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B cell memory

Yanqiu Han, Shanji Nan, Jia Fan, Qiuhui Chen, Yizhi Zhang
Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide (IOPS) was initially separated and purified via precipitation from an aqueous extract with 80% alcohol, a DEAE-52 cellulose anion exchange column, and a Sephadex G-100 gel permeation chromatography system. IOPS was found to have a molecular weight of 111.9 kDa. In L-glutamic acid (L-Glu)-damaged HT22 cells, a 3-h pre-incubation with IOPS enhanced cell viability, inhibited apoptosis and caspase-3 activity, reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase, restored the dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential, and suppressed the excess accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species...
March 13, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Biswanath Dinda, Manikarna Dinda, Goutam Kulsi, Ankita Chakraborty, Subhajit Dinda
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorders, affecting several millions of aged people globally. Among these disorders, AD is more severe, affecting about 7% of individuals aged 65 and above. AD is primarily a dementia-related disorder from progressive cognitive deterioration and memory impairment, while PD is primarily a movement disorder illness having three major kinesia or movement disorder symptoms, bradykinesia (slowness of movements), hypokinesia (reduction of movement amplitude), and akinesia (absence of normal unconscious movements) along with muscle rigidity and tremor at rest...
March 8, 2019: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Jossef F Osborn, Samuel J Hobbs, Jana L Mooster, Tahsin N Khan, Augustus M Kilgore, Jake C Harbour, Jeffrey C Nolz
Memory CD8+ T cells in the circulation rapidly infiltrate non-lymphoid tissues following infection and provide protective immunity in an antigen-specific manner. However, the subsequent fate of memory CD8+ T cells after entering non-lymphoid tissues such as the skin during a secondary infection is largely unknown. Furthermore, because expression of CD62L is often used to identify the central memory (TCM) CD8+ T cell subset, uncoupling the physical requirement for CD62L-mediated lymph node homing versus other functional attributes of TCM CD8+ T cells remains unresolved...
March 2019: PLoS Pathogens
Zurong Wan, Yihan Lin, Yongshan Zhao, Hai Qi
Follicular T-helper (TFH ) cells play a crucial role in three aspects of the germinal center (GC) response. They promote GC formation, arbitrate competition among GC B cells to determine the outcome of affinity maturation, and regulate GC output of memory and plasma cells to shape the long-lived humoral immune memory. Of fundamental importance are dynamic physical interactions between TFH and B cells, which are the main platform for TFH cells to deliver "help" factors to B cells and also for reciprocal signaling from B cells to maintain the helper state of TFH cells...
March 2019: Immunological Reviews
James J Knox, Arpita Myles, Michael P Cancro
B cells expressing the transcription factor T-bet have emerged as participants in a number of protective and pathogenic immune responses. T-bet+ B cells characteristically differentiate in response to combined Toll-like receptor and cytokine signaling, contribute to protective immunity against intracellular pathogens via IgG2a/c production and antibody-independent mechanisms, and are prone to produce autoantibodies. Despite recent advances, a number of questions remain regarding the basic biology of T-bet+ B cells and their functional niche within the immune system...
March 2019: Immunological Reviews
Mark J Shlomchik, Wei Luo, Florian Weisel
Germinal centers (GC) are sites of rapid B-cell proliferation in response to certain types of immunization. They arise in about 1 week and can persist for several months. In GCs, B cells differentiate in a unique way and begin to undergo somatic mutation of the Ig V regions at a high rate. GC B cells (GCBC) thus undergo clonal diversification that can affect the affinity of the newly mutant B-cell receptor (BCR) for its driving antigen. Through processes that are still poorly understood, GCBC with higher affinity are selectively expanded while those with mutations that inactivate the BCR are lost...
March 2019: Immunological Reviews
Yan Zhang, Kim L Good-Jacobson
The humoral immune response requires coordination of molecular programs to mediate differentiation into unique B cell subsets that help clear the infection and form immune memory. Epigenetic modifications are crucial for ensuring that the appropriate genes are transcribed or repressed during B cell differentiation. Recent studies have illuminated the changes in DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications that accompany the formation of germinal center and antibody-secreting cells during an immune response...
March 2019: Immunological Reviews
Wenzhi Song, Joe Craft
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells play a crucial role in orchestrating the humoral arm of adaptive immune responses. Mature Tfh cells localize to follicles in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) where they provide help to B cells in germinal centers (GCs) to facilitate immunoglobulin affinity maturation, class-switch recombination, and generation of long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells. Beyond the canonical GC Tfh cells, it has been increasingly appreciated that the Tfh phenotype is highly diverse and dynamic...
March 2019: Immunological Reviews
Judith-Irina Buchheim, Sandra Matzel, Marina Rykova, Galina Vassilieva, Sergey Ponomarev, Igor Nichiporuk, Marion Hörl, Dominique Moser, Katharina Biere, Matthias Feuerecker, Gustav Schelling, Detlef Thieme, Ines Kaufmann, Manfred Thiel, Alexander Choukèr
Space flight exerts a specific conglomerate of stressors on humans that can modulate the immune system. The mechanism remains to be elucidated and the consequences for cosmonauts in the long term are unclear. Most of the current research stems from short-term spaceflights as well as pre- and post-flight analyses due to operational limitations. Immune function of 12 cosmonauts participating in a long-duration (>140 days) spaceflight mission was monitored pre-, post-, and on two time-points in-flight. While the classical markers for stress such as cortisol in saliva where not significantly altered, blood concentrations of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) were found to be highly increased in-flight indicating a biological stress response...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Jooeun Bae, Mehmet Samur, Paul Richardson, Nikhil C Munshi, Kenneth C Anderson
To expand the breadth and extent of current multiple myeloma (MM)-specific immunotherapy, we have identified various antigens on CD138+ tumor cells from newly diagnosed MM patients (n = 616) and confirmed B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) as a key myeloma-associated antigen. The aim of this study is to target the BCMA, which promotes MM cell growth and survival, by generating BCMA-specific memory CD8+ CTL that mediate effective and long-lasting immunity against MM. Here we report the identification of novel engineered peptides specific to BCMA, BCMA72-80 (YLMFLLRKI), and BCMA54-62 (YILWTCLGL), which display improved affinity/stability to HLA-A2 compared to their native peptides and induce highly functional BCMA-specific CTL with increased activation (CD38, CD69) and co-stimulatory (CD40L, OX40, GITR) molecule expression...
March 12, 2019: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
S Garfias, B Tamaya Domínguez, A Toledo Rojas, M Arroyo, U Rodríguez, C Boll, A L Sosa, E Sciutto, L Adalid-Peralta, Y Martinez López, G Fragoso, A Fleury
INTRODUCTION: Neuroinflammation is involved in the pathophysiology of various neurological disorders, in particular Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Alterations in the blood-brain barrier may allow peripheral blood lymphocytes to enter the central nervous system; these may participate in disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the peripheral blood lymphocyte profiles of patients with AD and PD and their association with the disease and its progression...
March 11, 2019: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Graciela Andrei, Erika Trompet, Robert Snoeck
Epstein⁻Barr virus (EBV) is a human γ-herpesvirus that infects up to 95% of the adult population. Primary EBV infection usually occurs during childhood and is generally asymptomatic, though the virus can cause infectious mononucleosis in 35⁻50% of the cases when infection occurs later in life. EBV infects mainly B-cells and epithelial cells, establishing latency in resting memory B-cells and possibly also in epithelial cells. EBV is recognized as an oncogenic virus but in immunocompetent hosts, EBV reactivation is controlled by the immune response preventing transformation in vivo...
March 12, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Virginia Protto, Marzia Soligo, Maria Egle De Stefano, Stefano Farioli-Vecchioli, Lionel N J L Marlier, Robert Nisticò, Luigi Manni
Diabetes induces early sufferance in the cholinergic septo-hippocampal system, characterized by deficits in learning and memory, reduced hippocampal plasticity and abnormal pro-nerve growth factor (proNGF) release from hippocampal cells, all linked to dysfunctions in the muscarinic cholinergic modulation of hippocampal physiology. These alterations are associated with dysregulation of several cholinergic markers, such as the NGF receptor system and the acetylcholine biosynthetic enzyme choline-acetyl transferase (ChAT), in the medial septum and its target, the hippocampus...
March 14, 2019: Hippocampus
Linhua Zhang, Shengjie Wu, Yu Qin, Fan Fan, Zhiming Zhang, Chenlu Huang, Weihang Ji, Lu Lu, Chun Wang, Hongfan Sun, Xigang Leng, Deling Kong, Dunwan Zhu
Among approaches of current cancer immunotherapy, dendritic cells (DCs)-targeted vaccine based on nanotechnology could be a promising way to efficiently induce potent immune responses. To enhance DCs targeting and vaccine efficiency, we included Imiquimod (IMQ), a toll-like receptor 7/8 (TLR 7/8) agonist and Monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPLA), a TLR4 agonist to synthesize lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles using PCL-PEG-PCL and DOTAP (IMNPs) as well as DSPE-PEG-mannose (MAN-IMNPS). The spatio-temporal delivery of MPLA (within outer lipid layer) to extracellular TLR4 and IMQ (in the hydrophobic core of NPs) to intracellular TLR7/8 can activate DCs synergistically to improve vaccine efficacy...
March 14, 2019: Nano Letters
Gonzalo R Acevedo, Paula B Alcaráz, Clemencia Pinilla, Karina A Gómez
Human CD8+ and CD4+ T cell lines and clones are valuable tools to explore the role of these cells in the context of diseases, especially in cases in which the main underlying actor is the immune response, like Chagas disease. These cell lines and clones provide a good experimental system to address the phenotypic and functional features of specific T cell subpopulations and furthermore settle the framework necessary for analyzing their antigen/peptide specificity.This chapter details a culture method for the establishment of T...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mieszko M Wilk, Lisa Borkner, Alicja Misiak, Lucy Curham, Aideen C Allen, Kingston H G Mills
Protective immunity wanes rapidly after immunization of children with acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines and these vaccines do not prevent nasal colonization or transmission of Bordetella pertussis in baboons. In this study, we examined the role of tissue-resident memory T (TRM ) cells in persistent protective immunity induced by infection or immunization with aP and whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines in mice. Immunization of mice with a wP vaccine protected against lung and nasal colonization, whereas an aP vaccine failed to protect in the nose...
2019: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Friederike V Rabiger, Doris Bismarck, Martina Protschka, Gabriele Köhler, Peter F Moore, Mathias Büttner, Heiner von Buttlar, Gottfried Alber, Maria Eschke
Canine CD4+CD8α+ double-positive (dp) T cells of peripheral blood are a unique effector memory T cell subpopulation characterized by an increased expression of activation markers in comparison with conventional CD4+ or CD8α+ single-positive (sp) T cells. In this study, we investigated CD4+CD8α+ dp T cells in secondary lymphatic organs (i.e. mesenteric and tracheobronchial lymph nodes, spleen, Peyer's patches) and non-lymphatic tissues (i.e. lung and epithelium of the small intestine) within a homogeneous group of healthy Beagle dogs by multi-color flow cytometry...
2019: PloS One
Ryo Hisada, Masaru Kato, Eri Sugawara, Masatoshi Kanda, Yuichiro Fujieda, Kenji Oku, Toshiyuki Bohgaki, Olga Amengual, Tetsuya Horita, Shinsuke Yasuda, Tatsuya Atsumi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are pathogenic autoantibodies in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). This study aimed to clarify the mechanism of aPL production. METHODS: T cell and B cell subsets were evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 26 primary APS (PAPS), 19 systemic lupus erythematosus-associated APS (SLE/APS) patients and 10 healthy controls. SLE or APS-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were analysed in those patients...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Mary M Tomayko, David Allman
In many ways, memory B cells represent the ultimate outcome of humoral immunity. Many of these cells express exceptionally high affinity antigen-specific B cell receptors for antigen, and these cells are a critical source of the long-lived plasma cells that secrete protective serum antibodies to protect against secondary exposure to pathogens and other life-threatening antigens. Evidence is now emerging that not all memory B cells are created via the same cellular pathways and molecular events. Similarly, it is becoming clear that different memory B cells can take on different functions, with some producing IgM rather than IgG antibodies upon reactivation, and others preferentially producing plasma cells rather than additional waves of memory B cells...
March 9, 2019: Current Opinion in Immunology
Philip R Cohen, Christopher P Erickson, Antoanella Calame
Painful tumors of the skin present as dermal or subcutaneous nodules. They can originate from several sources: adipose tissue, cartilage degeneration, deposition of bone or calcium, eccrine glands, fibrous tissue, infiltration of benign (endometrium) or malignant (metastatic neoplasm) tissue, muscle, nerve, or vascular structures. Although pathologic evaluation of the lesion is necessary to determine the diagnosis, it is possible to make a reasonable differential diagnosis based on knowledge of prior tumors that have appeared as tender lesions...
2019: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
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