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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30963831/heterochronic-shifts-and-conserved-embryonic-shape-underlie-crocodylian-craniofacial-disparity-and-convergence
#1
Zachary S Morris, Kent A Vliet, Arhat Abzhanov, Stephanie E Pierce
The distinctive anatomy of the crocodylian skull is intimately linked with dietary ecology, resulting in repeated convergence on blunt- and slender-snouted ecomorphs. These evolutionary shifts depend upon modifications of the developmental processes which direct growth and morphogenesis. Here we examine the evolution of cranial ontogenetic trajectories to shed light on the mechanisms underlying convergent snout evolution. We use geometric morphometrics to quantify skeletogenesis in an evolutionary context and reconstruct ancestral patterns of ontogenetic allometry to understand the developmental drivers of craniofacial diversity within Crocodylia...
February 27, 2019: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30957702/alcohol-use-in-fishing-communities-and-men-s-willingness-to-participate-in-an-alcohol-violence-and-hiv-risk-reduction-intervention-qualitative-findings-from-rakai-uganda
#2
Erika Bonnevie, Godfrey Kigozi, Robert Kairania, John B Ssemanda, Neema Nakyanjo, William George Ddaaki, Charles Ssekyewa, Jennifer A Wagman
Alcohol use, intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV infection are associated, but few programmes and interventions have addressed their synergistic relationship or been evaluated for effectiveness and acceptability. This is a critical gap in populations with high rates of alcohol use, HIV and IPV, such as Uganda's fishing communities. This study examined drinking norms, barriers and facilitators to engagement in a risk reduction programme, and ideas for tailoring. Results showed that alcohol use is common in fishing villages...
April 8, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30927915/stem-cells-in-homeostasis-and-cancer-of-the-gut
#3
REVIEW
Maartje van der Heijden, Louis Vermeulen
The intestinal epithelial lining is one of the most rapidly renewing cell populations in the body. As a result, the gut has been an attractive model to resolve key mechanisms in epithelial homeostasis. In particular the role of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the renewal process has been intensely studied. Interestingly, as opposed to the traditional stem cell theory, the ISC is not a static population but displays significant plasticity and in situations of tissue regeneration more differentiated cells can revert back to a stem cell state upon exposure to extracellular signals...
March 30, 2019: Molecular Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30924339/multilayer-formation-in-self-shaping-emulsion-droplets
#4
Diana Cholakova, Nikolai D Denkov, Slavka Tcholakova, Zhulieta Valkova, Stoyan K Smoukov
In several recent studies we showed that micrometer sized oil-in-water emulsion droplets from alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, triglycerides or mixtures of these components can spontaneously "self-shape" upon cooling into various regular shapes, such as regular polyhedrons, platelets, rods and fibers (Denkov et al., Nature 2015, 528, 392; Cholakova et al., Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 2016, 235, 90). These drop-shape transformations were explained by assuming that intermediate plastic rotator phase, composed of ordered multilayers of oily molecules, is formed beneath the drop surface around the oil freezing temperature...
March 29, 2019: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30865778/pain-pathways-and-nervous-system-plasticity-learning-and-memory-in-pain
#5
Bill McCarberg, John Peppin
OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the structural and functional changes in pain chronification and explores the association between memory and the development of chronic pain. METHODS: PubMed was searched using the terms "chronic pain," "central sensitization," "learning," "memory," "long-term potentiation," "long-term depression," and "pain memory." Relevant findings were synthesized into a narrative of the processes affecting pain chronification...
March 13, 2019: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30837902/insulin-resistance-as-a-shared-pathogenic-mechanism-between-depression-and-type-2-diabetes
#6
REVIEW
Natalia de M Lyra E Silva, Minh P Lam, Claudio N Soares, Douglas P Munoz, Roumen Milev, Fernanda G De Felice
Neuropsychiatric disorders and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are major public health concerns proposed to be intimately connected. T2D is associated with increased risk of dementia, neuropsychiatric and mood disorders. Evidences of the involvement of insulin signaling on brain mechanisms related to depression indicate that insulin resistance, a hallmark of type 2 diabetes, could develop in the brains of depressive patients. In this article, we briefly review possible molecular mechanisms associating defective brain insulin signaling with reward system, neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis in depression...
2019: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30600559/stretchable-conductive-polymers-and-composites-based-on-pedot-and-pedot-pss
#7
REVIEW
Laure V Kayser, Darren J Lipomi
The conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), and especially its complex with poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), is perhaps the most well-known example of an organic conductor. It is highly conductive, largely transmissive to light, processible in water, and highly flexible. Much recent work on this ubiquitous material has been devoted to increasing its deformability beyond flexibility-a characteristic possessed by any material that is sufficiently thin-toward stretchability, a characteristic that requires engineering of the structure at the molecular- or nanoscale...
January 2, 2019: Advanced Materials
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30567484/tcf7l2-transcription-factor-7-like-2-regulation-of-gata6-gata-binding-protein-6-dependent-and-independent-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-plasticity-and-intimal-hyperplasia
#8
Roshni Srivastava, Harshvardhan Rolyan, Yi Xie, Na Li, Neha Bhat, Lingjuan Hong, Fatemehsadat Esteghamat, Adebowale Adeniran, Arnar Geirsson, Jiasheng Zhang, Guanghao Ge, Marcelo Nobrega, Kathleen A Martin, Arya Mani
Objective- TCF7L2 (transcription factor 7-like 2) is a Wnt-regulated transcription factor that maintains stemness and promotes proliferation in embryonic tissues and adult stem cells. Mice with a coronary artery disease-linked mutation in Wnt-coreceptor LRP6 exhibit vascular smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation and obstructive coronary artery disease, which are paradoxically associated with reduced TCF7L2 expression. We conducted a comprehensive study to explore the role of TCF7L2 in vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation and protection against intimal hyperplasia...
December 20, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30509603/redox-regulation-of-cell-state-and-fate
#9
REVIEW
Bernice Woon Li Lee, Pramila Ghode, Derrick Sek Tong Ong
The failure in effective cancer treatment is thought to be attributed to a subpopulation of tumor cells with stem cell-like properties. These cancer stem cells (CSCs) are intimately linked to tumor initiation, heterogeneity, maintenance, recurrence and metastasis. Increasing evidence supports the view that a tight redox regulation is crucial for CSC proliferation, tumorigenicity, therapy resistance and metastasis in many cancer types. Since the distinct metabolic and epigenetic states of CSCs may influence ROS levels, and hence their malignancy, ROS modulating agents hold promise in their utility as anti-CSC agents that may improve the durability of current cancer treatments...
November 23, 2018: Redox Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30423019/female-cosmetic-genital-surgery-patient-characteristics-motivation-and-satisfaction
#10
Amin Kalaaji, Stine Dryer, Ivana Maric, Jakob Schnegg, Vanja Jönsson
Background: Female cosmetic genital surgery is rapidly growing. However, controversy reports raised around these procedures question their indications, motives, and safety. Warning against performing this surgery might unjustly restrict surgical alleviation of symptoms. Objectives: Through anonymous exploration, the authors explored patient characteristics and motivation, when women started to think about surgery, and effects of surgery on psychosocial and cosmetic aspects...
November 13, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30405690/mechanisms-underlying-the-environmentally-induced-plasticity-of-leaf-morphology
#11
REVIEW
Michael André Fritz, Stefanie Rosa, Adrien Sicard
The primary function of leaves is to provide an interface between plants and their environment for gas exchange, light exposure and thermoregulation. Leaves have, therefore a central contribution to plant fitness by allowing an efficient absorption of sunlight energy through photosynthesis to ensure an optimal growth. Their final geometry will result from a balance between the need to maximize energy uptake while minimizing the damage caused by environmental stresses. This intimate relationship between leaf and its surroundings has led to an enormous diversification in leaf forms...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30370343/rna-binding-proteins-as-targets-for-pain-therapeutics
#12
June Bryan de la Peña, Zachary T Campbell
RNA-protein interactions permeate biology. Transcription, translation, processing, and mRNA decay all hinge on widespread use of regulatory information decoded by RNA-binding proteins. The final committed step of protein synthesis, translation, is intimately linked to nociceptor excitability. Understanding the factors that control translation is essential as nociceptor plasticity is a hallmark of persistent pain. Here, we review the growing body of evidence for widespread involvement of RNA-binding proteins in pain...
August 2018: Neurobiology of Pain
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30366684/rheumatoid-arthritis-and-depression-an-inflammatory-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Louis Nerurkar, Stefan Siebert, Iain B McInnes, Jonathan Cavanagh
The coexistence of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases with depression has long been recognised. Data that illustrate the intimate associations between peripheral and brain immune responses raise the possibility of shared pathophysiological mechanisms. These associations include the negative effects of proinflammatory cytokines on monoaminergic neurotransmission, neurotrophic factors, and measures of synaptic plasticity. The evidence supporting this association is accumulating and includes findings from clinical trials of immunomodulatory therapy, indicating that these interventions can provide benefits to mental health independent of improvements in physical disease scores...
February 2019: Lancet Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30317114/optically-robust-highly-permeable-and-elastic-protein-films-that-support-dual-cornea-cell-types
#14
Behnaz Aghaei-Ghareh-Bolagh, Juan Guan, Yiwei Wang, Adam D Martin, Rebecca Dawson, Suzanne M Mithieux, Anthony S Weiss
Damaged corneas can lead to blindness. Due to the worldwide shortage of donor corneas there is a tremendous unmet demand for a robust corneal replacement that supports growth of the major corneal cell types. Commercial artificial corneas comprise plastic polymers that do not adequately support diverse cell growth. We present a new class of protein elastomer-dominated synthetic corneas with attractive performance that intimately couple biologically active tropoelastin to mechanically robust and durable protein silk...
October 8, 2018: Biomaterials
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30310241/plant-trait-effects-on-soil-organisms-and-functions
#15
Nico Eisenhauer, Jeff R Powell
Global change alters the composition and functioning of ecosystems by creating novel environmental conditions and thereby selecting for specific traits of organisms. Thus, trait-based approaches are promising tools to more mechanistically understand compositional and functional shifts in ecological communities as well as the dependency of response and effect traits upon global change. Such approaches have been particularly successful for the study of plant communities in terrestrial ecosystems. However, given the intimate linkages between aboveground and belowground compartments as well as the significance of plants as integrating organisms across those compartments, the role of plant traits in affecting soils communities has been understudied...
November 2017: Pedobiologia
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30273656/parallels-between-artificial-reprogramming-and-the-biogenesis-of-cancer-stem-cells-involvement-of-lncrnas
#16
REVIEW
Theodore P Rasmussen
Cellular identity is established and maintained by the interplay of cell type-specific transcription factors and epigenetic regulation of the genome. During development in vivo and differentiation in vitro, transitions from one cell type to the next are triggered by cell signaling events culminating in modifications of chromatin that render genes accessible or inaccessible to the transcriptional apparatus. In recent years it has become apparent that cellular identity is plastic, and technological reprogramming methods such as somatic cell nuclear transfer and induced pluripotency can yield reprogrammed cells that have been restored to a state of developmental potency...
September 28, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30013542/human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-in-the-crosstalk-between-cancer-cells-microenvironment-and-plasticity-a-new-perspective-for-combination-therapy
#17
Emanuela Balestrieri, Ayele Argaw-Denboba, Alessandra Gambacurta, Chiara Cipriani, Roberto Bei, Annalucia Serafino, Paola Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Claudia Matteucci
Abnormal activation of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) has been associated with several diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, and neurological disorders. In particular, in cancer HERV activity and expression have been specifically associated with tumor aggressiveness and patient outcomes. Cancer cell aggressiveness is intimately linked to the acquisition of peculiar plasticity and heterogeneity based on cell stemness features, as well as on the crosstalk between cancer cells and the microenvironment...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29887869/inhibitory-role-of-growth-hormone-in-the-induction-and-progression-phases-of-collagen-induced-arthritis
#18
Ricardo Villares, Gabriel Criado, Yasmina Juarranz, Mercedes Lopez-Santalla, Eva M García-Cuesta, José M Rodríguez-Frade, Javier Leceta, Pilar Lucas, José Luis Pablos, Carlos Martínez-A, Marina I Garin, Rosa P Gomariz, Mario Mellado
Evidence indicates an intimate connection between the neuroendocrine and the immune systems. A number of in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated growth hormone (GH) involvement in immune regulation. The GH receptor is expressed by several leukocyte subpopulations, and GH modulates immune cell proliferation and activity. Here, we found that sustained GH expression protected against collagen-induced arthritis (CIA); in GH-transgenic C57BL/6 (GHTg) mice, disease onset was delayed, and its overall severity was decreased...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29867655/working-memory-for-linguistic-and-non-linguistic-manual-gestures-evidence-theory-and-application
#19
REVIEW
Mary Rudner
Linguistic manual gestures are the basis of sign languages used by deaf individuals. Working memory and language processing are intimately connected and thus when language is gesture-based, it is important to understand related working memory mechanisms. This article reviews work on working memory for linguistic and non-linguistic manual gestures and discusses theoretical and applied implications. Empirical evidence shows that there are effects of load and stimulus degradation on working memory for manual gestures...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29778303/the-physiopathologic-interplay-between-stem-cells-and-tissue-niche-in-muscle-regeneration-and-the-role-of-il-6-on-muscle-homeostasis-and-diseases
#20
Laura Forcina, Carmen Miano, Antonio Musarò
Skeletal muscle is a complex, dynamic tissue characterized by an elevated plasticity. Although the adult muscle is mainly composed of multinucleated fibers with post mitotic nuclei, it retains a remarkable ability to regenerate in response to traumatic events. The regenerative potential of the adult skeletal muscle relies in the activity of satellite cells, mononucleated cells residing within the muscle in intimate association with myofibers. Satellite cells normally remain quiescent in their sublaminar position, sporadically entering the cell cycle to guarantee an efficient cellular turnover, by fusing with pre-existing myofibers, and to maintain the stem cell pool...
June 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
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