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brain aging

Kayleen Bailey, Neeta Pandit-Taskar, John L Humm, Pat Zanzonico, Stephen Gilheeney, Nai-Kong V Cheung, Kim Kramer
PURPOSE: We explored the use of intraventricular 131 I-Omburtamab targeting B7-H3 in patients with ETMR. METHODS: Patients were enrolled in an IRB approved, phase 1, 3 + 3 dose escalation trial. Patients with CNS disease expressing the antibody target antigen B7-H3 were eligible. We report on a cohort of three patients with ETMR who were enrolled on the study. Three symptomatic children (ages 14 months, 3 and 3.5 years) had large parietal masses confirmed to be B7-H3-reactive ETMR...
March 16, 2019: Journal of Neuro-oncology
S Arun Kumar, Bhagavatula Indira Devi, Madhusudan Reddy, Dhaval Shukla
INTRODUCTION: There are no comparative studies available for hyperosmolar therapy in children. The present study is a prospective open label randomized control trial to compare the effect of equiosmolar doses of mannitol and hypertonic saline in reducing intracranial pressure in children who sustained severe traumatic brain injury. METHODS: This is a prospective open-label randomized controlled trial. Thirty children aged less than or equal to 16 years with severe traumatic brain injury and raised intracranial pressure as measured by ventricular catheter insertion were enrolled...
March 16, 2019: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Shailendra Segobin, Alice Laniepce, Ludivine Ritz, Coralie Lannuzel, Céline Boudehent, Nicolas Cabé, Laurent Urso, François Vabret, Francis Eustache, Hélène Beaunieux, Anne-Lise Pitel
The thalamus, a relay organ consisting of several nuclei, is shared between the frontocerebellar circuit and the Papez circuit, both particularly affected in alcohol use disorder. Shrinkage of the thalamus is known to be more severe in alcoholics with Korsakoff's syndrome than in those without neurological complications (uncomplicated alcoholics). While thalamic atrophy could thus be a key factor explaining amnesia in Korsakoff's syndrome, the loci and nature of alterations within the thalamic nuclei in uncomplicated alcoholics and alcoholics with Korsakoff's syndrome remains unclear...
March 15, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Nan Li, George D Papandonatos, Antonia M Calafat, Kimberly Yolton, Bruce P Lanphear, Aimin Chen, Joseph M Braun
BACKGROUND: Early-life phthalate exposures may adversely affect children's neurodevelopment by disrupting thyroid function, reducing gonadal hormone levels, or altering fatty acid concentrations in the brain. This study aimed to identify periods of heightened susceptibility during gestation, infancy, and childhood to the impact of phthalates on children's cognitive abilities. METHODS: We used data from 253 mother-child pairs in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study (Cincinnati, Ohio), a longitudinal pregnancy and birth cohort...
March 5, 2019: Environmental Research
Branko F Olij, Martien J M Panneman, Ed F van Beeck, Juanita A Haagsma, Klaas A Hartholt, Suzanne Polinder
OBJECTIVES: Fall-related injuries are a leading cause of morbidity among older adults, leading to a high healthcare consumption and mortality. We aim to describe and quantify time trends of fall-related healthcare use and mortality among adults aged ≥65 years in the Netherlands, 1997-2016. DESIGN: Data were extracted from the Dutch Injury Surveillance System, Dutch Hospital Discharge Registry, and Cause-of-Death Statistics Netherlands, by age, sex, diagnosis, injury location, and year...
March 13, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Amanda K Easson, Anthony R McIntosh
Variability of neural signaling is an important index of healthy brain functioning, as is signal complexity, which relates to information processing capacity. Alterations in variability and complexity may underlie certain brain dysfunctions. Here, resting-state fMRI was used to examine variability and complexity in children and adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Variability was measured using the mean square successive difference (MSSD) of the time series, and complexity was assessed using sample entropy...
March 5, 2019: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Jan R Detrez, Hervé Maurin, Kristof Van Kolen, Roland Willems, Julien Colombelli, Benoit Lechat, Bart Roucourt, Fred Van Leuven, Sarah Baatout, Peter Larsen, Rony Nuydens, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Winnok H De Vos
We have exploited whole brain microscopy to map the progressive deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau in intact, cleared mouse brain. We found that the three-dimensional spreading pattern of hyperphosphorylated tau in the brain of an aging Tau.P301L mouse model did not resemble that observed in AD patients. Injection of synthetic or patient-derived tau fibrils in the CA1 region resulted in a more faithful spreading pattern. Atlas-guided volumetric analysis showed a connectome-dependent spreading from the injection site and also revealed hyperphosphorylated tau deposits beyond the direct anatomical connections...
March 13, 2019: Neurobiology of Disease
Aida Adlimoghaddam, Wanda M Snow, Greg Stortz, Claudia Perez, Jelena Djordjevic, Andrew L Goertzen, Ji Hyun Ko, Benedict C Albensi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive age-related neurodegenerative disease. Although neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid beta are classic hallmarks of AD, the earliest deficits in AD progression may be caused by unknown factors. One suspected factor has to do with brain energy metabolism. To investigate this factor, brain metabolic activity in 3xTg-AD mice and age-matched controls were measured with FDG-PET. Significant hypometabolic changes (p < .01) in brain metabolism were detected in the cortical piriform and insular regions of AD brains relative to controls...
March 13, 2019: Neurobiology of Disease
Bronte N Ficek, Zeyi Wang, Yi Zhao, Kimberly T Webster, John E Desmond, Argye E Hillis, Constantine Frangakis, Andreia Vasconcellos Faria, Brian Caffo, Kyrana Tsapkini
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an innovative technique recently shown to improve language outcomes even in neurodegenerative conditions such as primary progressive aphasia (PPA), but the underlying brain mechanisms are not known. The present study tested whether the additional language gains with repetitive tDCS (over sham) in PPA are caused by changes in functional connectivity between the stimulated area (the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)) and the rest of the language network. We scanned 24 PPA participants (11 female) before and after language intervention (written naming/spelling) with a resting-state fMRI sequence and compared changes before and after three weeks of tDCS or sham coupled with language therapy...
March 13, 2019: NeuroImage: Clinical
Mehmet N Cizmeci, Nadieh Khalili, Nathalie H P Claessens, Floris Groenendaal, Kian D Liem, Axel Heep, Isabel Benavente-Fernández, Henrica L M van Straaten, Gerda van Wezel-Meijler, Sylke J Steggerda, Jeroen Dudink, Ivana Išgum, Andrew Whitelaw, Manon J N L Benders, Linda S de Vries
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of early and late intervention for posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation on additional brain injury and ventricular volume using term-equivalent age-MRI. STUDY DESIGN: In the Early vs Late Ventricular Intervention Study (ELVIS) trial, 126 preterm infants ≤34 weeks of gestation with posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation were randomized to low-threshold (ventricular index >p97 and anterior horn width >6 mm) or high-threshold (ventricular index >p97 + 4 mm and anterior horn width >10 mm) groups...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Pediatrics
G A Shilovsky, T S Putyatina, V V Ashapkin, A A Rozina, V A Lyubetsky, E P Minina, I B Bychkovskaia, A V Markov, V P Skulachev
Social insects with identical genotype that form castes with radically different lifespans are a promising model system for studying the mechanisms underlying longevity. The main direction of progressive evolution of social insects, in particular, ants, is the development of the social way of life inextricably linked with the increase in the colony size. Only in a large colony, it is possible to have a developed polyethism, create large food reserves, and actively regulate the nest microclimate. The lifespan of ants hugely varies among genetically similar queens, workers (unproductive females), and males...
December 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Biswanath Dinda, Manikarna Dinda, Goutam Kulsi, Ankita Chakraborty, Subhajit Dinda
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorders, affecting several millions of aged people globally. Among these disorders, AD is more severe, affecting about 7% of individuals aged 65 and above. AD is primarily a dementia-related disorder from progressive cognitive deterioration and memory impairment, while PD is primarily a movement disorder illness having three major kinesia or movement disorder symptoms, bradykinesia (slowness of movements), hypokinesia (reduction of movement amplitude), and akinesia (absence of normal unconscious movements) along with muscle rigidity and tremor at rest...
March 8, 2019: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Catherine Lebel, Alina Benischek, Bryce Geeraert, John Holahan, Sally Shaywitz, Kirran Bakhshi, Bennett Shaywitz
Left temporal-parietal white matter structure is consistently associated with reading abilities in children. A small number of longitudinal studies show that development of this area over time is altered in children with impaired reading. However, it remains unclear how brain developmental patterns relate to specific reading skills such as fluency, which is a critical part of reading comprehension. Here, we examined white matter development trajectories in children with dysfluent reading (20 dysfluent and inaccurate readers, 36 dysfluent and accurate readers) compared to non-impaired readers (n = 14) over 18 months...
March 7, 2019: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Lu Lu, Lianqing Zhang, Shi Tang, Xuan Bu, Ying Chen, Xinyu Hu, Xiaoxiao Hu, Hailong Li, Lanting Guo, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong, Xiaoqi Huang
BACKGROUND: The current study was designed to investigate the anatomical differences in cortical and subcortical morphometry between drug-naive boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls (HCs) using three-dimensional T1-weighted imaging and to explore the effects of age on morphometric abnormalities. METHODS: Fifty-three drug-naive boys with ADHD and 53 HCs underwent high-resolution anatomical magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using a 3-T MR scanner...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Chun-Hong Liu, Li-Rong Tang, Yue Gao, Guang-Zhong Zhang, Bin Li, Meng Li, Marie Woelfer, Walter Martin, Lihong Wang
BACKGROUND: Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) can frequently develop new depressive episodes after remission. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the increased risk for depressive relapse remain unclear. Herein, we aimed to explore whether the specific changes to regional and inter-regional spontaneous brain activities within DMN are associated with the course of episodes in pooled MDD patients. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on patients with single-episode MDD (SEMDD, n = 30) and multiple-episode MDD (MEMDD, n = 54), and 71 age-, gender-, and educational level-matched healthy controls (HCs)...
March 5, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Giulia Gaggioni, Julien Q M Ly, Vincenzo Muto, Sarah L Chellappa, Mathieu Jaspar, Christelle Meyer, Tillo Delfosse, Amaury Vanvinckenroye, Romain Dumont, Dorothée Coppieters 't Wallant, Christian Berthomier, Justinas Narbutas, Maxime Van Egroo, Andé Luxen, Eric Salmon, Fabienne Collette, Christophe Phillips, Christina Schmidt, Gilles Vandewalle
Cortical excitability depends on sleep-wake regulation, is central to cognition, and has been implicated in age-related cognitive decline. The dynamics of cortical excitability during prolonged wakefulness in aging are unknown, however. Here, we repeatedly probed cortical excitability of the frontal cortex using transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography in 13 young and 12 older healthy participants during sleep deprivation. Although overall cortical excitability did not differ between age groups, the magnitude of cortical excitability variations during prolonged wakefulness was dampened in older individuals...
February 13, 2019: Neurobiology of Aging
Aikaterini Giazkoulidou, Lampros Messinis, Grigorios Nasios
Cognitive decline has been widely reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) despite its clinical heterogeneity, at all stages and in all subtypes of the disease. Deficits are most commonly present in attention, processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency and executive function. However, MS patients also show decreased performance in tasks related to social cognition, i.e. mental operations thatdrive interpersonal skills such as social perception, empathy and theory of mind. Social cognitive deficits are an underestimated but important aspect of impairment in MS, reflecting how people process, store, and apply information in social interactions...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Magda Tsolaki
Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) particularly will become in future one of the major problems that healthcare systems will have to face with in developed but also in developing countries, because of the progressive aging of the population and the age-associated increase in their incidence. There is a rapid increasing in life expectancy and in elderly percentage. Unfortunately, improvements in lifespan have not been matched by improvements in mental health span. In recent years, there has been a growing interest, supported by a large number of experimental, epidemiological and clinical studies, about the beneficial effects of some natural products in preventing various age-related pathologic conditions, including brain aging and neurodegeneration...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Christiane N Nday, Despoina Eleftheriadou, Graham Jackson
It is well established that during Alzheimer disease (AD), gradual loss of neuronal networks occurs in the brain, consequently, affecting cognition and memory tasks of the patients. Among other causative factors, oxidative stress induces changes that are eventually accompanied by an irreversible disruption of synaptic connectivity and death of neurons. Moreover, aging and oxidative stress cause alterations to the blood brain barrier, leading to increased permeability, which are thought to further aggravate the underlying pathology...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Yoonkyung Chang, Seung Ah Lee, Sue Hyun Lee, Eun Hye Lee, Yong Jae Kim, Tae Jin Song
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: An interarm blood pressure difference (IABD) is independently related to the occurrence of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Cerebral small-vessel diseases (SVDs) are important risk factors for stroke, cognitive dysfunction, and mortality. We aimed to determine whether IABD is related to cerebral SVDs. METHODS: This study included 1,205 consecutive noncardioembolic ischemic stroke patients as confirmed by brain MRI and simultaneously measured the bilateral brachial blood pressures...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Clinical Neurology
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