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Embryo attachment

Cayetana Vázquez-Diez, Lia Mara Gomes Paim, Greg FitzHarris
Chromosome segregation errors during mammalian preimplantation development cause "mosaic" embryos comprising a mixture of euploid and aneuploid cells, which reduce the potential for a successful pregnancy [1-5], but why these errors are common is unknown. In most cells, chromosome segregation error is averted by the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which prevents anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) activation and anaphase onset until chromosomes are aligned with kinetochores attached to spindle microtubules [6, 7], but little is known about the SAC's role in the early mammalian embryo...
January 17, 2019: Current Biology: CB
Jordi Ribas-Maynou, Jordi Benet
Reproductive diseases have become a growing worldwide problem and male factor plays an important role in the reproductive diagnosis, prognosis and design of assisted reproductive treatments. Sperm cell holds the mission of carrying the paternal genetic complement to the oocyte in order to contribute to an euploid zygote with proper DNA integrity. Sperm DNA fragmentation had been used for decades as a male fertility test, however, its usefulness have arisen multiple debates, especially around Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) treatments...
January 31, 2019: Genes
Stefan Wagner, Judi McCracken, Sabine Bruszies, Ric Broadhurst, David N Wells, Björn Oback, Jürgen Bode, Götz Laible
Episomal plasmids based on a scaffold/matrix attachment region (S/MAR) are extrachromosomal DNA entities that replicate once per cell cycle and are stably maintained in cells or tissue. We generated minicircles, episomal plasmids devoid of bacterial sequences, and show that they are stably transmitted in clonal primary bovine fibroblasts without selection pressure over more than two months. Total DNA, plasmid extraction and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses suggest that the minicircles remained episomal and were not integrated into the genome...
January 29, 2019: Molecular Biology Reports
J A Cortes-Morales, A Olmedo-Juárez, G Trejo-Tapia, M González-Cortazar, B E Domínguez-Mendoza, P Mendoza-de Gives, A Zamilpa
The indiscriminate use of chemical drugs to deworm livestock tends to trigger an anthelmintic resistance problem. In this context, the use of plant extracts rich in secondary metabolites could be an alternative method for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes. Baccharis conferta Kunth is a native plant species from Mexico that is widely used by several ethnic groups as forage for farm animals and medicinally to treat gastrointestinal diseases such as acute stomach ache, dysentery, diarrhoea, vomiting, indigestion, colic, intestinal spasms, urinary problems, and cramps...
January 8, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
Jeong Kuk Park, Yu Jin Han, Jae Ho Lee, Sang-Woo Joo, Ju Hyeon Kim, Si Hyeock Lee, SangYoun Park
Human head and body lice attach their eggs respectively to human hair or clothing by female lice secreted glue that hardens into a nit sheath that protects the egg. In this study, a series of experiments were conducted to characterize the glue-like material of the nit sheath. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on embryo-cleared nit showed proteinaceous amide I bands. With this result, we determined the amino acid composition of the nit sheath proteins and performed similarity search against the protein products of the body louse genome to identify the candidate nit sheath proteins...
January 10, 2019: Scientific Reports
Yue Gao, Yaqin Wang, Chan Zhou, Shuangbo Kong, Jinhua Lu, Haibin Wang, Jing Yang
Ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7), a member of the deubiquitinating (DUB) enzyme family, regulates protein stability and has a well-characterized function in tumorigenesis. Given its critical role in growth and development, it was speculated to be involved in modulating processes in the female reproductive system but its exact role has not been elucidated. Decidualization is one of the key processes in pregnancy and aberrant decidualization is a cause of pregnancy failure. The uterine endometrium layer undergoes significant structural and functional changes during decidualization in preparation for and after embryo implantation...
January 9, 2019: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Abdulla A Albishtue, Nurhusien Yimer, Md Zuki A Zakaria, Abd Wahid Haron, Abd Salam Babji, Adamu A Abubakar, Bahaa H Almhanawi
This study was conducted to determine the effect of edible bird's nest (EBN) supplement on uterine function and embryo-implantation rate. A total of 24 adult female rats, divided equally into four groups, were treated with different doses of EBN for 8 weeks. In the last week of treatment, intact fertile male rats were introduced into each group (three per group) for overnight for mating. On day 7 post-mating (post-implantation), blood samples were collected from the hearts of anaesthetised rats that were later sacrificed...
December 17, 2018: Theriogenology
Claudio D Gonzalez, Jorge Alvariñas, Maria Florencia Gonzalez Bagnes, Guillermo Di Girolamo
BACKGROUND: Metformin is sometimes used as an alternative to insulin in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). It is also used to achieve ovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Pre-natal exposure to metformin results from its continuation after a successful ovulation in women with PCOS, its maintenance in women with pre-gestational diabetes or the installation of metformin in GDM. Few is known about the potential consequences of metformin exposure on pregnancy outcomes and offspring development...
December 24, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Yuan You, Patrick Stelzl, Yonghong Zhaing, James Porter, Hong Liu, Ai-Hua Liao, Paulomi B Aldo, Gil Mor
PROBLEM: Embryo implantation depends on the interactions between the developing embryo and the maternal endometrium. Signals originating from the decidua play a critical role in the process of implantation and trophoblast invasion; however, the molecular mechanisms mediating this interaction are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to develop in vitro models that would mimic the processes of attachment, migration and early invasion of the trophoblast. METHODS OF STUDY: First trimester trophoblast cells (Sw...
December 24, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Jingyue Ellie Duan, Wei Shi, Nathaniel K Jue, Zongliang Jiang, Lynn Kuo, Rachel O'Neill, Eckhard Wolf, Hong Dong, Xinbao Zheng, Jingbo Chen, Xiuchun Cindy Tian
Dosage compensation of the mammalian X chromosome (X) was proposed by Susumu Ohno as a mechanism wherein the inactivation of one X in females would lead to the doubling the expression of the other. This would resolve the dosage imbalance between eutherian females (XX) vs. male (XY) and between a single active X vs. autosome pairs (A). Expression ratio of X- and A-linked genes has been relatively well-studied in humans and mice, despite controversial results over the existence of up-regulation of X-linked genes...
December 19, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
T Martins, M Sponchiado, O A Ojeda-Rojas, A M Gonella-Diaza, E O S Batista, B O Cardoso, C C Rocha, A C Basso, M Binelli
Background: Insufficient production of anti-luteolytic signals by the pre-attachment embryo is considered a major cause of pregnancy failure in cattle. We tested the hypothesis that transfer of multiple blastocysts ( n  = 5/recipient) and progesterone (P4) supplementation amplify anti-luteolytic signaling and reduce embryonic losses in beef cattle. Cows detected in estrus (D0; n  = 104) were assigned randomly to receive 150 mg of injectable long-acting P4 (iP4) or vehicle (non-iP4) on D4 and transcervical transfer of none or five, grade 1, not-frozen, in vitro-produced blastocysts, on D7...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Frances Edwards, Gilliane Maton, Nelly Gareil, Julie C Canman, Julien Dumont
Accurate chromosome segregation relies on bioriented amphitelic attachments of chromosomes to microtubules of the mitotic spindle, in which sister chromatids are connected to opposite spindle poles. BUB-1 is a protein of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC) that coordinates chromosome attachment with anaphase onset. BUB-1 is also required for accurate sister chromatid segregation independently of its SAC function, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that, in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, BUB-1 accelerates the establishment of non-merotelic end-on kinetochore-microtubule attachments by recruiting the RZZ complex and its downstream partner dynein-dynactin at the kinetochore...
December 14, 2018: ELife
Arnfinn Lodden Økland, Are Nylund, Aina-Cathrine Øvergård, Renate Hvidsten Skoge, Heidi Kongshaug
The complete genome sequence of a novel mononegavirus, Lepeophtheirus salmonis negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (LsNSRV-1), obtained from a salmonid ectoparasite, Lepeophtheirus salmonis was determined. The viral genome contains five open reading frames encoding three unknown proteins (ORF I, II and III), a putative glycoprotein (G), and a large (L) protein. Phylogenetic analysis placed LsNSRV-1 in the recently established mononegaviral family Artoviridae. LsNSRV-1 showed a prevalence of around 97% and was detected in all L...
December 7, 2018: Archives of Virology
Li Wang, Ya Jing Tan, Min Wang, Yi Fei Chen, Xin Yan Li
Endometrial receptivity is a critical factor for embryo implantation. A decrease in endometrial homeobox A10 (HOXA10) expression is associated with hypermethylation of its promoter and lower endometrial receptivity in animals and humans. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) is a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor. However, whether demethylation of the HOXA10 gene could increase the receptivity of the human endometrium remains unknown. Homeobox A10 promoter methylation was analyzed using bisulfite genomic sequencing polymerase chain reaction...
December 6, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Fatemeh Naseri, Sara Hosseini, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Ahmad Hosseini, Mohammad Hasan Heidari, Mohammad Salehi
Embryo manipulations may cause the misexpression of various genes, most of which play critical roles in the regulation of implantation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of embryo biopsy on the expression of miR-Let-7a and its gene targets including ErbB4, Tgf-α, Itg-αv, Itg β3 on the implantation of mouse embryo. Embryos were produced by in vitro fertilization followed by blastomere biopsy at the eight-cell stage. The effects of blastomere removal on the expression of genes ErbB4, Tgf-α, Itg αv, Itg β3, and miR-Let-7a as well as the alteration of the blastocyst cell number were compared in both biopsied and non-biopsied groups...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Zhen Luo, Xue Xu, Takami Sho, Jing Zhang, Weina Xu, Jianbo Yao, Jianxiong Xu
Significant embryo loss remains a serious problem in pig production. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in embryonic implantation and placentation. However, the potential mechanism of ROS on porcine trophectoderm (pTr) cell fate during peri-implantation period has not been investigated. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of ROS on pTr cell phenotypes and the regulatory role in cell attachment and differentiation. Herein, results showed that exogenous H2 O2 inhibited pTr cell viability, arrested cell cycle at S and G2/M phase, increased cell apoptosis and autophagy protein light chain 3B (LC3B) and Beclin-1, while these effects were reversed by different concentrations of N-acety-l-cysteine (NAC) post-treatment...
November 28, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Fiona D'Souza, Shubhashree Uppangala, Gitanjali Asampille, Sujith Raj Salian, Guruprasad Kalthur, Riccardo Talevi, Hanudatta S Atreya, Satish Kumar Adiga
The metabolomic profile of an embryo culture medium can aid in the advanced prediction of embryonic developmental potential and genetic integrity. But it is not known if this technology can be used to determine the in vitro potential of inner cell mass (ICM) in adherence and proliferation. Here, we investigated the developmental potential of mouse 2-cell embryos carrying cisplatin-induced DNA lesions (IDL), beyond blastocyst stage using ICM outgrowth assay. The genetic integrity of ICM cells was determined by comet assay...
November 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Szczepan M Bilinski, Waclaw Tworzydlo
The embryos and first instar larvae of the epizoic earwig, Arixenia esau, develop sequentially in two different compartments of the female reproductive system, that is ovarian follicles and the lateral oviducts (the uterus). Here we show that the second (intrauterine) phase of development consists of three physiologically disparate stages: early embryos (before dorsal closure, surrounded by an egg envelope), late embryos (after dorsal closure, surrounded by an egg envelope) and the first instar larvae (after "hatching" from an egg envelope)...
November 23, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Jihyun Kim, Jaewang Lee, Jin Hyun Jun
Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) is one of the main causes for the repeated failure of IVF, and the major reason for RIF is thought to be a miscommunication between the embryo and uterus. However, the exact mechanism underlying embryo-uterus cross-talk is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to identify differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) among blastocysts, non-outgrowth and outgrowth embryos in mice using microarray analysis. A bioinformatics analysis was performed to predict the potential mechanisms of implantation...
November 15, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Alexandra L Nguyen, David Drutovic, Berta N Vazquez, Warif El Yakoubi, Amanda S Gentilello, Marcos Malumbres, Petr Solc, Karen Schindler
Errors in chromosome segregation during female meiosis I occur frequently, and aneuploid embryos account for 1/3 of all miscarriages in humans [1]. Unlike mitotic cells that require two Aurora kinase (AURK) homologs to help prevent aneuploidy (AURKA and AURKB), mammalian germ cells also require a third (AURKC) [2, 3]. AURKA is the spindle-pole-associated homolog, and AURKB/C are the chromosome-localized homologs. In mitosis, AURKB has essential roles as the catalytic subunit of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), regulating chromosome alignment, kinetochore-microtubule attachments, cohesion, the spindle assembly checkpoint, and cytokinesis [4, 5]...
November 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
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