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B lymphocyte

Christina Tiller, Martin Reindl, Magdalena Holzknecht, Maximilian Klapfer, Alexander Beck, Benjamin Henninger, Agnes Mayr, Gert Klug, Sebastian Johannes Reinstadler, Bernhard Metzler
BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) represents the biomarker of choice for infarct size (IS) estimation in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, admission values of hs-cTnT are only weakly associated with IS. The aim of this study was to investigate the incremental value of different biomarkers measured on admission for IS estimation in STEMI patients. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we included 161 consecutive STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI)...
March 14, 2019: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Semra Paydas
Bruton tyrosine kinase signaling (BTK) is critical step for B-cell development and immunoglobulin synthesis. Ibrutinib is an orally bioavailable bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor (BTKi) and forms an irreversible covalent bound to BTK at the Cysteine-481 residue. Ibrutinib has been approved by FDA for the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, marginal zone lymphoma and chronic graft-versus-host disease in allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Ibrutinib is generally well tolerated drug with rapid and durable responses but has some side events...
April 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Ammar Sukari, Nadine Abdallah, Misako Nagasaka
Adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) is an immunotherapy which involves the passive transfer of lymphocytes into a lymphodepleted host after ex vivo stimulation and expansion. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have shown objective tumor responses mainly restricted to melanoma and rely on a laborious manufacturing process. These limitations led to emergence of engineered cells, where normal peripheral blood lymphocytes are modified to express T cell receptors (TCRs) or chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) specific for tumor-associated antigens (TAAs)...
April 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
L V Putlyaeva, D E Demin, K V Korneev, A S Kasyanov, K A Tatosyan, I V Kulakovskiy, D V Kuprash, A M Schwartz
CD40 receptor is expressed on B lymphocytes and other professional antigen-presenting cells. The binding of CD40 to its ligand CD154 on the surface of T helper cells plays an important role in the activation of B lymphocytes required for production of antibodies, in particular, against autoantigens. Association of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the non-coding areas of human CD40 locus with the elevated risk of autoimmune diseases has been demonstrated. The most studied of these SNPs is rs4810485 located in the first intron of the CD40 gene...
December 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Mario Alejandro Lorenzetti, María Jimena Mosna, Elena Noemí De Matteo, Mercedes García Lombardi, Sandra Lorena Colli, María Victoria Preciado
Survivin is abundantly expressed during fetal development but absent in most differentiated adult tissues; an exception being components of the immune system, such as B and T lymphocytes. Beyond acting as a master regulator of the cell cycle, survivin acts as an inhibitor of apoptosis and is overexpressed in almost all carcinoma types; however, its expression in lymphomas is lesser-explored. Survivin's role in carcinogenesis was subjected to its sub-cellular localization and splice transcripts expression, namely wild-type survivin, survivin-∆Ex3 and survivin-2B...
March 12, 2019: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Luc Van Kaer, Joshua L Postoak, Chuan Wang, Guan Yang, Lan Wu
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which the immune system damages the protective insulation surrounding the nerve fibers that project from neurons. A hallmark of MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), is autoimmunity against proteins of the myelin sheath. Most studies in this field have focused on the roles of CD4+ T lymphocytes, which form part of the adaptive immune system as both mediators and regulators in disease pathogenesis...
March 15, 2019: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Lucas D'Souza, Deepta Bhattacharya
Plasma cells are terminally differentiated B lymphocytes that constitutively secrete antibodies. These antibodies can provide protection against pathogens, and their quantity and quality are the best clinical correlates of vaccine efficacy. As such, plasma cell lifespan is the primary determinant of the duration of humoral immunity. Yet dysregulation of plasma cell function can cause autoimmunity or multiple myeloma. The longevity of plasma cells is primarily dictated by nutrient uptake and non-transcriptionally regulated metabolic pathways...
March 2019: Immunological Reviews
Adi Biram, Natalia Davidzohn, Ziv Shulman
Establishment of effective immunity against invading microbes depends on continuous generation of antibodies that facilitate pathogen clearance. Long-lived plasma cells with the capacity to produce high affinity antibodies evolve in germinal centers (GCs), where B cells undergo somatic hypermutation and are subjected to affinity-based selection. Here, we focus on the cellular interactions that take place early in the antibody immune response during GC colonization. Clones bearing B-cell receptors with different affinities and specificities compete for entry to the GC, at the boundary between the B-cell and T-cell zones in lymphoid organs...
March 2019: Immunological Reviews
Stefano Casola, Laura Perucho, Claudio Tripodo, Paola Sindaco, Maurilio Ponzoni, Fabio Facchetti
Surface expression of a functional B cell antigen receptor (BCR) is essential for the survival and proliferation of mature B cells. Most types of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders retain surface BCR expression, including B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Targeting BCR effectors in B-NHL cell lines in vitro has indicated that this signaling axis is crucial for malignant B cell growth. This has led to the development of inhibitors of BCR signaling, which are currently used for the treatment of CLL and several B-NHL subtypes...
March 2019: Immunological Reviews
Ahmed Y Ali, Qingdong Guan, Xun Wu, Sen Hou, Versha Banerji, James B Johnston, Donna Wall, David Szwajcer, Spencer B Gibson, Aaron J Marshall
Within lymphoid tissues, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells interact with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). Inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) cause release of CLL cells from lymphoid tissues into blood. PI3Kδ inhibitors are thought to target only CLL and other immune cells because PI3Kδ expression is restricted to haematopoietic cells. We found that PI3Kδ is unexpectedly expressed in primary MSC derived from CLL patients and healthy donors. PI3Kδ inhibition in MSC using idelalisib or duvelisib significantly reduced their ability to support CLL migration and adhesion...
March 14, 2019: British Journal of Haematology
Judith-Irina Buchheim, Sandra Matzel, Marina Rykova, Galina Vassilieva, Sergey Ponomarev, Igor Nichiporuk, Marion Hörl, Dominique Moser, Katharina Biere, Matthias Feuerecker, Gustav Schelling, Detlef Thieme, Ines Kaufmann, Manfred Thiel, Alexander Choukèr
Space flight exerts a specific conglomerate of stressors on humans that can modulate the immune system. The mechanism remains to be elucidated and the consequences for cosmonauts in the long term are unclear. Most of the current research stems from short-term spaceflights as well as pre- and post-flight analyses due to operational limitations. Immune function of 12 cosmonauts participating in a long-duration (>140 days) spaceflight mission was monitored pre-, post-, and on two time-points in-flight. While the classical markers for stress such as cortisol in saliva where not significantly altered, blood concentrations of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) were found to be highly increased in-flight indicating a biological stress response...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Nilgün Bahar, Mehmet Satar, Mustafa Yılmaz, Selim Büyükkurt, Ferda Özlü, Hacer Yapıcıoğlu Yıldızdaş, Akgün Yaman
Aim: To evaluate the effect of umblical cord clamping time on lymphocyte subgroups in term and late preterm infants. Material and Methods: Seventy-four infants between 34 and 41 weeks of gestation were included in the study. Of these, 37 were umbilical cord clamped immediately after birth and the remaining 37 were clamped after waiting one minute. Babies were divided into two groups as term and preterm. The prenatal, natal, postnatal characteristics of the infants were recorded...
December 2018: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Jooeun Bae, Mehmet Samur, Paul Richardson, Nikhil C Munshi, Kenneth C Anderson
To expand the breadth and extent of current multiple myeloma (MM)-specific immunotherapy, we have identified various antigens on CD138+ tumor cells from newly diagnosed MM patients (n = 616) and confirmed B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) as a key myeloma-associated antigen. The aim of this study is to target the BCMA, which promotes MM cell growth and survival, by generating BCMA-specific memory CD8+ CTL that mediate effective and long-lasting immunity against MM. Here we report the identification of novel engineered peptides specific to BCMA, BCMA72-80 (YLMFLLRKI), and BCMA54-62 (YILWTCLGL), which display improved affinity/stability to HLA-A2 compared to their native peptides and induce highly functional BCMA-specific CTL with increased activation (CD38, CD69) and co-stimulatory (CD40L, OX40, GITR) molecule expression...
March 12, 2019: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Marisa Benagiano, Maria Orietta Borghi, Jacopo Romagnoli, Michael Mahler, Chiara Della Bella, Alessia Grassi, Nagaja Capitani, Giacomo Emmi, Arianna Troilo, Elena Silvestri, Lorenzo Emmi, Heba Alnwaisri, Jacopo Bitetti, Simona Tapinassi, Domenico Prisco, Cosima Tatiana Baldari, Pier Luigi Meroni, Mario Milco D'Elios
Systemic lupus erythematosus is frequently associated with antiphospholipid syndrome. Patients with lupus-antiphospholipid syndrome are characterized by recurrent arterial/venous thrombosis, miscarriages, and persistent presence of autoantibodies against phospholipid-binding proteins, such as β2-Glycoprotein I. We investigated the cytokine production induced by β2-Glycoprotein I in activated T cells that infiltrate in vivo atherosclerotic lesions of lupus-antiphospholipid syndrome patients. We examined the helper function of β2-Glycoprotein I-specific T cells for the tissue factor production, as well as their cytolytic potential and their helper function for antibody production...
March 14, 2019: Haematologica
Ivo M B Francischetti, Katherine R Calvo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2019: Blood
Mohammed Alosaimi, Manfred Hoenig, Faris Jaber, Craig D Platt, Jennifer Jones, Jacqueline Wallace, Klaus-Michael Debatin, Ansgar Schulz, Eva Jacobsen, Peter Möller, Hanan E Shamseldin, Ferdous Abdulwahab, Niema Ibrahim, Hosam Alardati, Faisal Almuhizi, Ibraheem F Abosoudah, Talal A Basha, Janet Chou, Fowzan S Alkuraya, Raif S Geha
BACKGROUND: The tumor necrosis family factor receptor (TNFR) family member 4-1BB (CD137) is encoded by TNFRSF9 and expressed on activated T cells. 4-1BB provides a co-stimulatory signal that enhances CD8+ T cell survival, cytotoxicity, and mitochondrial activity, thereby promoting immunity against viruses and tumors. The ligand for 4-1BB (4-1BBL) is expressed on antigen-presenting cells and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformed B cells. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the genetic basis of recurrent sino-pulmonary infections, persistent EBV viremia, and EBV-induced lymphoproliferation in two unrelated patients...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
S Garfias, B Tamaya Domínguez, A Toledo Rojas, M Arroyo, U Rodríguez, C Boll, A L Sosa, E Sciutto, L Adalid-Peralta, Y Martinez López, G Fragoso, A Fleury
INTRODUCTION: Neuroinflammation is involved in the pathophysiology of various neurological disorders, in particular Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Alterations in the blood-brain barrier may allow peripheral blood lymphocytes to enter the central nervous system; these may participate in disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the peripheral blood lymphocyte profiles of patients with AD and PD and their association with the disease and its progression...
March 11, 2019: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Tristan Courau, Julie Bonnereau, Justine Chicoteau, Hugo Bottois, Romain Remark, Laura Assante Miranda, Antoine Toubert, Mathieu Blery, Thomas Aparicio, Matthieu Allez, Lionel Le Bourhis
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapies still fail to benefit colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Relevant functional assays aimed at studying these failures and the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy in human are scarce. 3D tumor cultures, called tumor organoids or spheroids, represent interesting models to study cancer treatments and could help to challenge these issues. METHODS: We analyzed heterotypic cocultures of human colon tumor-derived spheroids with immune cells to assess the infiltration, activation and function of T and NK cells toward human colorectal tumors in vitro...
March 14, 2019: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Megha Sravani Bondada, Yongxiu Yao, Venugopal Nair
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that fine-tune the responses of the cell by modulating the cell transcriptome and gene expression. MicroRNA 155 (miR-155) is a conserved multifunctional miRNA involved in multiple roles including the modulation of the immune responses. When deregulated, miR-155 can also contribute to cancer as has been demonstrated in several human malignancies such as diffuse large B cell lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, as well as in Epstein⁻Barr virus (EBV)-induced B cell transformation...
March 13, 2019: Non-Coding RNA
Philipp Hohlstein, Hendrik Gussen, Matthias Bartneck, Klaudia Theresa Warzecha, Christoph Roderburg, Lukas Buendgens, Christian Trautwein, Alexander Koch, Frank Tacke
Lymphopenia and functional defects in lymphocytes may impact the prognosis in patients with critical illness or sepsis. Therefore, we prospectively analyzed peripheral blood leukocytes from 63 healthy volunteers, 50 non-critically ill standard care (SC) patients with infections, and 105 intensive care unit (ICU) patients (52 with sepsis, 53 without sepsis) using flow cytometry. Compared to healthy volunteers, SC and ICU patients showed significant leukocytosis, especially in sepsis, while lymphocyte numbers were significantly decreased...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
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