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Daria Antonenko, Dayana Hayek, Justus Netzband, Ulrike Grittner, Agnes Flöel
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) augments training-induced cognitive gains, an issue of particular relevance in the aging population. However, negative outcomes have been reported as well, and few studies so far have evaluated the impact of tDCS on episodic memory formation in elderly cohorts. The heterogeneity of previous findings highlights the importance of elucidating neuronal underpinnings of tDCS-induced modulations, and of determining individual predictors of a positive response. In the present study, we aimed to modulate episodic memory formation in 34 older adults with anodal tDCS (1 mA, 20 min) over left temporoparietal cortex...
February 19, 2019: Scientific Reports
Talya Sadeh, Janice Chen, Yonatan Goshen-Gottstein, Morris Moscovitch
It is well-established that whether the information will be remembered or not depends on the extent to which the learning context is reinstated during post-encoding rest and/or at retrieval. It has yet to be determined, however, if the fundamental importance of contextual reinstatement to memory extends to periods of spontaneous neurocognitive activity prior to learning. We thus asked whether memory performance can be predicted by the extent to which spontaneous pre-encoding neural patterns resemble patterns elicited during encoding...
February 19, 2019: Hippocampus
Matthew A Scult, David M Fresco, Faith M Gunning, Conor Liston, Saren H Seeley, Emmanuel García, Douglas S Mennin
Emotion regulation therapy (ERT) is an efficacious treatment for distress disorders (i.e., depression and anxiety), predicated on a conceptual model wherein difficult to treat distress arises from intense emotionality (e.g., neuroticism, dispositional negativity) and is prolonged by negative self-referentiality (e.g., worry, rumination). Individuals with distress disorders exhibit disruptions in two corresponding brain networks including the salience network (SN) reflecting emotion/motivation and the default mode network (DMN) reflecting self-referentiality...
2019: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Kailin Zhang, Yan Tang, Li Meng, Liping Zhu, Xiaoting Zhou, Yuwen Zhao, Xinxiang Yan, Beisha Tang, Jifeng Guo
The pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not well established. The rs894278 polymorphism of SNCA has been associated with PD. We performed this study to investigate the relationship between rs894278 and PD status on resting-state brain activity, by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF). A total of 81 PD patients and 64 healthy controls were recruited. Disease severity and PD stage were evaluated in PD patients using the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) and the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) scale, while the cognitive function of all participants was assessed using the mini-mental state examination (MMSE)...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Chandler Sours Rhodes, Hao Zhang, Kruti Patel, Nilesh Mistry, Young Kwok, Warren D D'Souza, William F Regine, Rao P Gullapalli
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) presents the ability to selectively protect functionally significant regions of the brain when primary brain tumors are treated with radiation therapy. Previous research has focused on task-based fMRI of language and sensory networks; however, there has been limited investigation on the inclusion of resting-state fMRI into the design of radiation treatment plans. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this pilot study of 9 patients with primary brain tumors, functional data from the default mode network (DMN), a network supporting cognitive functioning, was obtained from resting-state fMRI and retrospectively incorporated into the design of radiation treatment plans...
March 2019: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences
Milanka M Visser, Bénédicte Maréchal, Peter Goodin, Thomas P Lillicrap, Carlos Garcia-Esperon, Neil J Spratt, Mark W Parsons, Christopher R Levi, Andrew Bivard
Background and Purpose- Poststroke fatigue affects a large proportion of stroke survivors and is associated with a poor quality of life. In a recent trial, modafinil was shown to be an effective agent in reducing poststroke fatigue; however, not all patients reported a significant decrease in fatigue with therapy. We sought to investigate clinical and radiological predictors of fatigue reduction with modafinil therapy in a stroke survivor cohort. Methods- Twenty-six participants with severe fatigue (multidimensional fatigue inventory-20 ≥60) underwent magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and during the last week of a 6-week treatment period of 200 mg modafinil taken daily...
February 19, 2019: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Jie Fan, Ivy F Tso, Daniel F Maixner, Tessa Abagis, Luis Hernandez-Garcia, Stephan F Taylor
BACKGROUND: The present study tested the hypothesis that network segregation, a graph theoretic measure of functional organization of the brain, is correlated with treatment response in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) undergoing repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). METHODS: Network segregation, calculated from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans, was measured in 32 patients with MDD who entered a sham-controlled, double-blinded, randomized trial of rTMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and a cohort of 20 healthy controls (HCs)...
February 13, 2019: NeuroImage: Clinical
Shreyas Harita, Gabriela Ioachim, Jocelyn Powers, Patrick W Stroman
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has been used to investigate networks within the cortex and has also provided some insight into the networks present in the brainstem (BS) and spinal cord (SC). The purpose of this study was to investigate resting-state blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) fluctuations in the BS/SC and to identify resting-state networks (RSNs) across these regions. Resting-state BOLD fMRI data were obtained from the entire BS and cervical SC in 16 healthy participants, at 3 T, with T2 -weighted single-shot fast spin-echo imaging...
February 15, 2019: Neuroscience
A Demertzi, E Tagliazucchi, S Dehaene, G Deco, P Barttfeld, F Raimondo, C Martial, D Fernández-Espejo, B Rohaut, H U Voss, N D Schiff, A M Owen, S Laureys, L Naccache, J D Sitt
Adopting the framework of brain dynamics as a cornerstone of human consciousness, we determined whether dynamic signal coordination provides specific and generalizable patterns pertaining to conscious and unconscious states after brain damage. A dynamic pattern of coordinated and anticoordinated functional magnetic resonance imaging signals characterized healthy individuals and minimally conscious patients. The brains of unresponsive patients showed primarily a pattern of low interareal phase coherence mainly mediated by structural connectivity, and had smaller chances to transition between patterns...
February 2019: Science Advances
Vatika Harlalka, Raju S Bapi, P K Vinod, Dipanjan Roy
Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) analyses have shown atypical connectivity in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as compared to typically developing (TD). However, this view emerges from investigating static FC overlooking the whole brain transient connectivity patterns. In our study, we investigated how age and disease influence the dynamic changes in functional connectivity of TD and ASD. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data stratified into three cohorts: children (7-11 years), adolescents (12-17 years), and adults (18+ years) for the analysis...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
An-Feng Xiang, Hui Liu, Sheng Liu, Xue-Yong Shen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the attributes of responses of the higher nerve center to acupuncture stimulation of Zusanli (ST36) on the basis of spontaneous brain activity, so as to explore the synchronization level of different brain rejoins after acupuncture. METHODS: All studies using fMRI to investigate the effect of acupuncture stimulation of ST36 and/or other acupoints on the human brain (at least 10 healthy subjects or patients in one group) published in journals from January of 1995 to January of 2018 were searched from databases of CNKI and PubMed by using keywords of acupuncture, electroacupuncture, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance images (rs-fMRI) or regional homogeneity (ReHo)...
January 25, 2019: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Raimon H R Pruim, Christian F Beckmann, Marianne Oldehinkel, Jaap Oosterlaan, Dirk Heslenfeld, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Stephen V Faraone, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Maarten Mennes
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder, putatively induced by dissociable dysfunctional biobehavioral pathways. Here, we present a proof-of-concept study to parse ADHD-related heterogeneity in its underlying neurobiology by investigating functional connectivity across multiple brain networks to 1) disentangle categorical diagnosis-related effects from dimensional behavior-related effects and 2) functionally map these neural correlates to neurocognitive measures...
December 20, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Xiao Wang, Wei Liao, Shaoqiang Han, Jiao Li, Yan Zhang, Jingping Zhao, Huafu Chen
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe neuropsychiatric disease associated with dysfunction of brain regions and networks. Recent, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have determined that the global signal (GS) is an important source of the local neuronal activity. However, the dynamics of this effect in SCZ remains unknown. To address this issue, 39 drug-naive patients with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and 31 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state fMRI scans...
February 14, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Chao Zhang, Haiyan Zhang, Kai Xu, Hongyu Yang, Chang Liu, Tao Yu, Nan Chen, Kuncheng Li
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess structural and functional connectivity alterations of the prefrontal cortex (PFC)-thalamus axis in individuals with unilateral intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) showing executive control function (ECF) impairment and to explore the potential mechanism. METHODS: Thirty-eight individuals with intractable left TLE and twenty-nine healthy controls (HCs) were recruited for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) scanning...
January 18, 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Silvia Erika Kober, Doris Grössinger, Guilherme Wood
Motor imagery of movements is used as mental strategy in neurofeedback applications to gain voluntary control over activity in motor areas of the brain. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we first addressed the question whether motor imagery and execution of swallowing activate comparable brain areas, which has been already proven for hand and foot movements. Prior near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) studies provide evidence that this is the case in the outer layer of the cortex...
February 15, 2019: Dysphagia
Laurel S Morris, Prantik Kundu, Sara Costi, Abigail Collins, Molly Schneider, Gaurav Verma, Priti Balchandani, James W Murrough
Ultra-high field 7-Tesla (7 T) MRI has the potential to advance our understanding of neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD). To date, few studies have quantified the advantage of resting state functional MRI (fMRI) at 7 T compared to 3-Tesla (3 T). We conducted a series of experiments that demonstrate the improvement in temporal signal-to-noise ratio (TSNR) of a multi-echo multi-band fMRI protocol with ultra-high field 7 T MRI, compared to a similar protocol using 3 T MRI in healthy controls (HC)...
February 15, 2019: Translational Psychiatry
Furong Zhu, Yi Liu, Feng Liu, Ru Yang, Huabing Li, Jindong Chen, David N Kennedy, Jingping Zhao, Wenbin Guo
Disrupted functional asymmetry has been implicated in schizophrenia. However, it remains unknown whether disrupted functional asymmetry originates from intra-hemispheric and/or inter-hemispheric functional connectivity (FC) in the patients, and whether it starts at very early stage of psychosis. Seventy-six patients with first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia, 74 subjects at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR), and 71 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The 'Parameter of asymmetry' (PAS) metric was calculated and support vector machine (SVM) classification analysis was applied to analyze the data...
February 12, 2019: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Jingjing Xu, Minming Zhang
PURPOSE: To determine the association between functional connectivity (FC) of functional-segmented anterior and posterior portions of the hippocampus and performance on verbal and visual memory tests in a young, healthy population. METHODS: We recruited 100 healthy participants in the age of 19-29. Resting state fMRI data were acquired and voxel-wise correlation analysis was performed to functionally divide the hippocampus. We investigated the inter-hemispheric hippocampal-cortical functional connectivity after the participants took the assessment of episodic memory using verbal (California Verbal Learning Test II, CVLT-II) and visual subtests (Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, ROCF)...
February 12, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Gail A Bernstein, Kathryn R Cullen, Elizabeth C Harris, Christine A Conelea, Alexandra D Zagoloff, Patricia A Carstedt, Susanne S Lee, Bryon A Mueller
OBJECTIVE: Foundational knowledge on neural circuitry underlying pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and how it changes during standard treatment is needed to provide the basis for conceptualization and development of novel, targeted treatments. This study explored the effects of sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical circuits in pediatric OCD. METHOD: Medication-free youths with OCD (n=14) and healthy controls (n=14) were examined at baseline and 12 weeks with resting-state fMRI...
October 30, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Jatin G Vaidya, Alexis L Elmore, Alexander Wallace, Douglas R Langbehn, John R Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, Daniel S O'Leary
OBJECTIVE: Youth with a family history of alcohol use disorder (family history positive; FHP) are at increased risk for developing maladaptive substance use relative to family history negative (FHN) peers. Building on earlier studies demonstrating morphological differences and distinct patterns of neural activation in FHP, the purpose of the present study was to investigate differential intrinsic functional connectivity among brain networks indexing premorbid risk of developing alcohol use disorder (AUD)...
February 13, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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