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Victor Manuel Martinez Alvarez, Mauricio D Coutinho-Filho
The ground state (GS) properties of the quasi-one-dimensional AB<sub>2</sub> Hubbard model are investigated taking the effects of charge and spin quantum fluctuations on equal footing. In the strong-coupling regime, a functional integral representation allows us to derive a low-energy Lagrangian suitable to describe the ferrimagnetic phase at half filling and the phases in the hole-doped regime. At half filling, a perturbative spin-wave analysis allows us to find the GS energy, sublattice magnetizations, and total spin per unit cell in the Lieb ferrimagnetic GS of the effective quantum Heisenberg model, in very good agreement with previous results...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Rob Hooley, Andy Brown, Rik Brydson
We report electron fluence thresholds for the degradation of calcite nanoparticles under electron irradiation by both conventional and scanning TEM (CTEM and STEM), using time resolved phase contrast imaging and EDX spectroscopy at both 80 kV and 300 kV accelerating voltages. We show that the degradation pathway of calcite involves disruption of the crystal lattice with the evolution of pores and transformation to calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. Depending on irradiation conditions (CTEM or STEM), the calcium oxide formed can be either amorphous or crystalline, with the formation of the latter apparently being hindered by hydrocarbon contamination build up in STEM...
January 29, 2019: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Soukaina Motia, Ioan Albert Tudor, Paulo Antonio Ribeiro, Maria Raposo, Benachir Bouchikhi, Nezha El Bari
Triclosan (TCS) is a topical antiseptic widely used in different cosmetic products. It is also a common additive in many antimicrobial household consumables. Over a certain concentration, it becomes risky for human and environmental health. This work describes the development of an electrochemical sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), assembled on screen-printed gold electrode (Au-SPE), dedicated to the TCS detection in environmental water sources. To achieve this goal, an acrylamide/bisacrylamide solution was polymerized after linking TCS with the carboxylic polyvinyl chloride (PVC-COOH) layer onto the Au-SPE...
January 26, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Corinna Pietsch, Uwe G Liebert
BACKGROUND: Sapovirus is a common cause of self-limiting diarrhea. In immunocompromised individuals chronic infections occur, but are incompletely investigated. OBJECTIVES: To investigate viral evolution in immunocompromised hosts during chronic sapovirus infection. STUDY DESIGN: From January 2010 to September 2018 stool samples of 5333 in-patients were analyzed for the presence of sapovirus RNA by real-time RT-PCR. In follow-up samples of chronic diarrhea cases nucleic acid sequencing of sapovirus genomes was performed...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Ka Yan Ma, Jing Qin, Chia-Wei Lin, Tin-Yam Chan, Peter K L Ng, Ka Hou Chu, Ling Ming Tsang
Recent fossil calibrated molecular phylogenies have revealed that the Brachyura underwent rapid radiation during the Cretaceous and Early Tertiary, resulting in many early diverging lineages separated by short internodes that remain difficult to resolve. Here we present the first phylogenomic analyses of Brachyura using transcriptome data from 30 brachyuran species and 22 families. Analyses were carried out on a dataset containing 372 putative homologous loci (246,590 bps) and included data from 22 newly generated transcriptomes...
February 11, 2019: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Tobias A Mattei, Carlos R Goulart, Shawn S Rai, Azeem A Rehman, Michelle Williams, Ehud Mendel
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have described the association of spinal epidural lipomatosis with several conditions including chronic steroid therapy, Cushing's syndrome, obesity, Paget's disease, and hypothyroidism. We present a report of rapid development of spinal epidural lipomatosis after treatment with second-generation anti-androgen therapy, a new strategy for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer which has been increasingly employed in the past few years...
February 11, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Palmier Mickael, Rouer Martin, Pochulu Bruno, Monnot Antoine, Plissonnier Didier
Totally occluded aortic aneurysm is a rare pathology. The medical history and the evolution are unknown. We present a case of a regular followed 60 years old man with chronic thrombosed aneurysm presenting with mycotic acute rupture. As an original treatment, the patient was treated by aortic ligation without distal revascularization. A literature review from 1974 to 2015 enhances the contemporary understanding of the pathology, by exploring the thrombus interaction, pressure and the wall shear stress. The literature review confirms the poor prognosis and concludes of a necessary closer follow up for chronic occluded aneurysm...
February 11, 2019: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Amanda Agyemang, Scott Sicherer
Peanut allergy appears to have increased in prevalence, is often severe and is typically life-long. Therefore, reducing its incidence through a primary prevention strategy is a priority. Guidelines on peanut introduction have evolved with time and given evidence of peanut allergy risk reduction with early infant ingestion exposure, the current US advice promotes early introduction for infants, particularly targeting those at highest risk. Areas covered: This article describes the evolution of peanut introduction guidelines in infants in the US, as shaped by key research over the last 20-30 years and culminates in the landmark LEAP study It also compares and contrasts current iterations of peanut introduction guidelines in infants globally...
February 14, 2019: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Juliah Khayeli Akhwale, Manfred Rohde, Christine Rohde, Boyke Bunk, Cathrin Spröer, Hans-Peter Klenk, Hamadi Iddi Boga, Johannes Wittmann
We report complete genome sequences of eight bacteriophages isolated from Haloalkaline Lake Elmenteita found on the floor of Kenyan Rift Valley. The bacteriophages were sequenced, annotated and a comparative genomic analysis using various Bioinformatics tools carried out to determine relatedness of the bacteriophages to each other, and to those in public databases. Basic genome properties like genome size, percentage coding density, number of open reading frames, percentage GC content and gene organizations revealed the bacteriophages had no relationship to each other...
2019: PloS One
Caitlin Murphy, Andrea Muscat, David Ashley, Violet Mukaro, Linda West, Yang Liao, David Chisanga, Wei Shi, Ian Collins, Sally Baron-Hay, Sujata Patil, Geoffrey Lindeman, Mustafa Khasraw
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the feasibility of achieving high response rates in stage II or III breast cancer by tailoring neoadjuvant therapy using clinical and histopathological features and the Oncotype DX Breast Recurrence Score. Genomic determinants of response and resistance were also explored. PATIENTS AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Fifty-one patients were enrolled. The primary cohort comprised 40 patients: 15 human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-amplified; 15 triple-negative (TNBC); and ten hormone receptor (HR)-positive, HER2-non-amplified tumours; with recurrence scores ≥25...
2019: PloS One
P J Moore, T J Lyons, J Gallacher
Time-dependent data collected in studies of Alzheimer's disease usually has missing and irregularly sampled data points. For this reason time series methods which assume regular sampling cannot be applied directly to the data without a pre-processing step. In this paper we use a random forest to learn the relationship between pairs of data points at different time separations. The input vector is a summary of the time series history and it includes both demographic and non-time varying variables such as genetic data...
2019: PloS One
Sai Wang, Hai-Wei Shen, Hua Chai, Yong Liang
For studying cancer and genetic diseases, the issue of identifying high correlation genes from high-dimensional data is an important problem. It is a great challenge to select relevant biomarkers from gene expression data that contains some important correlation structures, and some of the genes can be divided into different groups with a common biological function, chromosomal location or regulation. In this paper, we propose a penalized accelerated failure time model CHR-DE using a non-convex regularization (local search) with differential evolution (global search) in a wrapper-embedded memetic framework...
2019: PloS One
Qanber Raza, Jae Young Choi, Yang Li, Roisin M O'Dowd, Simon C Watkins, Maria Chikina, Yang Hong, Nathan L Clark, Adam V Kwiatkowski
The adherens junction couples the actin cytoskeletons of neighboring cells to provide the foundation for multicellular organization. The core of the adherens junction is the cadherin-catenin complex that arose early in the evolution of multicellularity to link actin to intercellular adhesions. Over time, evolutionary pressures have shaped the signaling and mechanical functions of the adherens junction to meet specific developmental and physiological demands. Evolutionary rate covariation (ERC) identifies proteins with correlated fluctuations in evolutionary rate that can reflect shared selective pressures and functions...
February 2019: PLoS Genetics
Jeffrey Colgren, Scott A Nichols
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: PLoS Genetics
Han Ju, Peng Zhan, Xinyong Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2019: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Jian Li, Tarkes Dora Pallicity, Viacheslav Slesarenko, Artemii Goshkoderia, Stephan Rudykh
Experimental observations of domain formations and pattern transitions in soft particulate composites under large deformations are reported herein. The system of stiff inclusions periodically distributed in a soft elastomeric matrix experiences dramatic microstructure changes upon the development of elastic instabilities. In the experiments, the formation of microstructures with antisymmetric domains and their geometrically tailored evolution into a variety of patterns of cooperative particle rearrangements are observed...
February 14, 2019: Advanced Materials
C Messaraa, L Doyle, A Mansfield, C O'Connor, A Mavon
OBJECTIVE: In spite of hand care being a dynamic segment of skin care, hands skin physiology has been receiving little attention in comparison to facial skin. In the present study, we aimed at gathering a comprehensive set of skin data from the dorsal part of the hand to study age related-changes in two ethnic groups (Caucasian and Chinese). METHODS: Skin topographic, skin colour/colour heterogeneities, skin chromophores and skin biophysical measurements of 116 Caucasian and Chinese female volunteers aged 30-65 years old were collected in Ireland and in China as part of a cross-sectional study...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
Bo Zhao, Xizhong An, Haiyang Zhao, Lingling Shen, Xudong Sun, Zongyan Zhou
The formation and growth of local order clusters in a tetrahedral granular assembly driven by 3D mechanical vibration were captured in DEM (discrete element method) dynamic simulation using a multi-sphere model. Two important kinds of clusters, dimer and wagon wheel structures, were observed based on which the growth behavior and mechanism of each local cluster with different orientations/structures were investigated. The results show that during vibration, dimer clusters are formed first and then most of them grow into linear trimers and tetramers...
February 14, 2019: Soft Matter
Zhenghan Fang, Yong Chen, Mingxia Liu, Lei Xiang, Qian Zhang, Qian Wang, Weili Lin, Dinggang Shen
Magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) is a quantitative imaging technique that can simultaneously measure multiple important tissue properties of human body. Although MRF has demonstrated improved scan efficiency as compared to conventional techniques, further acceleration is still desired for translation into routine clinical practice. The purpose of this work is to accelerate MRF acquisition by developing a new tissue quantification method for MRF that allows accurate quantification with fewer sampling data...
February 13, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Helwig V Wundsam, Georg O Spaun, Franziska Bräuer, Christoph Schwaiger, Ines Fischer, Reinhold Függer
BACKGROUND: The step-up approach, using either flexible endoscopy or a minimal invasive retroperitoneal access, has reduced mortality and morbidity in patients with acute pancreatitis. The use of fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMS) or lumen apposing metal stents (LAMS) facilitates endoscopic necrosectomy and drainage of walled-off necrosis (WON). The aim of our analysis was to investigate the 30/90/365-day mortality and morbidity rates of the subtypes of the revised Atlanta classification for acute pancreatitis...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
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