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Edward Cox, Sumathi Nambiar, Lindsey Baden
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 380, Issue 8, Page 783-785, February 2019.
February 21, 2019: New England Journal of Medicine
Edward McCann, Michael Brown
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore homelessness among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning plus (LGBTQ+) youth and to identify their support and care requirements. BACKGROUND: LGBTQ+ youth face many health and societal challenges including issues related to homelessness. DESIGN: A systematic review of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. METHODS: A search of relevant electronic databases was carried out and included the dates August 2008- August 2018 and limited to academic journals and peer reviewed empirical studies written in English...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Edward Pivin, Flórido André Cunha Moreira Da Silva, Luca Calanca, Sébastien Deglise, Menno Pruijm
The most frequent dialysis modality in Switzerland is hemodialysis. Patients need a proper vascular access for this modality. There are three types of vascular access for hemodialysis : arteriovenous fistula, arteriovenous graft and central venous catheters. In this article, we will discuss the most important parameters that need to be taken into account when choosing the most appropriate access. We present the advantages and disadvantages of each vascular access, as well as their main local (thrombosis, infection, steal syndrome) and systemic (heart failure, pulmonary hypertension) complications, which may also be encountered by primary care physicians...
February 20, 2019: Revue Médicale Suisse
Aurélie Edwards, Muriel Auberson, Suresh K Ramakrishnan, Olivier Bonny
The objective of this study was to investigate theoretically the mechanisms underlying uric acid transport in the proximal tubule (PT) of rat kidneys, and their modulation by factors including Na+ , parathyroid hormone (PTH), Angiotensin II, and SGLT2 inhibitors. To that end, we incorporated the transport of uric acid and its conjugate anion urate in our mathematical model of water and solute transport in the rat PT. The model accounts for parallel urate reabsorption and secretion pathways on apical and basolateral membranes, and their coupling to lactate and alpha-ketoglutarate transport...
February 20, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Valeria Castelletto, Charlotte J C Edwards-Gayle, Ian W Hamley, Glyn Barrett, Jani Seitsonen, Janne Ruokolainen
The preparation of hydrogels and stable emulsions is important in the formulation of many functional nanostructured soft materials. We investigate the multi-functional self-assembly and bioactivity properties of a novel surfactant-like peptide that shows antimicrobial activity, that is able to form hydrogels without pH adjustment, and is able to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions. Furthermore, we demonstrate on-demand de-emulsification in response to the protease enzyme elastase. We show that the surfactant-like peptide (Ala)9-Arg (A9R) forms β-sheet fibers above a critical aggregation concentration and that water-in-oil emulsions are stabilized by a coating of β-sheet fibers around the emulsion droplets...
February 20, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Matthew Decker, Patricia Sacks, Joseph Abbatematteo, Edward De Leo, Meghan Brennan, Maryam Rahman
OBJECTIVE: To define the glucose values associated with an increase in complication rates in post-operative brain tumor patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent craniotomy for resection of WHO Grade III or IV glioma from 2011 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Post-operative blood glucose values were recorded for post-operative day #0, #1, and #2. Medians were obtained and assessed for significance. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess patient demographics, pre-operative findings, steroid use, and blood glucose values with respect to post-operative complications and to 30-day readmission...
February 11, 2019: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Patrick Ssebugere, Mika Sillanpää, Henry Matovu, Edward Mubiru
This paper reviews literature for the last two decades with emphasis on levels, toxic equivalencies and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in Africa. Further, we comprehensively analysed data, interpret differences and identify existing gaps with those from other continents. We observed that high levels of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were reported in environmental and biological samples near densely populated urban and industrialised areas compared to those in rural settings...
February 13, 2019: Chemosphere
Yonit Ben-David, Sarah Morais, Johanna Stern, Itzhak Mizrahi, Edward A Bayer
Cell-surface display of designer cellulosomes complexes has attracted increased interest in recent years. These engineered microorganisms can efficiently degrade lignocellulosic biomass that represents an abundant resource for conversion into fermentable sugars, suitable for production of biofuels. The designer cellulosome is an artificial enzymatic complex that mimics the architecture of the natural cellulosome and allows the control of the positions, type, and copy number of the cellulosomal enzymes within the complex...
2019: Methods in Enzymology
Joyce H Hurley, Phillip Edward Kunkler, LuJuan Zhang, Kelly L Knopp, Gerry Stephen Oxford
Migraine is triggered by poor air quality and odors through unknown mechanisms. Activation of the trigeminovascular pathway by environmental irritants may occur via activation of TRPA1 receptors on nasal trigeminal neurons, but how that results in peripheral and central sensitization is unclear. The anatomy of the trigeminal ganglion suggests that noxious nasal stimuli are not being transduced to the meninges by axon reflex but likely through intraganglionic transmission. Consistent with this concept, we injected CGRP, ATP or glutamate receptor antagonists or a gap junction channel blocker directly and exclusively into the trigeminal ganglion and blocked meningeal blood flow changes in response to acute nasal TRP agonists...
February 20, 2019: Molecular Pain
Aarti Kathrani, Fernando Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Edward J Hall
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is associated with increased risk of premature death in humans with inflammatory bowel disease. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE: To determine if historical, clinical, and laboratory markers of malnutrition in dogs at the time of histologic diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) caused by chronic enteropathy (CE) or lymphangiectasia are associated with increased risk of death. ANIMALS: Seventy-one client-owned dogs diagnosed with PLE...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Jordan K Karsten, Robert J Jeske, Richard W Edwards, David Strange, Kayla Kubehl, Jeffery A Behm
OBJECTIVE: Previous researchers have assumed that the Late Prehistoric Oneota were less reliant on maize agriculture than their Middle Mississippian neighbors to the south. This assumption is based on the idea that intensive maize agriculture is related to sociopolitical complexity, and that the climate of the Great Lakes region was less conducive to full-scale agriculture than that of the American Bottom. Here, we assess the diet of the Oneota using dental pathology to test the hypothesis that the Oneota in Eastern Wisconsin were highly reliant on maize agriculture...
February 19, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Edward A Copelan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2019: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Zachary H Garfield, Robert L Hubbard, Edward H Hagen
This study tested four theoretical models of leadership with data from the ethnographic record. The first was a game-theoretical model of leadership in collective actions, in which followers prefer and reward a leader who monitors and sanctions free-riders as group size increases. The second was the dominance model, in which dominant leaders threaten followers with physical or social harm. The third, the prestige model, suggests leaders with valued skills and expertise are chosen by followers who strive to emulate them...
February 19, 2019: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Gustavo A Bravo, Alexandre Antonelli, Christine D Bacon, Krzysztof Bartoszek, Mozes P K Blom, Stella Huynh, Graham Jones, L Lacey Knowles, Sangeet Lamichhaney, Thomas Marcussen, Hélène Morlon, Luay K Nakhleh, Bengt Oxelman, Bernard Pfeil, Alexander Schliep, Niklas Wahlberg, Fernanda P Werneck, John Wiedenhoeft, Sandi Willows-Munro, Scott V Edwards
Building the Tree of Life (ToL) is a major challenge of modern biology, requiring advances in cyberinfrastructure, data collection, theory, and more. Here, we argue that phylogenomics stands to benefit by embracing the many heterogeneous genomic signals emerging from the first decade of large-scale phylogenetic analysis spawned by high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Such signals include those most commonly encountered in phylogenomic datasets, such as incomplete lineage sorting, but also those reticulate processes emerging with greater frequency, such as recombination and introgression...
2019: PeerJ
Elżbieta Szczygieł, Bartosz Sieradzki, Agata Masłoń, Joanna Golec, Dorota Czechowska, Karolina Węglarz, Radosław Szczygieł, Edward Golec
OBJECTIVES: The head constitutes 6% of the total body weight, which is linked to the cervical spine and all other joints through the kinematic chain by various muscles. The forward head posture is one of the most common postural disorders and seems to be especially dangerous. The goal of the work was to assess the impact of 4 weeks of training neck and nape muscles on the head posture. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The subjects were 20 participants, who performed neck exercises for 20 days...
February 5, 2019: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Katie A O'Brien, R Andrew Atkinson, Larissa Richardson, Albert Koulman, Andrew J Murray, Stephen D R Harridge, Daniel S Martin, Denny Z H Levett, Kay Mitchell, Monty G Mythen, Hugh E Montgomery, Michael P W Grocott, Julian L Griffin, Lindsay M Edwards
At high altitude oxygen delivery to the tissues is impaired leading to oxygen insufficiency (hypoxia). Acclimatisation requires adjustment to tissue metabolism, the details of which remain incompletely understood. Here, metabolic responses to progressive environmental hypoxia were assessed through metabolomic and lipidomic profiling of human plasma taken from 198 human participants before and during an ascent to Everest Base Camp (5,300 m). Aqueous and lipid fractions of plasma were separated and analysed using proton (1 H)-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and direct infusion mass spectrometry, respectively...
February 19, 2019: Scientific Reports
Alexander W W Langford-Smith, Ahmad Hasan, Ria Weston, Nicola Edwards, Alan M Jones, Andrew J M Boulton, Frank L Bowling, S Tawqeer Rashid, Fiona L Wilkinson, M Yvonne Alexander
Endothelial colony forming progenitor cell (ECFC) function is compromised in diabetes, leading to poor vascular endothelial repair, which contributes to impaired diabetic foot ulcer healing. We have generated novel glycomimetic drugs with protective effects against endothelial dysfunction. We investigated the effect of glycomimetic C3 on the functional capacity of diabetic ECFCs. ECFCs were isolated from healthy controls and patients with diabetes with neuroischaemic (NI) or neuropathic (NP) foot ulcers. Functionally, diabetic ECFCs demonstrated delayed colony formation (p < 0...
February 19, 2019: Scientific Reports
David B Frank, Ian J Penkala, Jarod A Zepp, Aravind Sivakumar, Ricardo Linares-Saldana, William J Zacharias, Katharine G Stolz, Josh Pankin, MinQi Lu, Qiaohong Wang, Apoorva Babu, Li Li, Su Zhou, Michael P Morley, Rajan Jain, Edward E Morrisey
During the stepwise specification and differentiation of tissue-specific multipotent progenitors, lineage-specific transcriptional networks are activated or repressed to orchestrate cell specification. The gas-exchange niche in the lung contains two major epithelial cell types, alveolar type 1 (AT1) and AT2 cells, and the timing of lineage specification of these cells is critical for the correct formation of this niche and postnatal survival. Integrating cell-specific lineage tracing studies, spatially specific mRNA transcript and protein expression, and single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis, we demonstrate that specification of alveolar epithelial cell fate begins concomitantly with the proximal-distal specification of epithelial progenitors and branching morphogenesis earlier than previously appreciated...
February 19, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Amity E Quinn, Alun Edwards, Peter Senior, Kerry A McBrien, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Marcello Tonelli, Flora Au, Zhihai Ma, Robert G Weaver, Braden J Manns
BACKGROUND: As the number of people with chronic diseases increases, understanding the impact of payment model on the types of patients seen by specialists has implications for improving the quality and value of care. We sought to determine if there is an association between specialist physician payment model and the types of patients seen. METHODS: In this descriptive study, we used administrative data to compare demographic characteristics, illness severity and visit indication of patients with diabetes seen by fee-for-service and salary-based internal medicine and diabetes specialists in Calgary and Edmonton between April 2011 and September 2014...
January 2019: CMAJ Open
Claire Nollett, Barbara Ryan, Nathan Bray, Catey Bunce, Robin Casten, Rhiannon Tudor Edwards, David Gillespie, Daniel J Smith, Miles Stanford, Tom H Margrain
OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors for significant depressive symptoms in people with visual impairment in England and Wales to provide information on who is most at risk and to whom support services could be targeted in future. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study using baseline data from a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 990 participants aged 18 or over attending 1 of 14 low-vision rehabilitation primary care optometry-based clinics in South Wales or two hospital clinics in London...
January 17, 2019: BMJ Open
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