entangled networks upon pH shift. Viscoelastic and strong hydrogels are formed by ice templating upon freezing and thawing with simultaneous crosslinking...
January 28, 2019: ACS Nano
Magdalena Kołaczkowska, Piotr Siondalski, Maciej Michał Kowalik, Rafał Pęksa, Aldona Długa, Wacław Zając, Paulina Dederko, Ilona Kołodziejska, Edyta Malinowska-Pańczyk, Izabela Sinkiewicz, Hanna Staroszczyk, Agata Śliwińska, Alicja Stanisławska, Marek Szkodo, Paulina Pałczyńska, Grzegorz Jabłoński, Andrzej Borman, Piotr Wilczek
Bionanocellulose (BNC) is a clear polymer produced by the bacterium Gluconacetobacter xylinus. In our current study, "Research on the use of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) in regenerative medicine as a function of the biological implants in cardiac and vascular surgery", we carried out material analysis, biochemical analysis, in vitro tests and in vivo animal model testing. In stage 1 of the project, we carried out physical and biological tests of BNC. This allowed us to modify subsequent samples of bacterial bionanocellulose...
April 2019: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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