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Walter Willett

Long H Nguyen, Po-Hong Liu, Xiaobin Zheng, NaNa Keum, Xiaoyu Zong, Xiao Li, Kana Wu, Charles S Fuchs, Shuji Ogino, Kimmie Ng, Walter C Willett, Andrew T Chan, Edward L Giovannucci, Yin Cao
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed before age 50 years, or young-onset CRC, is increasing globally with undefined etiology. A sedentary lifestyle is an emerging risk factor for CRC after age 50 years, but its role in young-onset CRC is unknown. Methods: We prospectively evaluated sedentary behaviors, primarily time watching television (TV), and risk of young-onset CRC among 89 278 women in the Nurses' Health Study II ages 25-42 years at recruitment (1991-2011)...
November 2018: JNCI cancer spectrum
Anne C Lusk, Walter C Willett, Vivien Morris, Christopher Byner, Yanping Li
While studies of bicyclist's perceptions of crime and crash safety exist, it is also important to ask lower-income predominantly-minority residents what bicycle-route surface or context they perceive as safest from crime and crashes. With their insights, their chosen bike environments could be in engineering guidelines and built in their neighborhoods to improve residents' health and lessen their risk of exposure to crime or crashing. This study involved two populations in Boston: (a) community-sense participants (eight groups-church/YMCA n = 116); and (b) street-sense participants (five groups-halfway house/homeless shelter/gang members n = 96)...
February 7, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sharon G Curhan, Walter C Willett, Francine Grodstein, Gary C Curhan
INTRODUCTION: We examined the relation between self-reported hearing loss, hearing aid use, and risk of subjective cognitive function (SCF) decline. METHODS: We conducted an 8-year (2008-2016) longitudinal study of 10,107 men aged ≥62 years who reported their hearing status in 2006 and had no subjective cognitive concerns in 2008. Change in SCF scores was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire, and subjective decline was defined as new report of at least one SCF concern during follow-up...
January 21, 2019: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Alenka Gugger, Alex Marzel, E John Orav, Walter C Willett, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Robert Theiler, Gregor Freystätter, Andreas Egli, Heike A Bischoff-Ferrari
OBJECTIVES: To test the effect of monthly high-dose vitamin D supplementation on mental health in pre-frail older adults. DESIGN: Ancillary study of a 1-year double-blind randomized clinical trial conducted in Zurich, Switzerland. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 200 community-dwelling adults 70 years and older with a prior fall event in the last year. Participants were randomized to receive 24 000 IU vitamin D3 (considered standard of care), 60 000 IU vitamin D3 , or 24 000 IU vitamin D3 plus 300 μg calcifediol per month...
February 1, 2019: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Marta Guasch-Ferre, Geng Zong, Walter C Willett, Peter Zock, Anne J Wanders, Frank B Hu, Qi Sun
RATIONALE: Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) can come from both plant and animal sources with divergent nutrient profiles that may potentially obscure the associations of total MUFAs with chronic diseases. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of cis-MUFA intake from plant (MUFA-P) and animal (MUFA-A) sources with total and cause-specific mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: We followed 63,412 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1990-2012) and 29,966 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1990-2012)...
January 28, 2019: Circulation Research
Jacklyn K Jackson, Geng Zong, Lesley K MacDonald-Wicks, Amanda J Patterson, Walter C Willett, Eric B Rimm, JoAnn E Manson, Mark A McEvoy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2019: British Journal of Nutrition
Walter Willett, Johan Rockström, Brent Loken, Marco Springmann, Tim Lang, Sonja Vermeulen, Tara Garnett, David Tilman, Fabrice DeClerck, Amanda Wood, Malin Jonell, Michael Clark, Line J Gordon, Jessica Fanzo, Corinna Hawkes, Rami Zurayk, Juan A Rivera, Wim De Vries, Lindiwe Majele Sibanda, Ashkan Afshin, Abhishek Chaudhary, Mario Herrero, Rina Agustina, Francesco Branca, Anna Lartey, Shenggen Fan, Beatrice Crona, Elizabeth Fox, Victoria Bignet, Max Troell, Therese Lindahl, Sudhvir Singh, Sarah E Cornell, K Srinath Reddy, Sunita Narain, Sania Nishtar, Christopher J L Murray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2019: Lancet
Jeffrey A Sparks, Éilis J O'Reilly, Medha Barbhaiya, Sara K Tedeschi, Susan Malspeis, Bing Lu, Walter C Willett, Karen H Costenbader, Elizabeth W Karlson
BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest that fish may be protective for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk perhaps through the anti-inflammatory effect of omega-3 fatty acid, but this relationship has not been clearly established. Therefore, we investigated fish intake and RA risk by serologic status, age of onset, and smoking using a prospective cohort study with large sample size, repeated measures of dietary intake, and lengthy follow-up. METHODS: We studied fish intake and RA risk among 166,013 women in two prospective cohorts, the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 1984-2014) and NHSII (1991-2015)...
January 5, 2019: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Simone Passarelli, Chelsey R Canavan, Robert Paarlberg, Calestous Juma, Emmanuel Akyeampong, Habtamu Fekadu, Christopher D Golden, Nilupa S Gunaratna, Lindsay M Jaacks, Eileen Kennedy, Isabel Madzorera, James McCann, Kanayo Nwanze, Rainer Sauerborn, Lixia Tang, Patrick Webb, Walter C Willett, Wafaie W Fawzi
Although significant achievements in human health have been made globally, progress has been made possible, in part, through unconstrained use of natural resources. As the health of our planet worsens, human health is also endangered. Scholars and policymakers from diverse disciplines highlighted complex, multisectoral approaches for addressing poor dietary intake, over- and undernutrition, and chronic diseases in sub-Saharan Africa at the Agriculture, Nutrition, Health, and the Environment in Africa Conference held at Harvard University on 6-7 November 2017...
December 2018: Current developments in nutrition
Shilpa N Bhupathiraju, Francine Grodstein, Meir J Stampfer, Walter C Willett, Carolyn J Crandall, Jan L Shifren, JoAnn E Manson
OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between vaginal estrogen use and multiple health outcomes including cardiovascular disease (total myocardial infarction, stroke, and pulmonary embolism/deep vein thrombosis), cancer (total invasive, breast, endometrial, ovarian, and colorectal cancer), and hip fracture. METHODS: We included postmenopausal women from the Nurses' Health Study (1982-2012) who were not current users of systemic hormone therapy at the start of the study or during follow-up...
December 17, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Yaohua Yang, Lang Wu, Xiang Shu, Yingchang Lu, Xiao-Ou Shu, Qiuyin Cai, Alicia Beeghly-Fadiel, Bingshan Li, Fei Ye, Andrew Berchuck, Hoda Anton-Culver, Susana Banerjee, Javier Benitez, Line Bjørge, James D Brenton, Ralf Butzow, Ian G Campbell, Jenny Chang-Claude, Kexin Chen, Linda S Cook, Daniel W Cramer, Anna DeFazio, Joe Dennis, Jennifer A Doherty, Thilo Dork, Diana M Eccles, Digna Velez Edwards, Peter A Fasching, Renée T Fortner, Simon A Gayther, Graham G Giles, Rosalind M Glasspool, Ellen L Goode, Marc T Goodman, Jacek Gronwald, Holly R Harris, Florian Heitz, Michelle A T Hildebrandt, Estrid Høgdall, Claus K Høgdall, David G Huntsman, Siddhartha P Kar, Beth Y Karlan, Linda E Kelemen, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Susanne K Kjaer, Anita Koushik, Diether Lambrechts, Nhu D Le, Douglas A Levine, Leon F A G Massuger, Keitaro Matsuo, Taymaa May, Iain A McNeish, Usha Menon, Francesmary Modugno, Alvaro N Monteiro, Patricia G Moorman, Kirsten B Moysich, Roberta B Ness, Heli Nevanlinna, Håkan Olsson, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Sue K Park, James Paul, Celeste L Pearce, Tanja Pejovic, Catherine M Phelan, Malcolm C Pike, Susan J Ramus, Elio Riboli, Cristina Rodríguez-Antona, Isabelle Romieu, Dale P Sandler, Joellen M Schildkraut, Veronica W Setiawan, Kang Shan, Nadeem Siddiqui, Weiva Sieh, Meir J Stampfer, Rebecca Sutphen, Anthony J Swerdlow, Lukasz Michal Szafron, Soo Hwang Teo, Shelley S Tworoger, Jonathan P Tyrer, Penelope M Webb, Nicolas Wentzensen, Emily White, Walter C Willett, Alicja Wolk, Yin Ling Woo, Anna H Wu, Li Yan, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Thomas A Sellers, Paul D P Pharoah, Wei Zheng, Jirong Long
DNA methylation is instrumental for gene regulation. Global changes in the epigenetic landscape have been recognized as a hallmark of cancer. However, the role of DNA methylation in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains unclear. In this study, high density genetic and DNA methylation data in white blood cells from the Framingham Heart Study (N=1,595) were used to build genetic models to predict DNA methylation levels. These prediction models were then applied to the summary statistics of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ovarian cancer including 22,406 EOC cases and 40,941 controls to investigate genetically predicted DNA methylation levels in association with EOC risk...
December 17, 2018: Cancer Research
Nasim Mavaddat, Kyriaki Michailidou, Joe Dennis, Michael Lush, Laura Fachal, Andrew Lee, Jonathan P Tyrer, Ting-Huei Chen, Qin Wang, Manjeet K Bolla, Xin Yang, Muriel A Adank, Thomas Ahearn, Kristiina Aittomäki, Jamie Allen, Irene L Andrulis, Hoda Anton-Culver, Natalia N Antonenkova, Volker Arndt, Kristan J Aronson, Paul L Auer, Päivi Auvinen, Myrto Barrdahl, Laura E Beane Freeman, Matthias W Beckmann, Sabine Behrens, Javier Benitez, Marina Bermisheva, Leslie Bernstein, Carl Blomqvist, Natalia V Bogdanova, Stig E Bojesen, Bernardo Bonanni, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Hiltrud Brauch, Michael Bremer, Hermann Brenner, Adam Brentnall, Ian W Brock, Angela Brooks-Wilson, Sara Y Brucker, Thomas Brüning, Barbara Burwinkel, Daniele Campa, Brian D Carter, Jose E Castelao, Stephen J Chanock, Rowan Chlebowski, Hans Christiansen, Christine L Clarke, J Margriet Collée, Emilie Cordina-Duverger, Sten Cornelissen, Fergus J Couch, Angela Cox, Simon S Cross, Kamila Czene, Mary B Daly, Peter Devilee, Thilo Dörk, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva, Martine Dumont, Lorraine Durcan, Miriam Dwek, Diana M Eccles, Arif B Ekici, A Heather Eliassen, Carolina Ellberg, Christoph Engel, Mikael Eriksson, D Gareth Evans, Peter A Fasching, Jonine Figueroa, Olivia Fletcher, Henrik Flyger, Asta Försti, Lin Fritschi, Marike Gabrielson, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, Susan M Gapstur, José A García-Sáenz, Mia M Gaudet, Vassilios Georgoulias, Graham G Giles, Irina R Gilyazova, Gord Glendon, Mark S Goldberg, David E Goldgar, Anna González-Neira, Grethe I Grenaker Alnæs, Mervi Grip, Jacek Gronwald, Anne Grundy, Pascal Guénel, Lothar Haeberle, Eric Hahnen, Christopher A Haiman, Niclas Håkansson, Ute Hamann, Susan E Hankinson, Elaine F Harkness, Steven N Hart, Wei He, Alexander Hein, Jane Heyworth, Peter Hillemanns, Antoinette Hollestelle, Maartje J Hooning, Robert N Hoover, John L Hopper, Anthony Howell, Guanmengqian Huang, Keith Humphreys, David J Hunter, Milena Jakimovska, Anna Jakubowska, Wolfgang Janni, Esther M John, Nichola Johnson, Michael E Jones, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Audrey Jung, Rudolf Kaaks, Katarzyna Kaczmarek, Vesa Kataja, Renske Keeman, Michael J Kerin, Elza Khusnutdinova, Johanna I Kiiski, Julia A Knight, Yon-Dschun Ko, Veli-Matti Kosma, Stella Koutros, Vessela N Kristensen, Ute Krüger, Tabea Kühl, Diether Lambrechts, Loic Le Marchand, Eunjung Lee, Flavio Lejbkowicz, Jenna Lilyquist, Annika Lindblom, Sara Lindström, Jolanta Lissowska, Wing-Yee Lo, Sibylle Loibl, Jirong Long, Jan Lubiński, Michael P Lux, Robert J MacInnis, Tom Maishman, Enes Makalic, Ivana Maleva Kostovska, Arto Mannermaa, Siranoush Manoukian, Sara Margolin, John W M Martens, Maria Elena Martinez, Dimitrios Mavroudis, Catriona McLean, Alfons Meindl, Usha Menon, Pooja Middha, Nicola Miller, Fernando Moreno, Anna Marie Mulligan, Claire Mulot, Victor M Muñoz-Garzon, Susan L Neuhausen, Heli Nevanlinna, Patrick Neven, William G Newman, Sune F Nielsen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Aaron Norman, Kenneth Offit, Janet E Olson, Håkan Olsson, Nick Orr, V Shane Pankratz, Tjoung-Won Park-Simon, Jose I A Perez, Clara Pérez-Barrios, Paolo Peterlongo, Julian Peto, Mila Pinchev, Dijana Plaseska-Karanfilska, Eric C Polley, Ross Prentice, Nadege Presneau, Darya Prokofyeva, Kristen Purrington, Katri Pylkäs, Brigitte Rack, Paolo Radice, Rohini Rau-Murthy, Gad Rennert, Hedy S Rennert, Valerie Rhenius, Mark Robson, Atocha Romero, Kathryn J Ruddy, Matthias Ruebner, Emmanouil Saloustros, Dale P Sandler, Elinor J Sawyer, Daniel F Schmidt, Rita K Schmutzler, Andreas Schneeweiss, Minouk J Schoemaker, Fredrick Schumacher, Peter Schürmann, Lukas Schwentner, Christopher Scott, Rodney J Scott, Caroline Seynaeve, Mitul Shah, Mark E Sherman, Martha J Shrubsole, Xiao-Ou Shu, Susan Slager, Ann Smeets, Christof Sohn, Penny Soucy, Melissa C Southey, John J Spinelli, Christa Stegmaier, Jennifer Stone, Anthony J Swerdlow, Rulla M Tamimi, William J Tapper, Jack A Taylor, Mary Beth Terry, Kathrin Thöne, Rob A E M Tollenaar, Ian Tomlinson, Thérèse Truong, Maria Tzardi, Hans-Ulrich Ulmer, Michael Untch, Celine M Vachon, Elke M van Veen, Joseph Vijai, Clarice R Weinberg, Camilla Wendt, Alice S Whittemore, Hans Wildiers, Walter Willett, Robert Winqvist, Alicja Wolk, Xiaohong R Yang, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Yan Zhang, Wei Zheng, Argyrios Ziogas, Alison M Dunning, Deborah J Thompson, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Jenny Chang-Claude, Marjanka K Schmidt, Per Hall, Roger L Milne, Paul D P Pharoah, Antonis C Antoniou, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Peter Kraft, Montserrat García-Closas, Jacques Simard, Douglas F Easton
Stratification of women according to their risk of breast cancer based on polygenic risk scores (PRSs) could improve screening and prevention strategies. Our aim was to develop PRSs, optimized for prediction of estrogen receptor (ER)-specific disease, from the largest available genome-wide association dataset and to empirically validate the PRSs in prospective studies. The development dataset comprised 94,075 case subjects and 75,017 control subjects of European ancestry from 69 studies, divided into training and validation sets...
December 5, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Daniel Young, Francis Willett, William D Memberg, Brian Andrew Murphy, Paymon Rezaii, Benjamin Walter, Jennifer A Sweet, Jonathan Miller, Krishna V Shenoy, Leigh Hochberg, Robert F Kirsch, A Bolu Ajiboye
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a promising technology for the restoration of function to people with paralysis, especially for controlling coordinated reaching. Typical BCI studies decode Cartesian endpoint velocities as commands, but human arm movements might be better controlled in a joint-based coordinate frame, which may match underlying movement encoding in the motor cortex. A better understanding of BCI controlled reaching by people with paralysis may lead to performance improvements in brain-controlled assistive devices...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Rashmi Sinha, Habibul Ahsan, Martin Blaser, J Gregory Caporaso, Joseph Russell Carmical, Andrew T Chan, Anthony Fodor, Mitchell H Gail, Curtis C Harris, Kathy Helzlsouer, Curtis Huttenhower, Rob Knight, Heidi H Kong, Gabriel Y Lai, Diane Leigh Smith Hutchinson, Loic Le Marchand, Hongzhe Li, Michael J Orlich, Jianxin Shi, Ann Truelove, Mukesh Verma, Emily Vogtmann, Owen White, Walter Willett, Wei Zheng, Somdat Mahabir, Christian Abnet
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a 2-day workshop, "Next Steps in Studying the Human Microbiome and Health in Prospective Studies," in Bethesda, Maryland, May 16-17, 2017. The workshop brought together researchers in the field to discuss the challenges of conducting microbiome studies, including study design, collection and processing of samples, bioinformatics and statistical methods, publishing results, and ensuring reproducibility of published results. The presenters emphasized the great potential of microbiome research in understanding the etiology of cancer...
November 26, 2018: Microbiome
Changzheng Yuan, Elinor Fondell, Ambika Bhushan, Alberto Ascherio, Olivia I Okereke, Francine Grodstein, Walter C Willett
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prospective association of long-term intake of vegetables and fruits with late-life subjective cognitive function (SCF). METHODS: Among 27,842 men with a mean age of 51 years in 1986, we used multinomial logistic regression to examine the relation of vegetable and fruit consumption to future SCF. Average dietary intake was calculated from 5 repeated food frequency questionnaires collected every 4 years until 2002. SCF score was assessed twice (2008 and 2012) using a 6-item questionnaire; validity was supported by strong associations with APO ε4 genotype...
November 21, 2018: Neurology
Zhilei Shan, Yanping Li, Geng Zong, Yanjun Guo, Jun Li, JoAnn E Manson, Frank B Hu, Walter C Willett, Eva S Schernhammer, Shilpa N Bhupathiraju
OBJECTIVES: To prospectively evaluate the joint association of duration of rotating night shift work and lifestyle factors with risk of type 2 diabetes risk, and to quantitatively decompose this joint association to rotating night shift work only, to lifestyle only, and to their interaction. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Nurses' Health Study (1988-2012) and Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2013). PARTICIPANTS: 143 410 women without type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at baseline...
November 21, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
David S Ludwig, Walter C Willett, Jeff S Volek, Marian L Neuhouser
For decades, dietary advice was based on the premise that high intakes of fat cause obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and possibly cancer. Recently, evidence for the adverse metabolic effects of processed carbohydrate has led to a resurgence in interest in lower-carbohydrate and ketogenic diets with high fat content. However, some argue that the relative quantity of dietary fat and carbohydrate has little relevance to health and that focus should instead be placed on which particular fat or carbohydrate sources are consumed...
November 16, 2018: Science
JoAnn E Manson, Nancy R Cook, I-Min Lee, William Christen, Shari S Bassuk, Samia Mora, Heike Gibson, Christine M Albert, David Gordon, Trisha Copeland, Denise D'Agostino, Georgina Friedenberg, Claire Ridge, Vadim Bubes, Edward L Giovannucci, Walter C Willett, Julie E Buring
BACKGROUND: Higher intake of marine n-3 (also called omega-3) fatty acids has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and cancer in several observational studies. Whether supplementation with n-3 fatty acids has such effects in general populations at usual risk for these end points is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, with a two-by-two factorial design, of vitamin D3 (at a dose of 2000 IU per day) and marine n-3 fatty acids (at a dose of 1 g per day) in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer among men 50 years of age or older and women 55 years of age or older in the United States...
November 10, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
JoAnn E Manson, Nancy R Cook, I-Min Lee, William Christen, Shari S Bassuk, Samia Mora, Heike Gibson, David Gordon, Trisha Copeland, Denise D'Agostino, Georgina Friedenberg, Claire Ridge, Vadim Bubes, Edward L Giovannucci, Walter C Willett, Julie E Buring
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether supplementation with vitamin D reduces the risk of cancer or cardiovascular disease, and data from randomized trials are limited. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, with a two-by-two factorial design, of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) at a dose of 2000 IU per day and marine n-3 (also called omega-3) fatty acids at a dose of 1 g per day for the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease among men 50 years of age or older and women 55 years of age or older in the United States...
November 10, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Frank B Hu, Walter C Willett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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