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Skin immunity

K S Houschyar, C Tapking, D Duscher, C Wallner, A Sogorski, S Rein, D Pförringer, G Reumuth, K Weissenberg, G Grieb, L K Branski, F Siemers, B Behr, M Lehnhardt
BACKGROUND: Due to the loss of the natural skin barrier function with reduced immune competence as a result of a plasma loss and the numerous intensive care interventions, burn patients are particularly at risk for infection. STUDY DESIGN: systematic review METHODS: A systematic review of German and English literature between 1990 and 2018 analyzes the epidemiological and diagnostic aspects as well as the therapeutic use of antibiotics in infections of burn patients in clinical trials...
February 14, 2019: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
F A Guardiola, M Mabrok, M Machado, R Azeredo, A Afonso, M A Esteban, B Costas
Tenacibaculosis, caused by Tenacibaculum maritimum, continues to inflict substantial losses among cultured marine species, particularly in the Senegalese sole. However, the immune mechanisms in fish involved in fighting against this disease are still poorly understood. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the skin mucus's terminal carbohydrate composition, several immune-related enzymes (i.e. lysozyme, peroxidase, proteases and antiproteases), the haemolytic activity of complement and the bactericidal activity in the skin mucus and plasma of the Senegalese sole in a time-course study following a bath challenge with T...
February 11, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Elizabeth A Blakeway, Noha Elshimy, Andrew Muinonen-Martin, Maria Marples, Bipin Mathew, Angana Mitra
Checkpoint blockade immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of advanced melanoma, with impressive survival benefits attained through upregulation of the anticancer immune response. Blockade of regulatory checkpoint molecules can, however, also result in aberrant immune activation leading to undesirable inflammation and autoimmunity. Although many genetic determinants have been described in patients with primary autoimmune diseases, it is uncertain whether patients developing autoimmune skin disease as an adverse effect of anti-PD-1 therapy share the same genetic risks...
February 11, 2019: Melanoma Research
Kiran Polavarapu, Veeramani Preethish-Kumar, Seena Vengalil, Saraswati Nashi, Mallika Lavania, Kajari Bhattacharya, Anita Mahadevan, T Chickabasaviah Yasha, Jitender Saini, Utpal Sengupta, Shumyla Jabeen, B N Nandeesh, Itu Singh, Niranjan P Mahajan, Pradeep Reddy, Gareth J Parry, Atchayaram Nalini
Neurotropism and infiltration by Mycobacterium leprae of peripheral nerves causing neuropathy are well established, but reports of central nervous system (CNS) damage are exceptional. We report CNS magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities of the brain and spinal cord as well as lesions in nerve roots and plexus in leprosy patients. Eight patients aged between 17 and 41 years underwent detailed clinical, histopathological, and MRI evaluation. All had prominent sensory-motor deficits with hypopigmented and hypo/anesthetic skin patches and thickened peripheral nerves...
February 11, 2019: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Takamasa Watanabe, Yoshiaki Yamamoto, Maki Miura, Hiroyuki Konno, Shigekazu Yano, Yoshimune Nonomura
Bacterial flora on the skin surface contains Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) which causes rough skin and atopic dermatitis and enhances innate immunity, respectively. In this study, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated for six saturated fatty acids and two unsaturated fatty acids against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. The antimicrobial behavior in the liquid medium was categorized into three groups. The first was the selective antibacterial activity group comprising myristic acid (C14:0 fatty acid), palmitoleic acid (C16:1 fatty acid), and oleic acid (C18:1 fatty acid) and preferentially displayed antimicrobial activity for S...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Oleo Science
Sreya Das, Srisathya Srinivasan, Ankita Srivastava, Sushant Kumar, Gargi Das, Suman Das, Alka Dwivedi, Atharva Karulkar, Khushi Makkad, Richa Bilala, Ankit Gupta, Abhijeet Sawant, Chitra Nayak, Prakriti Tayalia, Rahul Purwar
T cells mediate skin immune surveillance by secreting specific cytokines and regulate numerous functions of keratinocytes, including migration during homeostasis and disease pathogenesis. Keratinocyte migration is mediated mainly by proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular matrix and/or by cytoskeleton reorganization. However, the cross-talk between T cell cytokines and actomyosin machinery of human primary keratinocytes (HPKs), which is required for cytoskeleton reorganization and subsequent migration, remains poorly examined...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Nikola Hodkovicova, Livia Chmelova, Pavla Sehonova, Jana Blahova, Veronika Doubkova, Lucie Plhalova, Emma Fiorino, Libor Vojtek, Monika Vicenova, Zuzana Siroka, Vladimira Enevova, Radka Dobsikova, Martin Faldyna, Zdenka Svobodova, Caterina Faggio
Formalin is commonly used as a component of antiparasitic baths in fisheries. In this study the impact of this bath on the immune profile and oxidative stress parameters was evaluated. A formalin bath was prepared in the concentration of 185.3 mg L-1 (0.17 mL L-1 ) at a temperature of 20 °C. A total of 96 common carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) individuals were immersed in this bath for 60 min. The effects were monitored immediately, and then after 24, 48 h and 10 days following the treatment...
February 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Nanette B Silverberg
Warts are superficial viral infections of the skin that are extremely common in children. The infection usually lasts more than 1 year and can be moderately contagious in specific settings; for instance, warts are particularly common and spread more easily in the setting of atopic dermatitis, a chronic, itchy pediatric skin condition caused by barrier and immune defects. Therapies for pediatric warts are characterized according to 6 major categories: destructive; immune stimulating; immune modulating, including normalization of epithelial growth; vascular destructive; irritant; and nitric oxide releasing...
January 2019: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
M K Khan, M N Islam, J Ferdous, M M Alam
Tuberculosis (TB) is a progressive granulomatous infectious disease caused by the gram positive, acid fast bacilli classified under the genus Mycobacterium. Tuberculosis in human is mostly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and primarily affects lungs causing pulmonary tuberculosis. It can also affect intestine, meninges, bones, joints, lymph nodes, skin and other tissues of the body causing extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. Human TB is transmitted mainly through droplet infection and droplet nuclei. Infection of human with M...
January 2019: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Hong-Chun Xiang, Li-Xue Lin, Xue-Fei Hu, He Zhu, Hong-Ping Li, Ru-Yue Zhang, Liang Hu, Wen-Tao Liu, Yi-Lin Zhao, Yang Shu, Hui-Lin Pan, Man Li
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a major clinical problem with limited treatment options. Previous studies have demonstrated that activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) can attenuate neuropathic pain. Inflammation/immune response at the site of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection is known to be a critical trigger of the pathological changes that produce inflammatory pain. However, whether activation of AMPK produces an analgesic effect through inhibiting the proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), in inflammatory pain remains unknown...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Kelly G Paulson, Miranda Lahman, Aude G Chapuis, Isaac Brownell
Among all tumor types, skin cancers are profoundly sensitive to immunotherapy. Indeed, the recently reported response rates for anti-PD-1 (anti-programmed-death 1) therapy for cutaneous malignant melanomas (MM), Merkel cell carcinomas, basal cell carcinomas, cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas and Kaposi sarcomas are all above 40%. This unique immunogenicity renders skin cancers as a paradigm for tumor-immune interactions and is driven by high mutational burdens, overexpressed tumor antigens and/or viral antigens...
February 8, 2019: International Immunology
Obdulio García-Nicolás, Marta Lewandowska, Meret E Ricklin, Artur Summerfield
Several mosquito-borne Flaviviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Dengue Virus (DENV), and Zika virus (ZIKV) can cause severe clinical disease. Being zoonotic, Flaviviruses infect a wide variety of terrestrial vertebrates, which dependent of the virus-host interactions, can enhance ongoing epidemics and maintain the virus in the environment for prolonged periods. Targeted species can vary from amphibians, birds to various mammals, dependent on the virus. For many mosquito-borne flaviviruses the spectrum of targeted species is incompletely understood, in particular with respect to their contribution to the maintenance of virus in certain geographical regions...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Alexandra Audemard-Verger, Evangéline Pillebout, Agnès Jamin, Laureline Berthelot, Cédric Aufray, Bruno Martin, Aurélie Sannier, Eric Daugas, Julie Déchanet-Merville, Yolande Richard, Renato Monteiro, Bruno Lucas
OBJECTIVES: Adult immunoglobulin A vasculitis (IgAV) is an immune complex small vessel vasculitis. So far, the involvement of T cells in this pathology has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to analyze T-cell homeostasis as well as cytokine and chemokine concentrations in the blood and tissues of IgAV patients. METHODS: T cells, cytokine and chemokine concentrations were analyzed in peripheral blood using flow cytometry and multiplex assays. T-cell infiltrates in the kidney and the skin were characterized by immunohistochemistry...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Autoimmunity
Simona-Roxana Georgescu, Mircea Tampa, Constantin Caruntu, Maria-Isabela Sarbu, Cristina-Iulia Mitran, Madalina-Irina Mitran, Clara Matei, Carolina Constantin, Monica Neagu
Psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory, polygenic skin disorder affecting approximately 2% of the population. It has a great impact on quality of life; patients often experience depression, anxiety, stigma as well as suicidal behavior. Even though psoriasis is one of the most studied dermatological conditions, the pathogenesis of the disease is still not completely elucidated. The complex interactions between keratinocytes, dendritic cells, T-lymphocytes, neutrophils and mast cells are responsible for the histopathological changes seen in psoriasis...
February 10, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jianhua Dou, Jinrong Zeng, Kathy Wu, Wenbin Tan, Lihua Gao, Jianyun Lu
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, non-contagious, inflammatory skin disorder characterized by relapsing eczematous lesions. Its pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. The current evidence has emerged to show that skin and gut microbiome play critical roles in the pathogenesis and progression of AD. Skin mircrobiome mainly refers to skin commensal organisms that promote normal immune system functions and prevent the colonization of pathogens; while gut microbiome can modulate immunologic, metabolic and neuroendocrine functions...
February 8, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
Jose U Scher, Alexis Ogdie, Joseph F Merola, Christopher Ritchlin
Psoriasis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases, affecting 3% of the world's population, and approximately one-third of patients with psoriasis will eventually transition to having psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The evolution from cutaneous to synovio-entheseal inflammation in these patients presents an opportunity to investigate the critical events linked to arthritis development. The events responsible for progression to PsA are currently unclear. Genetic and clinical-demographic risk factors (most notably familial aggregation and psoriasis sub-phenotypes) provide relevant insights into the variables that promote transition...
February 11, 2019: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
Simone L Park, Anthony Buzzai, Jai Rautela, Jyh Liang Hor, Katharina Hochheiser, Maike Effern, Nathan McBain, Teagan Wagner, Jarem Edwards, Robyn McConville, James S Wilmott, Richard A Scolyer, Thomas Tüting, Umaimainthan Palendira, David Gyorki, Scott N Mueller, Nicholas D Huntington, Sammy Bedoui, Michael Hölzel, Laura K Mackay, Jason Waithman, Thomas Gebhardt
Panel j was inadvertently labelled as panel k in the caption to Fig. 4. Similarly, 'Fig. 4k' should have been 'Fig. 4j' in the sentence beginning 'TNF-α-deficient gBT-I cells were…'. In addition, the surname of author Umaimainthan Palendira was misspelled 'Palendria'. These errors have been corrected online.
February 11, 2019: Nature
Agam Jain, Rakesh Lodha
Tuberculosis (TB), once widely prevalent throughout the world, experienced falling incidence rates in early twentieth century in developed nations, even before the introduction of anti-TB drugs, attributed to improved hygiene and living conditions. Active TB may develop following fresh infection or activation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). LTBI is a state of persistent bacterial viability, however, the host stays asymptomatic and there is no evidence of clinically active tuberculosis. Therefore, treatment of all LTBI is considered as one of the ways to control tuberculosis...
February 11, 2019: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Tamaho Suzuki, Hanako Tajima, Makoto Migita, Ruby Pawankar, Takeshi Yanagihara, Atsushi Fujita, Yoshio Shima, Emi Yanai, Yasuhiko Katsube
Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (AED) is a rare hereditary disorder with a triad of sparse hair, dental hypoplasia, and anhidrosis. Here we report a case of AED with food allergy and atopic eczema. The patient was a 11-month-old boy admitted to our hospital with pyrexia for 2 weeks. He presented with a history of dry skin, eczema, and food allergy to egg. On clinical examination, his body temperature was 38.8°C, with dry skin and eczema almost all over the body, sparse eyebrows, and scalp hair. Laboratory investigations and physical examination did not show any evidence of infection...
January 2019: Asia Pacific Allergy
Romy E Hoeppli, Anne M Pesenacker
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are believed to be dysfunctional in autoimmunity. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) result from a loss of normal immune regulation in specific tissues such as joints or muscle and skin, respectively. Here, we discuss recent findings in regard to Treg biology in oligo-/polyarticular JIA and JDM, as well as what we can learn about Treg-related disease mechanism, treatment and biomarkers in JIA/JDM from studies of other diseases. We explore the potential use of Treg immunoregulatory markers and gene signatures as biomarkers for disease course and/or treatment success...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
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