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Victoriano Urgorri, Guillermo DÍaz-Agras
A new species of Porifera collected at the Ría de Ferrol (NW Iberian Peninsula), Mycale (Aegogropila) antiae sp. nov., is described. The sponge is apricot-coloured with small sulphur-yellow spots, comprised of one or more conical or cylindrical massive bases, each with a single apical osculum. Long, more or less branched digitiform ramifications emerge from these bases, with one or two oscula in high position. The ectosomal skeleton consists of bundles of interwoven mycalostyles forming a triangular or polygonal tangential reticulation...
January 24, 2019: Zootaxa
Jacopo Meldolesi
Two types of extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and ectosomes, are generated and released by all cells, including immune cells. The two EVs appear different in many properties: size, mechanism and site of assembly, composition of their membranes and luminal cargoes, sites and processes of release. In functional terms, however, these differences are minor. Moreover, their binding to and effects on target cells appear similar thus the two types are considered distinct only in a few cases, otherwise they are presented together as EVs...
February 13, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Christopher Bricogne, Michael Fine, Pedro M Pereira, Julia Sung, Maha Tijani, Youxue Wang, Ricardo Henriques, Mary K Collins, Donald Hilgemann
TMEM16F is a Ca2+ -gated ion channel that is required for Ca2+ -activated phosphatidylserine exposure on the surface of many eukaryotic cells. TMEM16F is widely expressed and has roles in platelet activation during blood clotting, bone formation and T cell activation. By combining microscopy and patch clamp recording we demonstrate that activation of TMEM16F by Ca2+ ionophores in Jurkat T cells triggers large-scale surface membrane expansion in parallel with phospholipid scrambling. With continued ionophore application,TMEM16F-expressing cells then undergo extensive shedding of ectosomes...
January 24, 2019: Scientific Reports
Cristiana Spinelli, Lata Adnani, Dongsic Choi, Janusz Rak
Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) species have emerged in as molecular fingerprints and regulators of brain tumor pathogenesis and progression. While changes in ncRNA levels have been traditionally regarded as cell intrinsic there is mounting evidence for their extracellular and paracrine function. One of the key mechanisms that enables ncRNA to exit from cells is their selective packaging into extracellular vesicles (EVs), and trafficking in the extracellular space and biofluids. Vesicular export processes reduce intracellular levels of specific ncRNA in EV donor cells while creating a pool of EV-associated ncRNA in the extracellular space and biofluids that enables their uptake by other recipient cells; both aspects have functional consequences...
December 25, 2018: Non-Coding RNA
Chang-Youh Tsai, Ko-Jen Li, Song-Chou Hsieh, Hsien-Tzung Liao, Chia-Li Yu
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) act by promoting phagocytosis, and are regarded as the first line of defense against pathogen invasion. However, recent investigations have revealed that they have many previously unknown functions. These functions include mitogen-induced cell-mediated cytotoxicity, production of cytokines/chemokines/growth factors, and release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and ectosomes/exosomes. Membrane exchange (trogocytosis) is also noted following direct cell-cell contact with other immune cells for modulating innate and adaptive immune responses...
November 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Jéssica Da Hora, Fernanda Fernandes Cavalcanti, Emilio Lanna
The main characteristic of sponges (Porifera) is the presence of the aquiferous system-a system formed by canals and choanocyte chambers, in which the sponges carry out most of their physiological functions. Despite of the importance for the biology of the group, the knowledge about this structure is still incipient, even when morphological investigations are taken in account. Here, we investigated the anatomy and ultrastructure of the tropical demosponge Cladocroce caelum (Haplosclerida, Demospongiae) using light and electron microscopy...
December 2018: Journal of Morphology
Bruna Codispoti, Massimo Marrelli, Francesco Paduano, Marco Tatullo
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are well known for their great potential in clinical applications. In fact, MSCs can differentiate into several cell lineages and show paracrine behavior by releasing endogenous factors that stimulate tissue repair and modulate local immune response. Each MSC type is affected by specific biobanking issues-technical issues as well as regulatory and ethical concerns-thus making it quite tricky to safely and commonly use MSC banking for swift regenerative applications. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) include a group of 150⁻1000 nm vesicles that are released by budding from the plasma membrane into biological fluids and/or in the culture medium from varied and heterogenic cell types...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
M Cristina DÍaz, Shirley A Pomponi
Pulley Ridge, a limestone ridge that extends nearly 300 km along the southwestern Florida shelf in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, supports a mesophotic coral ecosystem (59 to 94 m deep), surrounded by deeper waters. An ongoing evaluation of Porifera biodiversity observed and collected during expeditions by Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute (2003-2015) have shown the existence of approximately 102 sponge species, with at least 20 species new to science. The present paper describes two novel Poecilosclerida from mesophotic reefs and deep escarpments in the Pulley Ridge Region, Eastern Gulf of Mexico, namely Discorhabdella ruetzleri n...
August 31, 2018: Zootaxa
Linnet Busutil, MarÍa R GarcÍa-hernÁndez, M Cristina DÍaz, Shirley A Pomponi
This study presents the description of two Callyspongia species new to science, and the distribution of all Callyspongia species recorded during the first joint Cuba-U.S. expedition to characterize Cuban mesophotic coral ecosystems (May-June 2017). Additionally, we propose a key to identify thin branching species of the genus in the Greater Caribbean. The observations here presented are the result of underwater explorations with the Mohawk Remotely Operated Vehicle dives at 35 sites around the island, at depths of 25-188 m, recording images and videos, and collecting specimens...
August 31, 2018: Zootaxa
Rob W M van Soest
A new species of the large genus Mycale Gray, 1867 is described, dredged from approximately 300 m depth in the Flores Sea region between the islands of Salayar and Bahuluang, Central Indonesia, during cruises of the Indonesian-Dutch Snellius II Expedition in 1984. Because its megascleres include oxeas the new species is classified as a member of the subgenus Oxymycale Hentschel, 1929, proposed to be named M. (O.) klausjanusorum sp. nov. to honour renowned colleagues Klaus Rützler and Jean ('Janus') Vacelet...
August 31, 2018: Zootaxa
Thaynà Cavalcanti, Carlos Santos Neto, Ulisses Pinheiro
Biemna Gray, 1867 is characterized by stylote or exceptionally oxeote megascleres arranged in a plumoreticulate skeleton, ectosomal skeleton consists of the brushed endings of choanosomal tracts, microscleres are sigmas, microxeas, commata and raphides (Hajdu Van Soest 2002). Currently, Biemna has 55 valid species (Van Soest et al. 2018). In Brazil, three species are known from northern region (Muricy 2018): Biemna microacanthosigma Mothes, Hajdu, Lerner Van Soest, 2004, Biemna spinomicroxea Mothes, Campos, Lerner, Carraro Van Soest, 2005, Biemna trisigmata Mothes Campos, 2004...
June 12, 2018: Zootaxa
Marwa M Hussein, Doaa M Mokhtar
Many studies have been carried out to investigate the occurrence and distribution of telocytes (TCs) in many organs. However, their morphological development is still unclear. This study was performed to demonstrate the morphological development of TCs in rabbits' lung from fetal to postnatal life using light-, electron- microscopy, immunohistochemistry, morphometrical and statistical analysis. During the fetal life, these cells formed an extensive network of telopodes (Tps) which were in close contact with developing alveoli, bronchioles, stem cells and many other interstitial components...
September 15, 2018: Developmental Biology
Enrico Solcia, Vittorio Necchi, Patrizia Sommi, Vittorio Ricci
In this article, we outline and discuss available information on the cellular site and mechanism of proteasome interaction with cytosolic polyubiquitinated proteins and heat-shock molecules. The particulate cytoplasmic structure (PaCS) formed by barrel-like particles, closely reproducing in vivo the high-resolution structure of 26S proteasome as isolated in vitro, has been detected in a variety of fetal and neoplastic cells, from living tissue or cultured cell lines. Specific trophic factors and interleukins were found to induce PaCS during in vitro differentiation of dendritic, natural killer (NK), or megakaryoblastic cells, apparently through activation of the MAPK-ERK pathway...
September 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Michael Lichtenauer, Christian Jung
The pathogenesis of diabetes involves dysregulated gene expression on a pre- and posttranscriptional level. One key mechanism in the development and progression of diabetes is thought being a dysregulation of signalling mediators such as microRNAs. These microRNAs interfere with pathophysiological reactions in diabetes by affecting gene transcription, insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Here, in this current issue, Stępień et al. analysed ectosomal miRNA patterns in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using different analytical techniques...
2018: Theranostics
Ewa Ł Stępień, Martyna Durak-Kozica, Agnieszka Kamińska, Marta Targosz-Korecka, Marcin Libera, Grzegorz Tylko, Agnieszka Opalińska, Maria Kapusta, Bogdan Solnica, Adriana Georgescu, Marina C Costa, Agnieszka Czyżewska-Buczyńska, Wojciech Witkiewicz, Maciej T Małecki, Francisco J Enguita
Ectosomes ( Ects ) are a subpopulation of extracellular vesicles formed by the process of plasma membrane shedding. In the present study, we profiled ectosome-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and analyzed their pro- and anti-angiogenic potential. Methods: We used different approaches for detecting and enumerating Ects , including atomic force microscopy, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Furthermore, we used bioinformatics tools to analyze functional data obtained from specific miRNA enrichment signatures during angiogenesis and vasculature development...
2018: Theranostics
Sushma Anand, Natalie Foot, Ching-Seng Ang, Kelly M Gembus, Shivakumar Keerthikumar, Christopher G Adda, Suresh Mathivanan, Sharad Kumar
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid-bilayered vesicles that are released by multiple cell types and contain nucleic acids and proteins. Very little is known about how the cargo is packaged into EVs. Ubiquitination of proteins is a key posttranslational modification that regulates protein stability and trafficking to subcellular compartments including EVs. Recently, arrestin-domain containing protein 1 (Arrdc1), an adaptor for the Nedd4 family of ubiquitin ligases, has been implicated in the release of ectosomes, a subtype of EV that buds from the plasma membrane...
July 23, 2018: Proteomics
Daniel S Johnson, Marina Bleck, Sanford M Simon
The Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport III (ESCRT-III) proteins are critical for cellular membrane scission processes with topologies inverted relative to clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Some viruses appropriate ESCRT-IIIs for their release. By imaging single assembling viral-like particles of HIV-1, we observed that ESCRT-IIIs and the ATPase VPS4 arrive after most of the virion membrane is bent, linger for tens of seconds, and depart ~20 s before scission. These observations suggest that ESCRT-IIIs are recruited by a combination of membrane curvature and the late domains of the HIV-1 Gag protein...
July 4, 2018: ELife
Magdalena Surman, Dorota Hoja-Łukowicz, Sabina Szwed, Anna Drożdż, Ewa Stępień, Małgorzata Przybyło
AIMS: Numerous studies confirmed the involvement of extracellular vesicles in cancer development and progression. The present study was designed to investigate the glycan composition of ectosomes derived by human cutaneous melanoma (CM) cell lines with the use of lectins. MAIN METHODS: Ectosomes released by primary (WM115, WM793) and metastatic (WM266-4, WM1205Lu) CM cells were isolated from conditioned media by sequential centrifugation. Proteins from ectosomes, the whole cell extracts and membrane fractions were probed with a panel of lectins using Western Blot and flow cytometry and compared in terms of disease stage and glycosignature...
August 15, 2018: Life Sciences
Larissa Pernomian, Jôsimar Dornelas Moreira, Mayara Santos Gomes
Acute or chronic exposure to diabetes-related stressors triggers a specific psychological and behavior stress syndrome called diabetes distress, which underlies depressive symptoms in most diabetic patients. Distressed and/or depressive diabetic adults exhibit higher rates of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, which have been correlated to macrovascular complications evoked by diabetic behavior stress. Recent experimental findings clearly point out that oxidative stress accounts for the vascular dysfunction initiated by the exposure to life stressors in diabetic conditions...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Birke J Benedikter, Emiel F M Wouters, Paul H M Savelkoul, Gernot G U Rohde, Frank R M Stassen
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are secreted signaling entities that enhance various pathological processes when released in response to cellular stresses. Respiratory exposures such as cigarette smoke and air pollution exert cellular stresses and are associated with an increased risk of several chronic diseases. The aim of this review was to examine the evidence that modifications in EV contribute to respiratory exposure-associated diseases. Publications were searched using PubMed and Google Scholar with the search terms (cigarette smoke OR tobacco smoke OR air pollution OR particulate matter) AND (extracellular vesicles OR exosomes OR microvesicles OR microparticles OR ectosomes)...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
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