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Scorpion snake

John P Dunbar, Ronan Sulpice, Michel M Dugon
INTRODUCTION: Snakes, insects, arachnids and myriapods have been linked to necrosis following envenomation. However, the pathways involved in arthropod venom-induced necrosis remain a highly controversial topic among toxinologists, clinicians and the public. On the one hand, clinicians report on alleged envenomations based on symptoms and the victims' information. On the other hand, toxinologists and zoologists argue that symptoms are incompatible with the known venom activity of target species...
February 26, 2019: Clinical Toxicology
David A Warrell
This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, and treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, insects, and scorpions; and poisoning by ingestion of fish, turtles, and shellfish. Invertebrate stings cause fatalities by anaphylaxis, secondary to acquired hypersensitivity (Hymenoptera, such as bees, wasps, and ants; and jellyfish), and by direct envenoming (scorpions, spiders, jellyfish, and echinoderms). Simple preventive techniques, such as wearing protective clothing, using a flashlight at night, and excluding venomous animals from sleeping quarters, are of paramount importance to reduce the risk of venomous bites and stings...
March 2019: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
Richard G Coss, Cailey Cavanaugh, Whitney Brennan
In many primates, the acoustic properties of alarm calls can provide information on the level of perceived predatory threat as well as influence the antipredator behavior of nearby conspecifics. The present study examined the harmonics-to-noise ratio (tonality of spectral structure) of alarm calls emitted by white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in trees directed at photographic models of a boa constrictor, neotropical rattlesnake, scorpion eater snake, and white snake-shaped control presented on the ground...
January 21, 2019: American Journal of Primatology
Benny Bar-On
A wide variety of animals-from insects to snakes-crucially depend on their ability to inject venom into their target, be it their prey or their predator. To effectively deliver their venom, venomous animals use a specialized biomechanical element whose tip must penetrate through the integument of the target. During this process, the tip of the venom-injection element (VIE) is subject to local forces, which may deform it and cause considerable structural damage to the VIE, with devastating consequences for the survival of the animal or, in the case of eusocial insects, to the colony...
December 21, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Bhaswati Chatterjee
The resistance to chemotherapeutics by the cancerous cells has made its treatment more complicated. Animal venoms have emerged as an alternative strategy for anti-cancer therapeutics. Animal venoms are cocktails of complex bioactive chemicals mainly disulfide rich proteins and peptides with diverse pharmacological actions. The components of venoms are specific, stable, and potent and have the ability to modify their molecular targets thus making them good therapeutics candidates. The isolation of cancer specific components from animal venoms is one of the exciting strategies in anti-cancer research...
December 21, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Erick Bermúdez-Méndez, Albert Fuglsang-Madsen, Sofie Føns, Bruno Lomonte, José María Gutiérrez, Andreas Hougaard Laustsen
Snakes, scorpions, and spiders are venomous animals that pose a threat to human health, and severe envenomings from the bites or stings of these animals must be treated with antivenom. Current antivenoms are based on plasma-derived immunoglobulins or immunoglobulin fragments from hyper-immunized animals. Although these medicines have been life-saving for more than 120 years, opportunities to improve envenoming therapy exist. In the later decades, new biotechnological tools have been applied with the aim of improving the efficacy, safety, and affordability of antivenoms...
November 2, 2018: Toxins
Ehsan Alirahimi, Fatemeh Kazemi-Lomedasht, Delavar Shahbazzadeh, Mahdi Habibi-Anbouhi, Mohammad Hosseininejad Chafi, Nazli Sotoudeh, Hajarossadat Ghaderi, Serge Muyldermans, Mahdi Behdani
BACKGROUND: An effective therapy against envenoming should be a priority in view of the high number scorpion stings and snakebites. Serum therapy is still widely applied to treat the envenomation victims; however this approach suffers from several shortcomings. The employment of monoclonal antibodies might be an outcome as these molecules are at the core of a variety of applications from protein structure determination to cancer treatment. The progress of activities in the twilight zone between genetic and antibody engineering have led to the development of a unique class of antibody fragments...
December 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. General Subjects
Ajay Mishra, Aditya Binu, George Abraham, Harshad Vanjare, Tina George, Ramya Iyadurai
BACKGROUND: Neurological complications following snake and scorpion bite are diverse. Literature regarding patterns of cerebrovascular injury (CVI) and outcomes among these patients is scarce. This is a descriptive study of the clinical profile, brain imaging findings, mechanisms of injury, vascular territory involvement and outcomes of CVI following scorpion and snake envenomation, in a tertiary care center in South India.MethodologyPatients with scorpion sting- and snake envenomation-related complications were retrospectively enrolled...
October 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Oussema Khamessi, Hazem Ben Mabrouk, Houcemeddine Othman, Rym ElFessi-Magouri, Michel De Waard, Mejdoub Hafedh, Naziha Marrakchi, Najet Srairi-Abid, Riadh Kharrat
Scorpion peptides are well known for their pharmaceutical potential on different targets. These include mainly the ion channels which were found to be highly expressed in many diseases, including cancer, auto-immune pathologies and Alzheimer. So far, however, the disintegrin activity had only been characterized for snake venom molecules. Herein, we present the first short peptide, purified from the venom of Buthus occitanus tunetanus, (termed RK) able to inhibit the cell adhesion of Glioblastoma, Melanoma and Rat pheochromocytoma to different extracellular matrix (ECM) receptors...
December 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ameer Khusro, Chirom Aarti, Alberto Barbabosa-Pliego, Raymundo Rene Rivas-Cáceres, Moisés Cipriano-Salazar
Cancer and infectious diseases are the preeminent causes of human morbidities and mortalities worldwide. At present, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and gene therapy are considered as predominant options in order to treat cancer. But these therapies provide inadequate consequences by affecting both the normal and tumor cells. On the other hand, tuberculosis (TB), and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infections are significant threats, causing over a million mortalities each year. The extensive applications of antibiotics have caused the microbes to acquire resistance to the existing antibiotics...
September 6, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Don Walter Kannangara, Pritiben Patel
Erythema migrans (EM) rashes once considered pathognomonic of Lyme disease (LD) have been reported following bites of arthropods that do not transmit LD and in areas with no LD. Also, EM rashes have been reported in association with organisms other than members of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. Arthropod saliva has chemicals that have effects on the host and pathogen transmission. Tick saliva has protein families similar to spiders and scorpions and even substances homologous to those found in snakes and other venomous animals...
August 21, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Xian-Hong Ji, Shang-Fei Zhang, Bin Gao, Shun-Yi Zhu
Three-finger toxins (TFTs) are well-recognized non-enzymatic venom proteins found in snakes. However, although TFTs exhibit accelerated evolution, the drivers of this evolution remain poorly understood. The structural complexes between long-chain α-neurotoxins, a subfamily of TFTs, and their nicotinic acetylcholine receptor targets have been determined in previous research, providing an opportunity to address such questions. In the current study, we observed several previously identified positively selected sites (PSSs) and the highly variable C-terminal loop of these toxins at the toxin/receptor interface...
November 18, 2018: Zoological Research
Jason Macrander, Jyothirmayi Panda, Daniel Janies, Marymegan Daly, Adam M Reitzel
The advent of next-generation sequencing has resulted in transcriptome-based approaches to investigate functionally significant biological components in a variety of non-model organism. This has resulted in the area of "venomics": a rapidly growing field using combined transcriptomic and proteomic datasets to characterize toxin diversity in a variety of venomous taxa. Ultimately, the transcriptomic portion of these analyses follows very similar pathways after transcriptome assembly often including candidate toxin identification using BLAST, expression level screening, protein sequence alignment, gene tree reconstruction, and characterization of potential toxin function...
2018: PeerJ
Agnieszka Klupczynska, Magdalena Pawlak, Zenon J Kokot, Jan Matysiak
Both venoms and poisonous secretions are complex mixtures that assist in defense, predation, communication, and competition in the animal world. They consist of variable bioactive molecules, such as proteins, peptides, salts and also metabolites. Metabolomics opens up new perspectives for the study of venoms and poisons as it gives an opportunity to investigate their previously unexplored low molecular-weight components. The aim of this article is to summarize the available literature where metabolomic technologies were used for examining the composition of animal venoms and poisons...
July 24, 2018: Toxins
Aynur Şahin, Mualla Aylin Arıcı, Nil Hocaoğlu, Şule Kalkan, Yeşim Tunçok
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the distribution of bite and sting cases presenting to a district public hospital and the use of antivenom in scorpion sting and snake bite cases. METHODS: The demographic characteristics of patients with bites/stings reporting to a public hospital in 2014, the agent involved, the season of reporting, severity of clinical findings during presentation, and use of antivenom in scorpion sting and snake bite cases were evaluated retrospectively...
July 2018: Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
Naqab Khan, Zahid Rasul Niazi, Fazu Ur Rehman, Anum Akhtar, Maryam Muhammad Khan, Samiullah Khan, Natasha Baloch, Sheraz Khan
BACKGROUND: Hyaluronidase is the most important enzyme found in the interstitial matrix, effectively degrading the hyaluronic acid. Hyaluronidases are extensively found in the venom of various animals such as snake, scorpion, spider and others. Up till now five venom hyaluronidases are identified with a defined three-dimensional structure. These enzymes are involved in different biochemical, physiological and pathological conditions like degradation of hyaluronic acid, embryogenesis, transmembrane diffusion of drugs and toxins, inflammatory and allergic response to antigens, healing of wounds, bacterial meningitis, bacteremia and pneumonia...
2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Bushra Uzair, Rabia Bushra, Barkat Ali Khan, Sarwat Zareen, Fehmida Fasim
BACKGROUND: For about 30 years Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has been a significant social and health issue. It has been a perilous opponent in the human contest against HIV. At the end of 2015 there were 26.7 million people worldwide who were affected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and this number is expected to increase. Unfortunately, currently there are no vaccines available for prevention and control of HIV. The global burden of HIV articulates the need for anti-HIV therapeutic factors...
2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Matthew L Holding, Mark J Margres, Andrew J Mason, Christopher L Parkinson, Darin R Rokyta
Venom-gland transcriptomics is a key tool in the study of the evolution, ecology, function, and pharmacology of animal venoms. In particular, gene-expression variation and coding sequences gained through transcriptomics provide key information for explaining functional venom variation over both ecological and evolutionary timescales. The accuracy and usefulness of inferences made through transcriptomics, however, is limited by the accuracy of the transcriptome assembly, which is a bioinformatic problem with several possible solutions...
June 19, 2018: Toxins
Naqab Khan, Zahid Rasul Niazi, Nauman Rahim Khan, Kifayatullah Shah, Khurram Rehman, Abdul Wahab, Samiullah Khan
BACKGROUND: Arthropods such as scorpion, snake, insects, and spider as well as the marine animals like sea anemone and cone snails are venomous animals producing venoms with a complex mixture of peptide, poly peptides and small proteins. The disulfide rich peptides isolated from these animals are potent substances which specifically and selectively modulate different ion channels. The significant characteristics of these distinctive pharmacologically potent compounds highlights the molecular details of their peptide-ion channels interactions as well as provides the opportunities for the development of novel and natural therapeutic agents to treat various diseases including neurological disorders also...
2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Karina F Zoccal, Giovana Z Ferreira, Morgana K B Prado, Luiz G Gardinassi, Suely V Sampaio, Lúcia H Faccioli
Envenomation by Bothrops snakes promotes the release of inflammatory mediators, whose effects during this context are not well understood. These mediators include chemokines, cytokines and eicosanoids. Indeed, Bothrops snake envenomation results in local and systemic perturbations, including leukocyte recruitment, edema, pain and extensive tissue damage. Recently, our group demonstrated that leukotriene B4 (LTB4 ) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) regulate macrophage production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) induced by scorpion venom...
August 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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