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Feng Han, Sining Yun, Chen Zhang, Hongfei Xu, Ziqi Wang
Accelerants can effectively enhance the performance of anaerobic digestion (AD) system. The effects of optimized steel slag as accelerant in the AD of cow manure and the fertility utilization of the digestate were investigated. Results show that all steel slags collected from different iron and steel companies (slag-1, slag-2, and slag-3) positively affect AD performance in terms of enhancing the biogas yield, methane yield, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation rate. The cumulative biogas yield, methane yield, and COD degradation rate of slag-2 are 507...
March 7, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Dan Zhang, Na Li, Yuanyuan Wang, Wenbin Lu, Yongyan Zhang, Yuanjie Chen, Xiaoming Deng, Xiya Yu
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is one of the most common complications after surgery. Accumulating evidence suggests that postoperative neuro-inflammation plays a critical role in the mechanism of POCD. Recently, exogenous methane is reported to have anti-inflammatory properties and play a neuro-protective role in acute carbon monoxide poisoning injury. Therefore, we investigated the protective effect of methane on a POCD model induced by abdominal surgery and its underlying mechanism in aged mice...
March 13, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
Rubén Torres, Ester Serrano, Kristina Tramm, Juan C Alonso
Bacillus subtilis radA is epistatic to disA and recA genes in response to methyl methane sulfonate- and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced DNA damage. We show that ΔradA cells were sensitive to mitomycin C- and H2 O2 -induced damage and impaired in natural chromosomal transformation, whereas cells lacking DisA were not. RadA/Sms mutants in the conserved H1 (K104A and K104R) or KNRFG (K255A and K255R) motifs fail to rescue the sensitivity of ΔradA in response to the four different DNA damaging agents. A RadA/Sms H1 or KNRFG mutation impairs both chromosomal and plasmid transformation, but the latter defect was suppressed by inactivating RecA...
March 4, 2019: DNA Repair
Rimika Kapoor, Pooja Ghosh, Madan Kumar, Virendra Kumar Vijay
Biogas is acknowledged as one of the foremost bioenergy to address the current environmental and energy challenges being faced by the world. Commonly, biogas is used for applications like cooking, lighting, heat and power production. To widen the scope of biogas application, like transportation, natural gas grid injection and substrate for the production of chemicals and fuel cells, mainly CO2 , H2 S and other impurities need to be removed by various upgrading technologies. It is an important process to produce biomethane with above 90% methane...
March 15, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Pedro C Brauner, Wolfgang Schipprack, H Friedrich Utz, Eva Bauer, Manfred Mayer, Chris-Carolin Schön, Albrecht E Melchinger
Selected doubled haploid lines averaged similar testcross performance as their original landraces, and the best of them approached the yields of elite inbreds, demonstrating their potential to broaden the narrow genetic diversity of the flint germplasm pool. Maize landraces represent a rich source of genetic diversity that remains largely idle because the high genetic load and performance gap to elite germplasm hamper their use in modern breeding programs. Production of doubled haploid (DH) lines can mitigate problems associated with the use of landraces in pre-breeding...
March 15, 2019: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Abdallah F Zedan, Amina S AlJaber
In this study, xCuO-CeO₂ mixed oxide catalysts (Cu weight ratio x = 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6 and 15 wt.%) were prepared using solution combustion synthesis (SCS) and their catalytic activities towards the methane (CH₄) oxidation reaction were studied. The combustion synthesis of the pure CeO₂ and the CuO-CeO₂ solid solution catalysts was performed using copper and/or cerium nitrate salt as an oxidizer and citric acid as a fuel. A variety of standard techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy were employed to reveal the microstructural, crystal, thermal and electronic properties that may affect the performance of CH₄ oxidation...
March 15, 2019: Materials
Xiang-Bo Yang, Wei-Long Meng, Meng-Jie Zhao, An-Xing Zhang, Wei Liu, Zhao-Shi Xu, Yun-Peng Wang, Jian Ma
A novel rice lesion mimic mutant (LMM) was isolated from the mutant population of Japonica rice cultivar Hitomebore generated by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) treatment. Compared with the wild-type (WT), the mutant, tentatively designated E40, developed necrotic lesions over the whole growth period along with detectable changes in several important agronomic traits including lower height, fewer tillers, lower yield, and premature death. To understand the molecular mechanism of mutation-induced phenotypic differences in E40, a proteomics-based approach was used to identify differentially accumulated proteins between E40 and WT...
March 14, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jakub Czarny, Agnieszka Piotrowska-Cyplik, Andrzej Lewicki, Agnieszka Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Łukasz Wolko, Natalia Galant, Anna Syguda, Paweł Cyplik
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of herbicidal ionic liquids on the population changes of microorganisms used in a batch anaerobic digester. The influence of the following ionic liquids: benzalkonium (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetate (BA)(2,4-D), benzalkonium (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetate (BA)(MCPA), didecyldimethylammonium (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetate (DDA)(2,4-D), didecyldimethylammonium (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetate (DDA)(MCPA), as well as reference herbicides (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA) and (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D) in the form of sodium salts on biogas production efficiency was investigated...
March 14, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mar Peña, Thiago do Nascimento, Joao Gouveia, Julián Escudero, Alicia Gómez, Alberto Letona, Javier Arrieta, Fernando Fdz-Polanco
A 496 L pilot scale anaerobic submerged membrane bioreactor (AnSMBR) for the treatment of municipal wastewater was evaluated during a year of stable operation at ambient (28-10 °C) temperature, and inoculated with mesophilic inoculum. The temperature was the main parameter affecting the process performance. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent was around 150 mg O2 /L in the summer period, operating with a volumetric loading rate (VLR) of 5 kg COD/m3 d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8-10 h, with a specific methane production between 0...
March 6, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Yifan Song, Qi Zhang
This paper presents a numerical model for simulating the progress of deposited dust explosion in the enclosed pipelines and the corresponding results. The model reveals the influence of the pipeline length-diameter ratio and the total amount of the deposited dust on the multiple explosions. In the enclosed pipelines with three different length-diameter (L/D) ratios: 50:1, 100:1 and 200:1, the gas explosion cannot spread to the end when igniting the local (7 vol. %) methane-air mixture. The two-phase explosion can be induced by the local gas explosion after adding the deposited coal dust...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Maria Gabriela Franco Lima, Laiane Corsini Rocha, Graciele Lurdes Silveira, Ingrid Fernanda Santana Alvarenga, Larissa Fonseca Andrade-Vieria
Pollution generated by deposition of industrial activity waste in the environment without due care can lead to serious environmental consequences. Bioassays in higher plants are means of understanding the cytogenotoxic effects of these substances. In the present work, Allium cepa L. was used as a model species to assess nucleolar changes induced by environmental pollutants. The substances used were Methyl Methane Sulfonate (MMS), cadmium (Cd), Spent Potliner (SPL) and the herbicide Atrazine. Water was used as a negative control...
March 12, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Feng Yang, Haofei Zhao, Xiaowei Wang, Xu Liu, Qidong Liu, Xiyan Liu, Chuanhong Jin, Rongming Wang, Yan Li
Catalyst design plays vital roles in the structurally relevant reactions. Revealing the catalyst structure and chemistry in the reactive environment at the atomic scale is imperative for the rational design of catalysts as well as the investigation of reaction mechanism, while in situ characterization at the atomic scale in high temperature is still a great challenge. Here, tracking intermetallic Co7W6 nanoparticles with a defined structure and a high melting point by environmental aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope in combination with in situ synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we directly present the structural and chemical stability of the Co7W6 nanocrystals in methane, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at the temperature of 700-1100 C...
March 15, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Bradley M Gibson
A robust, miniaturized cavity ring-down spectrometer has been developed as a laboratory demonstration model for future CubeSat deployments of near- and mid-infrared spectrometers for in situ planetary science. The spectrometer is compact enough to ensure compatibility with standard CubeSat spacecraft buses, with a probed gas volume of less than 2.5 cc to ease mass, volume, and power requirements of sample gas handling subsystems. When operated at 1.39 μm for water vapor isotope measurements, a noise-equivalent absorption coefficient of 3...
March 10, 2019: Applied Optics
N T Girkin, C H Vane, H V Cooper, V Moss-Hayes, J Craigon, B L Turner, N Ostle, S Sjögersten
Tropical peatland ecosystems are a significant component of the global carbon cycle and feature a range of distinct vegetation types, but the extent of links between contrasting plant species, peat biogeochemistry and greenhouse gas fluxes remains unclear. Here we assessed how vegetation affects small scale variation of tropical peatland carbon dynamics by quantifying in situ greenhouse gas emissions over 1 month using the closed chamber technique, and peat organic matter properties using Rock-Eval 6 pyrolysis within the rooting zones of canopy palms and broadleaved evergreen trees...
2019: Biogeochemistry
Mohamed A Abdel-Rahman, Nessreen Al-Hashimi, Mohamed F Shibl, Kazunari Yoshizawa, Ahmed M El-Nahas
Oxygenated organic compounds derived from biomass (biofuel) are a promising alternative renewable energy resource. Alcohols are widely used as biofuels, but studies on bifunctional alcohols are still limited. This work investigates the unimolecular thermal degradation of 2-methoxyethanol (2ME) using DFT/BMK and ab initio (CBS-QB3 and G3) methods. Enthalpies of the formation of 2ME and its decomposition species have been calculated. Conventional transition state theory has been used to estimate the rate constant of the pyrolysis of 2ME over a temperature range of 298-2000 K...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Chisa Iwasaki, Ryoichi Imasu, Andrey Bril, Sergey Oshchepkov, Yukio Yoshida, Tatsuya Yokota, Vyacheslav Zakharov, Konstantin Gribanov, Nikita Rokotyan
The photon path length probability density function-simultaneous (PPDF-S) algorithm is effective for retrieving column-averaged concentrations of carbon dioxide (XCO₂) and methane (XCH₄) from Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) spectra in Short Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR). Using this method, light-path modification attributable to light reflection/scattering by atmospheric clouds/aerosols is represented by the modification of atmospheric transmittance according to PPDF parameters. We optimized PPDF parameters for a more accurate XCO₂ retrieval under aerosol dense conditions based on simulation studies for various aerosol types and surface albedos...
March 12, 2019: Sensors
Mio Takeuchi, Haruka Ozaki, Satoshi Hiraoka, Yoichi Kamagata, Susumu Sakata, Hideyoshi Yoshioka, Wataru Iwasaki
Non-methanotrophic bacteria such as methylotrophs often coexist with methane-oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs) by cross-feeding on methane-derived carbon. Methanol has long been considered a major compound that mediates cross-feeding of methane-derived carbon. Despite the potential importance of cross-feeding in the global carbon cycle, only a few studies have actually explored metabolic responses of a bacteria when cross-feeding on a methanotroph. Recently, we isolated a novel facultative methylotroph, Methyloceanibacter caenitepidi Gela4, which grows syntrophically with the methanotroph, Methylocaldum marinum S8...
2019: PloS One
D Katharine Coykendall, Robert Scott Cornman, Nancy G Prouty, Sandra Brooke, Amanda W J Demopoulos, Cheryl L Morrison
Mussels of the genus Bathymodiolus are among the most widespread colonizers of hydrothermal vent and cold seep environments, sustained by endosymbiosis with chemosynthetic bacteria. Presumed species of Bathymodiolus are abundant at newly discovered cold seeps on the Mid-Atlantic continental slope, however morphological taxonomy is challenging, and their phylogenetic affinities remain unestablished. Here we used mitochondrial sequence to classify species found at three seep sites (Baltimore Canyon seep (BCS; ~400m); Norfolk Canyon seep (NCS; ~1520m); and Chincoteague Island seep (CTS; ~1000m))...
2019: PloS One
Niraj Thakre, Amiya K Jana
Either concerning to the energy production from natural gas hydrates or employing the hydrate technology to gas handing and seawater desalination purposes, various pure and mixture clathrate hydrates need to be understood in terms of their phase behavior and stability. The ab initio methods have compelling implications in quantifying the anisotropic guest-water interactions that are responsible for the guest specific nature of the hydrates. Howbeit, the accurate cavity interactions for large guests are obscure due to computational infeasibility...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Alessandro Pedrini
The cavitand 5,11,17,23-tetra-methyl-4,24:6,10:12,16:18,22-tetra-kis-(methyl-enedi-oxy)resorcin[4]arene functionalized at the upper rim with a carb-oxy-lic acid group, CavCOOH-in , of chemical formula C37 H32 O10 , was synthesized in order to study its supra-molecular inter-actions with acetic acid in the solid state. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis were obtained by slow evaporation of a di-chloro-methane-acetone solution of CavCOOH-in , to which glacial acetic acid had been added. The resulting compound, C37 H32 O10 ·2C2 H4 O2 ( 1 ) crystallizes in the space group P and its asymmetric unit consists of one mol-ecule of cavitand and two mol-ecules of acetic acid, one of which is encapsulated inside the aromatic cavity and disordered over two positions with a refined occupancy ratio of 0...
March 1, 2019: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
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