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anesthesia And thalamus

Yu Zhang, Bao Fu, Chengxi Liu, Shouyang Yu, Tianyuan Luo, Lin Zhang, Wenjing Zhou, Tian Yu
Electroencephalogram monitoring during propofol (PRO) anesthesia typically features low-frequency oscillations, which may be involved with thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) modulation. TRN receives noradrenergic inputs from the locus coeruleus (LC). We hypothesized that specific noradrenergic connections in the TRN may contribute to the emergence from PRO anesthesia. Intranuclei norepinephrine (NE) injections ( n = 10) and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) ( n = 10) were used to investigate the role of noradrenergic inputs from the LC to the TRN during PRO anesthesia...
March 12, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Taylor J Woodward, Tamara Timic Stamenic, Slobodan M Todorovic
Ample evidence has surfaced documenting the neurotoxic effects of various general anesthetic (GA) agents in the mammalian brain when administered at critical periods of synaptogenesis. However, little is known about how this neurotoxic insult affects persisting neuronal excitability after the initial exposure. Here we investigated synaptic activity and intrinsic excitability of the ventrobasal nucleus (VB) of the thalamus caused by neonatal GA administration. We used patch-clamp recordings from acute thalamic slices in young rats up to two weeks after neurotoxic GA exposure of isoflurane and nitrous oxide for 6 h at postnatal age of 7 (P7) days...
February 27, 2019: Neurobiology of Disease
Patrick Sanvanson, Zhixin Li, Ling Mei, Venelin Kounev, Mark K Kern, B Douglas Ward, Bidyut K Medda, Reza Shaker
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Esophageal acid sensory signals are transmitted by both vagal and spinal pathways to the cerebral cortex. The influence and interplay of these pathways on the esophageal acid-related functional connectivity has been elusive. The aim is to evaluate the esophageal acid exposure-related effect on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) functional connectivity networks using functional MRI-guided functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) analysis. METHODS: We studied 6 Sprague-Dawley rats for fcMRI experiments under dexmedetomidine hydrochloride anesthesia...
February 28, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Jahahreeh Finley
The neural correlates of consciousness and the mechanisms by which general anesthesia (GA) modulate such correlates to induce loss of consciousness (LOC) has been described as one of the biggest mysteries of modern medicine. Several cellular targets and neural circuits have been identified that play a critical role in LOC induced by GA, including the GABAA receptor and ascending arousal nuclei located in the basal forebrain, hypothalamus, and brain stem. General anesthetics (GAs) including propofol and inhalational agents induce LOC in part by potentiating chloride influx through the GABAA receptor, leading to neural inhibition and LOC...
March 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Tamara Timic Stamenic, Simon Feseha, Robert Valdez, Wanzhu Zhao, Jost Klawitter, Slobodan M Todorovic
Although the central medial nucleus (CeM) of the thalamus is an essential part of the arousal system for sleep and anesthesia initiation, the precise mechanisms that regulate its activity are not well studied. We examined the role of CaV3.1 isoform of T-type calcium channels (T-channels) in the excitability and rhythmic activity of CeM neurons during isoflurane (ISO)-induced anesthesia by using mouse genetics and selective pharmacology. Patch-clamp recordings taken from acute brain slices revealed that CaV3...
January 31, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Shin-Lei Peng, Han Chiu, Chun-Yi Wu, Chiun-Wei Huang, Yi-Hsiu Chung, Cheng-Ting Shih, Wu-Chung Shen
RATIONALE: Caffeine is a widely studied psychostimulant, even though its exact effect on brain activity remains to be elucidated. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows studying mechanisms underlying cerebral metabolic responses to caffeine in caffeine-naïve rats. Rodent studies are typically performed under anesthesia. However, the anesthesia may affect neurotransmitter systems targeted by tested drugs. OBJECTIVES: The scope of the present study was to address the impairing or enhancing effect of two common anesthetics, alpha-chloralose and isoflurane, on the kinetics of caffeine...
January 2, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Tianyuan Luo, Shouyang Yu, Shuang Cai, Yu Zhang, Yingfu Jiao, Tian Yu, Weifeng Yu
General anesthesia has been used clinically for more than 170 years, yet its underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. The parabrachial nucleus (PBN) in the brainstem has been known to be crucial for regulating wakefulness and signs of arousal on the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG). Lesions of the parabrachial complex lead to unresponsiveness and a monotonous high-voltage, and a slow-wave EEG, which are the two main features of general anesthesia. However, it is unclear whether and how the PBN functions in the process of general anesthesia...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Hamzah Yasin, Hans-Joachim Hoff, Ingmar Blümcke, Matthias Simon
OBJECTIVE: Stereotactic biopsy is a standard procedure in neurosurgery. In addition to or even replacing frame-based stereotaxy some centers also utilize frameless imaging-based techniques and more recently robotic systems. Here we report a retrospective analysis of our experience with 102 consecutive biopsies performed in our institution using the neuromate® robotic device. METHODS: Between March 2013 and April 2018, 102 robot-assisted frameless biopsies were performed in 100 consecutive patients (median age/ range: 66/ 7-86 yrs...
November 27, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Sunny Goel, Gaurav Garg, Manoj Kumar, Ruchir Aeron
The report describes a case of peri-operative stroke that presented as diplopia and gait difficulty on 2nd post-operative day after routine orchidopexy under spinal anesthesia in an otherwise healthy young boy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed acute infarct in bilateral cerebellar hemispheres, left half of medulla and left thalamus. A diagnosis of acute stroke (infarct) was made and patient was started on oral aspirin , following which his vision started improving after 2 weeks. Possible mechanisms of development of stroke in the peri-operative period are discussed, but, even after extensive investigations, the etiology of infarct may be difficult to determine...
November 13, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Shuancheng Ren, Yaling Wang, Faguo Yue, Xiaofang Cheng, Ruozhi Dang, Qicheng Qiao, Xueqi Sun, Xin Li, Qian Jiang, Jiwei Yao, Han Qin, Guanzhong Wang, Xiang Liao, Dong Gao, Jianxia Xia, Jun Zhang, Bo Hu, Junan Yan, Yanjiang Wang, Min Xu, Yunyun Han, Xiangdong Tang, Xiaowei Chen, Chao He, Zhian Hu
Clinical observations indicate that the paramedian region of the thalamus is a critical node for controlling wakefulness. However, the specific nucleus and neural circuitry for this function remain unknown. Using in vivo fiber photometry or multichannel electrophysiological recordings in mice, we found that glutamatergic neurons of the paraventricular thalamus (PVT) exhibited high activities during wakefulness. Suppression of PVT neuronal activity caused a reduction in wakefulness, whereas activation of PVT neurons induced a transition from sleep to wakefulness and an acceleration of emergence from general anesthesia...
October 26, 2018: Science
F Qin, Z C Huang, M Q Cai, X F Xu, T T Lu, Q Dong, A M Wu, Z Z Lu, C Zhao, Y Guo
Objective: To investigate the value of stereotactic biopsy in the accurate diagnosis of lesions in the brain stem and deep brain. Methods: A total of 29 consecutive patients who underwent stereotactic biopsy of brainstem and deep brain lesions between May 2012 and January 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. The Cosman-Roberts-Wells (CRW) stereotactic frame was installed under local anesthesia. Thin-layer CT and MRI scanning were performed. Target coordinates were calculated by inputting CT-MRI data into the radionics surgical planning system...
June 12, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
De-Zhang Lu, Xiu-Jing Feng, Kui Hu, Sheng Jiang, Lin Li, Xin-Wu Ma, Hong-Gang Fan
Zoletil is an anesthetic and immobilizing drug that has been used in the veterinary field for over 50 years; however, the effect of Zoletil, or its constituents, on brain cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) remains unknown. Here, we aimed to determine the effect of Zoletil on rat brain CBS by administering a single intraperitoneal injection of the drug and examining hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and CBS levels in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus following three distinct behavioral phenotypes associated with the sedation procedure (e...
October 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Kaitlin Krebs, Chris Rorden, X Michelle Androulakis
OBJECTIVE: In this pilot study, the purpose is to investigate if a series of sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) blockade treatments modulate the functional connectivity within the salience and central executive network (CEN) in chronic migraine with medication overuse headaches (CMw/MOH ). BACKGROUND: Using intranasal local anesthesia to block the SPG for the treatment of various headache disorders has been employed in clinical practice since the early 1900s. However, the exact mechanism of how SPG modulate resting state intrinsic functional brain networks connectivity remains to be elucidated...
May 2018: Headache
Prasert Iampreechakul, Adisak Tanpun, Punjama Lertbusayanukul, Somkiet Siriwimonmas
We describe a patient with traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF), subsequently developing contralateral extensive hemorrhagic venous infarction from retrograde venous reflux into the opposite basal vein of Rosenthal. A 54-year-old woman was involved in a motor vehicle accident and sustained severe traumatic brain injury. Two months later, she developed bilateral proptosis and audible bruit. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the brain demonstrated the right direct CCF...
October 2018: Interventional Neuroradiology
Frédéric L W V J Schaper, Yan Zhao, Marcus L F Janssen, G Louis Wagner, Albert J Colon, Danny M W Hilkman, Erik Gommer, Mariëlle C G Vlooswijk, Govert Hoogland, Linda Ackermans, Lo J Bour, Richard J A Van Wezel, Paul Boon, Yasin Temel, Tjitske Heida, Vivianne H J M Van Kranen-Mastenbroek, Rob P W Rouhl
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) is a promising treatment for patients with refractory epilepsy. However, therapy response varies and precise positioning of the DBS lead is potentially essential for maximizing therapeutic efficacy. We investigate if single-cell recordings acquired by microelectrode recordings can aid targeting of the ANT during surgery and hypothesize that the neuronal firing properties of the target region relate to clinical outcome. We prospectively included 10 refractory epilepsy patients and performed microelectrode recordings under general anesthesia to identify the change in neuronal signals when approaching and transecting the ANT...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Neural Systems
Melinda Barkhuizen, Fleur J P van Dijck, Reint K Jellema, Ruth Gussenhoven, Imke Engelbertink, Ralph van Mechelen, Jack P M Cleutjens, Matthias Seehase, Harry W M Steinbusch, Luc J Zimmermann, A W Danilo Gavilanes, Boris W Kramer
BackgroundGeneral anesthetics could protect key neurotransmitter systems, such as the dopaminergic system, from hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) by limiting excessive glutamatergic neurotransmission. However, anesthetics may adversely affect inflammation and tau phosphorylation.MethodsA near-term sheep model of HIE by umbilical cord occlusion (UCO) under anesthesia was used. The effect of propofol and isoflurane on the dopaminergic neurotransmitter phenotype in the substantia nigra (SN) was studied using tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry...
June 2018: Pediatric Research
Hyun-Ji Shim, Won Beom Jung, Felix Schlegel, Joonsung Lee, Sangwoo Kim, Jungryun Lee, Seong-Gi Kim
Mouse fMRI is critically useful to investigate functions of mouse models. Until now, the somatosensory-evoked responses in anesthetized mice are often widespread and inconsistent across reports. Here, we adopted a ketamine and xylazine mixture for mouse fMRI, which is relatively new anesthetics in fMRI experiments. Forepaw stimulation frequency was optimized using cerebral blood volume (CBV)-weighted optical imaging (n = 11) and blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) fMRI with a gradient-echo time of 16 ms at 9...
August 15, 2018: NeuroImage
Artem Shatillo, Arto Lipponen, Raimo A Salo, Heikki Tanila, Alexei Verkhratsky, Rashid Giniatullin, Olli H Gröhn
We report spontaneous hemodynamic activity termed "Spontaneous BOLD Waves" (SBWs) detected by BOLD fMRI in Sprague-Dawley rats under medetomidine anesthesia. These SBWs, which lasted several minutes, were observed in cortex, thalamus and hippocampus. The SBWs' correlates were undetectable in electrophysiological recordings, suggesting an exclusive gliovascular phenomenon dissociated from neuronal activity. SBWs were insensitive to the NMDA receptors antagonist MK-801 but were inhibited by the α1-adrenoceptor blocker prazosin...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Yanzhu Fan, Xizi Yue, Fei Xue, Steven E Brauth, Yezhong Tang, Guangzhan Fang
Background: Previous studies have shown that the mammalian thalamus is a key structure for anesthesia-induced unconsciousness and anesthesia-awakening regulation. However, both the dynamic characteristics and probable lateralization of thalamic functioning during anesthesia-awakening regulation are not fully understood, and little is known of the evolutionary basis of the role of the thalamus in anesthesia-awakening regulation. Methods: An amphibian species, the South African clawed frog ( Xenopus laevis ) was used in the present study...
2018: PeerJ
Yun Li, Shengpei Wang, Chuxiong Pan, Fushan Xue, Junfang Xian, Yaqi Huang, Xiaoyi Wang, Tianzuo Li, Huiguang He
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of general anesthesia (GA) has been explored for hundreds of years, but unclear. Previous studies indicated a possible correlation between NREM sleep and GA. The purpose of this study is to compare them by in vivo human brain function to probe the neuromechanism of consciousness, so as to find out a clue to GA mechanism. METHODS: 24 healthy participants were equally assigned to sleep or propofol sedation group by sleeping ability. EEG and Ramsay Sedation Scale were applied to determine sleep stage and sedation depth respectively...
2018: PloS One
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