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Insulin Adult

Natasha Godwin, Traci Roberts, Shirin Hooshmand, Mark Kern, Mee Young Hong
Multiple studies have examined the impacts of various nuts on appetitive and metabolic effects; however, fewer studies have addressed the impacts of mixed nuts. The objective was to examine the acute effects of consumption of an isocaloric (253 kcal) snack of mixed nuts or pretzels on appetite hormones, glucose and insulin responses, and subjective appetite ratings in overweight and obese adults. In a two-arm randomized controlled trial, overweight and obese adults consumed either mixed nuts (n = 27) or pretzels (n = 27) with 16 men and 11 women per group...
March 21, 2019: Journal of Medicinal Food
Emily Durden, Michael Liang, Robert Fowler, Ulrik Haagen Panton, Emina Mocevic
BACKGROUND: Treatment adherence and persistence are crucial to achieve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Early response to a new therapy may lead to improved treatment adherence and associated outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of early response to glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) therapy, as indicated by reduced hemoglobin A1c (A1c) and body weight, on long-term adherence and persistence. METHODS: Adults aged ≥ 18 years with T2D initiated with GLP-1 RA therapy after January 1, 2010, were identified from the IBM Explorys Therapeutic Dataset...
March 21, 2019: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Seana L Gall, Natalie Schüz, Benjamin Schüz, Kara Martin, Joan Abbott-Chapman, Nadia Ollington, George C Patton, Terence Dwyer, Alison J Venn
OBJECTIVE: This research examined if childhood health motivation was associated with adult health behaviors and objectively measured health outcomes. METHOD: Data were from the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study. Children aged 9 to 15 years in 1985 completed a questionnaire with health motivation items. In 2004-2006, when aged 26 to 36, participants completed assessments of health behaviors (smoking, diet, alcohol consumption, and physical activity) and cardiometabolic outcomes (body mass index, carotid intima-media thickness from ultrasound, and HOMA insulin resistance from fasting blood samples)...
April 2019: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Eduardo Lozano-Melendez, Mercedes Aguilar-Soto, Luis Eugenio Graniel-Palafox, Laura Elena Ceceña-Martínez, Rafael Valdez-Ortiz, Fabio Solis-Jimenez
Context: Nesidioblastosis is a rare cause of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in adults. The diagnosis is further complicated in patients with kidney failure, since impaired renal function can cause hypoglycemia by itself and diagnostic criteria for this clinical scenario have not been developed yet. Case Description: We present the case report of a 36-year-old patient with end stage chronic kidney disease who presented to the emergency department because of hypoglycemia...
2019: Case Reports in Endocrinology
Jill K Badin, Victor Progar, Anisha Pareddy, Jordan Cagle, Mouhamad Alloosh, Michael Sturek
According to a single study in dogs that was conducted in 1949, the diabetic effects of the β-cell toxin alloxan are dependenton age. The current study examined whether this age-dependence of alloxan is present in the clinically relevant Ossabawminiature swine (Sus scrofa domestica) model of metabolic syndrome. Juvenile swine (n = 8; age, 4.3 ± 0.2 mo) and adultswine (n = 8; age, 7.4 ± 0.2 mo) received alloxan (average dosage, 140 mg/kg IV) and were placed on a hypercaloric, atherogenic diet for 6 mo. The metabolic syndrome profile was confirmed by measuring body weight, cholesterol, and triglycerides...
March 20, 2019: Comparative Medicine
Clara Marquina, Aya Mousa, Regina Belski, Harry Banaharis, Negar Naderpoor, Barbora de Courten
Lower copy number variations (CNVs) in the salivary amylase gene ( AMY1 ) have been associated with obesity and insulin resistance; however, the relationship between AMY1 and cardiometabolic risk has not been fully elucidated. Using gold-standard measures, we aimed to examine whether AMY1 CNVs are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in an overweight or obese, otherwise healthy population. Fifty-seven adults (58% male) aged 31.17 ± 8.44 years with a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m² were included in the study...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Muhammad Fiaz, Pakeeza Arzoo Shaiq, Ghazala Kaukab Raj, Muhammad Saqlain, Abid Mehmood, Syed Muhammad Saqlan Naqvi, Bernard Kaukab Cheung
OBJECTIVE: To explore the association of rs662799 variants of Apolipoprotein A5 gene with metabolic syndrome in Pakistani population. METHODS: The case-control study was conducted at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan from 2014 to2016, and comprised subjects enrolled from the out-patient clinics. Groups were formed on the basis of preliminary screening for risk factors like obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia and fasting blood glucose levels...
March 2019: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Sara E Espinoza, Nicolas Musi, Chen-Pin Wang, Joel Michalek, Beverly Orsak, Terry Romo, Becky Powers, Alicia Conde, Melody Moris, Darcy Bair-Kelps, Yan Li, Vinutha Ganapathy, Tyson E Jergensen, Lauri C Kelly, Rozmin Jiwani
BACKGROUND: Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that leads to poor health outcomes with aging. Previous studies have demonstrated that insulin resistance and inflammation predict frailty onset. Metformin is a widely-used, well-tolerated drug that improves insulin sensitivity and displays anti-inflammatory properties. It is also known to prevent diabetes onset in adults with pre-diabetes. We hypothesize that metformin in older adults with pre-diabetes will promote healthy aging and prevent frailty...
March 19, 2019: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
B Lormeau, S Pichat, L Dufaitre, A Chamouine, M Gataa, J Rastami, C Coll-Lormeau, G Goury, A-L François, V Etien, J-L Blanchard, D Hervé, A Sola-Gazagnes
BACKGROUND: Recreational scuba diving has been authorized for type 1 diabetics over 18 years old - the age of majority in France - since 2004, but it remained forbidden for younger diabetics by the French underwater federation (FFESSM). Here, we present a study to evaluate: - the conditions under which diving could be authorized for 14- to 18 year olds with type 1 diabetes; - the value of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) while diving. A secondary objective was to monitor the impact of diving on the teenagers' quality of life...
March 15, 2019: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Michael P Bancks, Mercedes R Carnethon, Lisa S Chow, Samuel S Gidding, David R Jacobs, Satoru Kishi, Joao Lima, Donald Lloyd-Jones, Jared P Reis, Pamela J Schreiner, Rachel Zmora, Norrina B Allen
AIMS: We assessed whether fasting glucose (FG) and insulin resistance (IR) trajectories during young adulthood are associated with changes in cardiac structure and function. METHODS: We used data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (baseline: 1985-1986). Echocardiography was performed after 25 (Y25) and 30 years of follow-up. Group-based modeling was used to determine 25-year trajectories in FG and IR. We assessed differences at Y25 and 5-year longitudinal change in cardiac structure and function after adjustment for demographics, cumulative exposure to traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and baseline FG or IR...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Richard A LaFountain, Vincent J Miller, Emily C Barnhart, Parker N Hyde, Christopher D Crabtree, Fionn T McSwiney, Mathew K Beeler, Alex Buga, Teryn N Sapper, Jay A Short, Madison L Bowling, William J Kraemer, Orlando P Simonetti, Carl M Maresh, Jeff S Volek
INTRODUCTION: Ketogenic diets (KDs) that elevate ketones into a range referred to as nutritional ketosis represent a possible nutrition approach to address the emerging physical readiness and obesity challenge in the military. An emerging body of evidence demonstrates broad-spectrum health benefits attributed to being in nutritional ketosis, but no studies have specifically explored the use of a KD in a military population using daily ketone monitoring to personalize the diet prescription...
March 16, 2019: Military Medicine
Prabha H Andraweera, Zohra S Lassi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate evidence for increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children exposed to preeclampsia in utero. STUDY DESIGN: PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE electronic databases were searched with an end of search date of June 4, 2018. Prospective and retrospective studies that compared CVD risk factors in those exposed to preeclampsia in utero with controls were eligible...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Pediatrics
Hye Kyoung Sung, Erfei Song, James Won Suk Jahng, Kostas Pantopoulos, Gary Sweeney
Iron overload is associated with various pathological changes which contribute to heart failure. Here, we examined mechanisms via which iron alters cardiomyocyte insulin sensitivity. Treatment of primary adult and neonatal cardiomyocytes as well as H9c2 cells with iron decreased insulin sensitivity determined via Western blotting or immunofluorescent detection of Akt and p70S6K phosphorylation and glucose uptake. Using CellROX deep red or DCF-DA probes we also observed that iron increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and that pretreatment with the superoxide dismutase mimetic MnTBAP reduced ROS production and attenuated iron-induced insulin resistance...
March 15, 2019: Scientific Reports
Xueli Cai, Lili Xia, Yuesong Pan, Dian He, Huiping Zhu, Tiemin Wei, Yan He
Background: The prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes were estimated to be 10.9% and 35.7% in the Chinese adult population, respectively, and the middle-aged and elderly Chinese are at even higher risk of diabetes and prediabetes than younger population. With the increasing trend of aging in China, the burden of diabetes and related complications will be aggravated. Objectives: Through comparing the indices of insulin resistance and β-cell function between subjects with different glucose metabolic status, to analyze the differential role of insulin resistance and β-cell function in the development of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese population...
2019: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Peter Senior, Irene Hramiak
Limiting postprandial glucose (PPG) excursions is an important aspect of overall glycemic control. Rapid-acting insulin analogues (RAIAs) aim to mimic the physiologic action of endogenous insulin observed in individuals without diabetes and prevent excessive PPG excursions. However, many people with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes treated with RAIAs do not achieve glycated hemoglobin (A1C) targets, and there is an unmet need for further improvements in PPG control. Current RAIAs have a delayed onset and a longer duration of action compared with endogenous insulin secreted in response to meals...
January 24, 2019: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Yuehan Wang, Duck-Chul Lee, Angelique G Brellenthin, Xuemei Sui, Timothy S Church, Carl J Lavie, Steven N Blair
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between muscular strength and incident type 2 diabetes, independent of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 4681 adults aged 20 to 100 years who had no type 2 diabetes at baseline were included in the current prospective cohort study. Participants underwent muscular strength tests and maximal treadmill exercise tests between January 1, 1981, and December 31, 2006. Muscular strength was measured by leg and bench press and categorized as age group- and sex-specific thirds (lower, middle, and upper) of the combined strength score...
March 1, 2019: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Pedro J Torres, Danalea V Skarra, Bryan S Ho, Lillian Sau, Arya R Anvar, Scott T Kelley, Varykina G Thackray
BACKGROUND: A majority of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have metabolic dysfunction that results in an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We previously developed a pubertal mouse model using the aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, which recapitulates many of the reproductive and metabolic features of PCOS. To further our understanding of the effects of androgen excess, we compared the effects of letrozole treatment initiated in puberty versus adulthood on reproductive and metabolic phenotypes as well as on the gut microbiome...
March 12, 2019: BMC Microbiology
Tiffany Lum, Megan Connolly, Amanda Marx, Joshua Beidler, Shirin Hooshmand, Mark Kern, Changqi Liu, Mee Young Hong
Although some studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of watermelon supplementation on metabolic diseases, no study has explored the potential mechanism by which watermelon consumption improves body weight management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of fresh watermelon consumption on satiety, postprandial glucose and insulin response, and adiposity and body weight change after 4 weeks of intervention in overweight and obese adults. In a crossover design, 33 overweight or obese subjects consumed watermelon (2 cups) or isocaloric low-fat cookies daily for 4 weeks...
March 12, 2019: Nutrients
Bingqian Zhu, Changgui Shi, Chang G Park, Xiangxiang Zhao, Sirimon Reutrakul
This review aimed to provide a comprehensive examination of the effect of sleep restriction on metabolism-related parameters by synthesizing the emerging, best evidence. A systematic search was conducted in six electronic databases from inception to January 2018. We identified 41 randomized controlled trials using sleep restriction intervention. The outcomes included: subjective hunger, appetite-regulating hormones, changes in brain activity, energy intake and expenditure, weight change, insulin sensitivity or resistance...
February 10, 2019: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Wenying Yang, Jianhua Ma, Tianpei Hong, Ming Liu, Heng Miao, Yongde Peng, Changjiang Wang, Xiangjin Xu, Tao Yang, Anne M Nielsen, Lili Pan, Weihong Liu, Weigang Zhao
AIMS: Insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp) is the first coformulation of ultra-long-acting basal (degludec) and rapid-acting bolus (aspart) insulins with no resuspension need. This 26-week, phase 3, open-label, treat-to-target, 2:1 randomized trial assessed efficacy and safety of twice-daily (BID) IDegAsp versus biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) BID, both ± metformin, in Chinese adults (N=543) with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on premix/self-mix or basal insulin ± metformin (NCT02762578)...
March 14, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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