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Hormone Adult

Larissa Lucena Périco, Vinícius Peixoto Rodrigues, Rie Ohara, Vânia Vasti Alfieri Nunes, Lúcia Regina Machado da Rocha, Wagner Vilegas, Catarina Dos Santos, Clélia Akiko Hiruma-Lima
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Eugenia punicifolia (Kunth) DC. (Myrtaceae), an Amazonian medicinal plant known as "pedra-ume-caá," is popularly used as a natural remedy for inflammation, wounds, infections, diabetes, fever, and flu. Its anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and gastroprotective effects have already been characterized. We evaluated the gastric healing effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of E. punicifolia (HEEP) in male and female Wistar rats against nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and ethanol...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Yuanhui Qi, Qiying Yi, Yamin Liu, Yanxia Hu, Dongshen Ni, Jianing Liu, Qin Zhou, Yajun Xie
Glucocorticoid hormones have been widely used in clinical practice as potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. However, the underlying mechanisms of how they work remain unaddressed. Here, we used RNA-set to profile spleen gene expression in adult mice after consistent intraperitoneal injection of dexamethasone. We identified 13565 genes in control (injected with 0.9% NaCl) and 13702 genes in dexamethasone-injected group, 12920 genes were expressed in both, but 645 genes were identified only in control and 782 genes were identified only in the dexamethasone group...
February 11, 2019: Gene
Haiqi Chen, Dolores Mruk, Chris K C Wong, Bruno Silvestrini, C Yan Cheng
OBJECTIVE: The bioavailability of the non-hormonal male contraceptive adjudin is low in rats due to the blood-testis barrier (BTB). This study was designed to examine if F5-peptide, an endogenously produced reversible BTB modifier, could enhance the bioavailability of adjudin to affect spermatogenesis and provide a contraceptive effect in rats while reducing systemic toxicity. STUDY DESIGN: We overexpressed F5-peptide in adult male rats (n=10 rats; with 3 or 4 rats for each of the three different experiments noted in the three regimens) by intratesticular injection of a mammalian expression vector pCI-neo (pCI-neo/F5-peptide) vs...
February 11, 2019: Contraception
Steven K Malin, Emily L Kullman, Amanda R Scelsi, Jean-Philippe Godin, Alastair B Ross, John P Kirwan
INTRODUCTION: Few data exist examining the effects of whole grain (WG) versus refined grain (RG) diets on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and β-cell function. METHODS: In a double-blind crossover randomized controlled trial, 13 sedentary prediabetic adults (37.2±1.8 y, BMI: 33.6±1.4 kg/m2 , 2h glucose: 146.9±11.6 mg/dl) were provided isocaloric-matched WG and RG diets for 8-weeks each, with an 8-10 week washout between diets. Glucose, insulin and C-peptide metabolism was studied over 240 min following a 75g OGTT...
February 14, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Pedro Montes, Rosa María Vigueras-Villaseñor, Julio César Rojas-Castañeda, Tomas Monfil, Miguel Cervantes, Gabriela Moralí
OBJECTIVE: Rats treated with progesterone (P4) after ischemia show an adequate functional performance despite a significant loss of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, suggesting that P4 could favour a permissive microenvironment for cerebral plasticity mechanisms. The possibility of P4 treatment promoting the survival of newly generated hippocampal neurons, in relation to the performance of ischemic rats in a spatial learning task, was assessed in this study. METHODS: Adult male rats were subjected to a severe global cerebral ischemia episode (30 min) and treated with P4 or its vehicle at 15 min, 2, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h of reperfusion...
February 14, 2019: Neurological Research
Xiaobin Xu, Shijun Fan, Yuanqiao Guo, Ruei Tan, Junyu Zhang, Wenhua Zhang, Bing-Xing Pan, Nobumasa Kato
INTRODUCTION: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor widely used to manufacture consumer goods. Although the thyroid hormone (TH) disrupting potential of BPA has been thought to be responsible for the neuropsychiatric deficits in the animals that experienced perinatal BPA exposure, the TH availability change at the level of specific brain structures has not been subject to systematic investigation. METHODS: In the present study the impacts of perinatal BPA exposure (0...
February 13, 2019: Brain and Behavior
Stella Campo, Luz Andreone, Verónica Ambao, Mariela Urrutia, Ricardo S Calandra, Susana B Rulli
The Follicle-Stimulating Hormone plays an important role in the regulation of gametogenesis. It is synthesized and secreted as a family of glycoforms with differing oligosaccharide structure, biological action, and half-life. The presence of these oligosaccharides is absolutely necessary for the full expression of hormone bioactivity at the level of the target cell. The endocrine milieu modulates the glycosylation of this hormone. During male sexual development a progressive increase in FSH sialylation and in the proportion of glycoforms bearing complex oligosaccharides are the main features in this physiological condition...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Bernard Freudenthal, Samiksha Shetty, Natalie C Butterfield, John G Logan, Cho Rong Han, Xu-Guang Zhu, Inna Astapova, Anthony N Hollenberg, Sheue-Yann Cheng, J H Duncan Bassett, Graham Williams
Background Thyroid hormones act in bone and cartilage via thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα). In the absence of T3, TRα interacts with co-repressors, including nuclear receptor co-repressor-1 (NCoR1), which recruit histone deacetylases (HDACs) and mediate transcriptional repression. Dominant-negative mutations of TRα cause resistance to thyroid hormone α (RTHα; OMIM 614450), characterized by excessive repression of T3 target genes leading to delayed skeletal development, growth retardation and bone dysplasia...
February 14, 2019: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Marie France Bouchard, Francis Bergeron, Jasmine Grenier Delaney, Louis-Mathieu Harvey, Robert S Viger
GATA4 is an essential transcriptional regulator required for gonadal development, differentiation, and function. In the developing testis, proposed GATA4-regulated genes include steroidogenic factor 1 (Nr5a1), SRY-related HMG box 9 (Sox9), and anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh). While some of these genes have been validated as genuine GATA4 targets, it remains unclear whether GATA4 is a direct regulator of endogenous Amh transcription. We used a CRISPR/Cas9-based approach to specifically inactivate or delete the sole GATA binding motif of the proximal mouse Amh promoter...
February 13, 2019: Endocrinology
Ping Chen, Winnie Sohn, Adimoolam Narayanan, Per Olsson Gisleskog, Murad Melhem
AIMS: To develop a pharmacokinetic (PK) and PK-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model of cinacalcet, in adults and paediatrics with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) on dialysis. To test covariates of interest, and to perform simulations to inform dosing in paediatrics with SHPT. METHODS: Cinacalcet PK, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and corrected calcium (cCa) time courses following multiple daily oral doses (1-300 mg) were modelled using a nonlinear mixed effects modelling approach using data from 8 clinical studies...
February 12, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Lindsey N Marshall, Céline J Vivien, Fabrice Girardot, Louise Péricard, Pierluigi Scerbo, Karima Palmier, Barbara A Demeneix, Laurent Coen
Despite therapeutic advances, heart failure is the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, but why cardiac regenerative capacity is lost in adult humans remains an enigma. Cardiac regenerative capacity widely varies across vertebrates. Zebrafish and newt hearts regenerate throughout life. In mice, this ability is lost in the first postnatal week, a period physiologically similar to thyroid hormone (TH)-regulated metamorphosis in anuran amphibians. We thus assessed heart regeneration in Xenopus laevis before, during, and after TH-dependent metamorphosis...
February 12, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jennifer A Brown, Jonathan J Wisco
INTRODUCTION: The focus of this brief literature review is to explore whether there is a relationship between the unique anatomical and physiological paradigms of the adolescent brain and an increased sensitivity to sexually explicit material. METHODS: The EBSCO Research Data bases were searched using the following key terms: adolescence, adolescent brain development, neuroplasticity, sexually explicit material, sexualization, and pornography. RESULTS: The literature highlighted several components of the adolescent brain that are different than the mature brain...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Adolescence
Georgia Ntali, Stylianos Tsagarakis
PURPOSE: It is estimated that approximately 69 million individuals worldwide will sustain a TBI each year, which accounts for substantial morbidity and mortality in both children and adults. TBI may lead to significant neuroendocrine changes, if the delicate pituitary is ruptured. In this review, we focus on the anterior pituitary hormonal changes in the acute post-TBI period and we present the evidence supporting the need for screening of anterior pituitary function in the early post-TBI time along with current suggestions regarding the endocrine assessment and management of these patients...
February 12, 2019: Pituitary
Mirea Hancevic, Hrvoje Bilic, Barbara Sitas, Gordana Pavlisa, Fran Borovecki, Ivana Munitic, Ervina Bilic
ALS is the most frequent motor neuron disorder in adults with suggested complex relationship regarding gender. Studies investigating ALS and hormones have provided varying results. ALS onset during pregnancy is uncommon and pregnancy after the ALS symptom onset is even rarer. We present three patients with the onset of ALS symptoms before or during pregnancy and propose a putative disease modifying mechanism leading to attenuation of disease progression that we observed during the pregnancies.
February 11, 2019: Neurological Sciences
Morgane Touzot, Loïc Teulier, Thierry Lengagne, Jean Secondi, Marc Théry, Paul-Antoine Libourel, Ludovic Guillard, Nathalie Mondy
The presence of artificial light at night (ALAN) is currently a global phenomenon. By altering the photoperiod, ALAN may directly affect the physiology and behaviour of many organisms, such as the timing of daily rhythms, hormonal regulation, food intake, metabolism, migration and reproduction. Surprisingly while it is known that ALAN exposure strongly influences health of humans and laboratory animals, studies on wildlife remain scarce. Amphibians are one of the most nocturnal groups of vertebrates and exhibit an unfavourable conservation status in most parts of the world...
2019: Conservation Physiology
Alina Oprea, Nicolas C G Bonnet, Olivier Pollé, Philippe A Lysy
Adrenal insufficiency is defined as impaired adrenocortical hormone synthesis. According to its source, the deficit is classified as primary (adrenal steroidogenesis impairment), secondary (pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone deficit) or tertiary (hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone deficit). The management of adrenal insufficiency resides primarily in physiological replacement of glucocorticoid secretion. Standard glucocorticoid therapy is shrouded in several controversies. Along the difficulties arising from the inability to accurately replicate the pulsatile circadian cortisol rhythm, come the uncertainties of dose adjustment and treatment monitoring (absence of reliable biomarkers)...
2019: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Chao Wu, Yu Ding, Biqing Chen, Yayue Gao, Qian Wang, Zhemeng Wu, Lingxi Lu, Lu Luo, Changxin Zhang, Xiaohan Bao, Pengcheng Yang, Langchen Fan, Ming Lei, Liang Li
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) can be modulated by both the Val158Met (rs4680) polymorphism of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) gene and the menstrual-cycle-related hormone fluctuations, each of which affects the subcortical/cortical dopamine metabolism. PPI can also be modulated by attention. The attentional modulation of PPI (AMPPI) is sensitive to psychoses. Whether the Val158Met polymorphism affects the AMPPI in female adults at different menstrual-cycle phases is unknown. This study examined whether AMPPI and/or PPI are affected by the Val158Met polymorphism in 177 younger-adult females whose menstrual cycles were mutually different across the menstruation, proliferative, or secretory phases...
February 8, 2019: Neuroscience
Nicole Keating, Nicole Zeak, Sheryl S Smith
CA1 hippocampal expression of α4βδ GABAA receptors (GABARs) increases at the onset of puberty in female mice, an effect dependent upon the decline in hippocampal levels of the neurosteroid THP (3α-OH-5α-pregnan-20-one) which occurs at this time. The present study further characterized the mechanisms underlying α4βδ expression, assessed in vivo. Blockade of pubertal levels of 17β-estradiol (E2 ) (formestane, 0.5 mg/kg, i.p. 3 d) reduced α4 and δ expression by 75-80% (P < 0.05) in CA1 hippocampus of female mice, assessed using Western blot techniques...
February 8, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Kr Roversi, Caren Tatiane de David Antoniazzi, L H Milanesi, H Z Rosa, M Kronbauer, D R Rossato, T Duarte, M M Duarte, Marilise E Burger
Depression is a common psychiatric disease which pharmacological treatment relieves symptoms, but still far from ideal. Tactile stimulation (TS) has shown beneficial influences in neuropsychiatric disorders, but the mechanism of action is not clear. Here, we evaluated the TS influence when applied on adult female rats previously exposed to a reserpine-induced depression-like animal model. Immediately after reserpine model (1 mg/kg/mL, 1×/day, for 3 days), female Wistar rats were submitted to TS (15 min, 3×/day, for 8 days) or not (unhandled)...
February 11, 2019: Molecular Neurobiology
Danielle J Burgess, Emily S Dorey, Emelie M Gardebjer, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Karen M Moritz, James S M Cuffe
Ethanol consumption during pregnancy alters offspring hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. However, little is known about the outcomes of alcohol consumption confined to the periconceptional period. This study investigated the effects of periconceptional ethanol (PC:EtOH) exposure on corticosterone concentrations, response to restraint stress and gene expression of adrenal, hypothalamic, and hippocampal glucocorticoid-related pathways in rat offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with PC:EtOH (12...
February 11, 2019: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
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