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Abdominal fat loss lean

Ine Telgenkamp, Yvo H A M Kusters, Casper G Schalkwijk, Alfons J H M Houben, M Eline Kooi, Lucas Lindeboom, Judith A P Bons, Nicolaas C Schaper, Peter J Joris, Jogchum Plat, Ronald P Mensink, Coen D A Stehouwer, Martijn C G J Brouwers
Context: hepatokines have emerged as potential mediators of obesity-associated co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, fractures, and central hypogonadism. Objective: to assess whether weight loss-induced changes in hepatokines are mediated by intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content. Design: cross-sectional study and randomized controlled trial. Setting: general community. Participants: metabolically healthy, lean (waist<94cm; n=25) and abdominally obese men (waist 102-110cm; n=52)...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Lisa C Adams, Falk Lübbe, Keno Bressem, Moritz Wagner, Bernd Hamm, Marcus R Makowski
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was shown to also occur in lean and underweight patients. So far, the prevalence of NAFLD in underweight individuals with and without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is insufficiently enlightened. In this cross-sectional age, gender and disease-matched case-control study, underweight patients (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), who underwent abdominal MRI at 1.5 T/3 T with fat-saturated fast-spin-echo imaging from 10/2005-07/2018 were analysed (control-to-case-ratio 1:1, n = 130)...
2018: PloS One
Emilie Gadéa, Emilie Thivat, Pascale Dubray-Longeras, Marie Arbre, Isabelle Van-Praagh, Marie-Ange Mouret-Reynier, Pauline Herviou, Joyce Dohou, Angeline Ginzac, Martine Duclos, Béatrice Morio, Xavier Durando
In breast cancer patients, weight and fat mass changes observed after chemotherapy have been related to poor prognosis but some recent works using modern chemotherapy failed to find this correlation with weight gain. In this study, the extent of changes in weight and body composition (DEXA, impedance) was characterized until six months after current chemotherapy, in 50 post-menopausal women with breast cancer. The evolution of factors contributing to the energy balance and some biological factors were also described...
September 20, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Luciene Oliveira-de-Lira, Eduila Maria Couto Santos, Raphael Fabrício de Souza, Rhowena Jane Barbosa Matos, Matilde Cesiana da Silva, Lisiane Dos Santos Oliveira, Taís Galdêncio do Nascimento, Paulo Artur de Lara Schinda Schemly, Sandra Lopes de Souza
Fatty acid (FA) composition is a determinant of the physiological effects of dietary oils. This study investigated the effects of vegetable oil supplementation with different FA compositions on anthropometric and biochemical parameters in obese women on a hypocaloric diet with lifestyle modifications. Seventy-five women (body mass index, BMI, 30⁻39.9kg/m²) were randomized based on 8-week oil supplementation into four experimental groups: the coconut oil group (CoG, n = 18), the safflower oil group (SafG, n = 19), the chia oil group (ChG, n = 19), and the soybean oil placebo group (PG, n = 19)...
July 20, 2018: Nutrients
Christos Savvidis, Symeon Tournis, Anastasia D Dede
The interaction between obesity and bone metabolism is complex. The effects of fat on the skeleton are mediated by both mechanical and biochemical factors. Though obesity is characterized by higher bone mineral density, studies conducted on bone microarchitecture have produced conflicting results. The majority of studies indicate that obesity has a positive effect on skeletal strength, even though most likely the effects are site-dependent and, in fact, obese individuals might be at risk of certain types of fractures...
June 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Joan C Han, Daniela P Reyes-Capo, Chia-Ying Liu, James C Reynolds, Evrim Turkbey, Ismail Baris Turkbey, Joy Bryant, Jan D Marshall, Jürgen K Naggert, William A Gahl, Jack A Yanovski, Meral Gunay-Aygun
Background: Alström syndrome (AS), a monogenic form of obesity, is caused by recessive mutations in the centrosome- and basal body-associated gene ALMS1. AS is characterized by retinal dystrophy, sensory hearing loss, cardiomyopathy, childhood obesity, and metabolic derangements. Objective: We sought to characterize the endocrine and metabolic features of AS while accounting for obesity as a confounder by comparing patients with AS to body mass index (BMI)-matched controls...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Yu Chung Chooi, Cherlyn Ding, Zhiling Chan, John Choo, Suresh Anand Sadananthan, Navin Michael, Yijun Lee, S Sendhil Velan, Faidon Magkos
OBJECTIVE: Individuals who have "metabolically obese normal weight" (MONW) have an increased risk for cardiometabolic disease. Moderate weight loss has multiple benefits in people with obesity, but its effects in lean people are unknown. Thus, the effects of diet-induced 5% weight loss on body composition and metabolic function in MONW subjects were evaluated. METHODS: Total body fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) volumes, intrahepatic and intramyocellular lipid contents, insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp), glucose tolerance, and postprandial insulin secretion and clearance rates (mixed meal with minimal modeling) were measured before and after 4...
June 2018: Obesity
Peter M Clifton
BACKGROUND: Gluteofemoral fat mass has been associated with improved cardiovascular disease risk factors. It is not clear if loss of this protective fat during weight loss partially negates the effect of loss of visceral fat. The aim of this study was to examine regional fat loss in a large weight-loss cohort from one center and to determine if fat loss in the leg and total lean tissue loss is harmful. METHODS AND RESULTS: We combined the data from 7 of our previously published 3-month weight-loss studies and examined the relationship between regional fat and lean tissue loss and changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors in 399 participants...
April 4, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Samina A Turk, Dirkjan van Schaardenburg, Maarten Boers, Sylvia de Boer, Cindy Fokker, Willem F Lems, Michael T Nurmohamed
BACKGROUND: An unfavorable body composition is often present in chronic arthritis patients. This unfavorable composition is a loss of muscle mass, with a stable or increased (abdominal) fat mass. Since it is unknown when this unfavorable composition develops, we compared body composition in disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD)-naive early arthritis patients with non-arthritis controls and explored the association, in early arthritis patients, with disease activity and traditional cardiovascular risk factors...
2018: PloS One
Shenghui Wu, Kyung-Shin Park, Joseph B McCormick
We investigated the effect of exercise training on body composition change in women. Nineteen Mexican-American and 18 Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women were randomized into one of the following groups: control, low-intensity training group (LI), and high-intensity training group (HI). Subjects completed 12 weeks of training at 50-56% maximal oxygen consumption (LI) or 65-70% maximal oxygen consumption (HI). Body composition components were measured at baseline and after training using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for Mexican-Americans, while whole-body composition was measured by the direct segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and abdominal fat was measured by single-slice computed tomography for Koreans...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
Yvo Ham Kusters, Casper G Schalkwijk, Alfons Jhm Houben, M Eline Kooi, Lucas Lindeboom, Jos Op 't Roodt, Peter J Joris, Jogchum Plat, Ronald P Mensink, Eugene J Barrett, Coen DA Stehouwer
BACKGROUND: Induction of insulin resistance is a key pathway through which obesity increases risk of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular events. Although the detrimental effects of obesity on insulin sensitivity are incompletely understood, accumulation of visceral, subcutaneous, and liver fat and impairment of insulin-induced muscle microvascular recruitment (MVR) may be involved. As these phenotypic changes often coincide in obesity, we aimed to unravel whether they independently contribute to insulin resistance and thus constitute separate targets for intervention...
July 6, 2017: JCI Insight
Hui Zhang, Wei Na, Hong-Li Zhang, Ning Wang, Zhi-Qiang Du, Shou-Zhi Wang, Zhi-Peng Wang, Zhiwu Zhang, Hui Li
BACKGROUND: Large amounts of fat deposition often lead to loss of reproductive efficiency in humans and animals. We used broiler chickens as a model species to conduct a two-directional selection for and against abdominal fat over 19 generations, which resulted in a lean and a fat line. Direct selection for abdominal fat content also indirectly resulted in significant differences (P < 0.05) in testis weight (TeW) and in TeW as a percentage of total body weight (TeP) between the lean and fat lines...
February 24, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
David M Golding, Daniel J Rees, Jennifer R Davies, Dinko Relkovic, Hannah V Furby, Irina A Guschina, Anna L Hopkins, Jeffrey S Davies, James L Resnick, Anthony R Isles, Timothy Wells
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss of paternal gene expression from 15q11-q13, is characterised by growth retardation, hyperphagia and obesity. However, as single gene mutation mouse models for this condition display an incomplete spectrum of the PWS phenotype, we have characterised the metabolic impairment in a mouse model for 'full' PWS, in which deletion of the imprinting centre (IC) abolishes paternal gene expression from the entire PWS cluster. We show that PWS-ICdel mice displayed postnatal growth retardation, with reduced body weight, hyperghrelinaemia and marked abdominal leanness; proportionate retroperitoneal, epididymal/omental and inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT) weights being reduced by 82%, 84% and 67%, respectively...
January 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
Paul J Arciero, Rohan Edmonds, Feng He, Emery Ward, Eric Gumpricht, Alex Mohr, Michael J Ormsbee, Arne Astrup
Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM)...
July 30, 2016: Nutrients
Abraham Rincón Bello, Laura Bucalo, Soraya Abad Estébanez, Almudena Vega Martínez, Daniel Barraca Núñez, Claudia Yuste Lozano, Ana Pérez de José, Juan M López-Gómez
BACKGROUND: Body weight has been increasing in the general population and is an established risk factor for hypertension, diabetes, and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) gain weight, mainly during the first months of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between body composition and metabolic and inflammatory status in patients undergoing PD. METHODS: This was a prospective, non-interventional study of prevalent patients receiving PD...
June 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
Germaine Korner, Tanja Scherer, Dea Adamsen, Alexander Rebuffat, Mark Crabtree, Anahita Rassi, Rossana Scavelli, Daigo Homma, Birgit Ledermann, Daniel Konrad, Hiroshi Ichinose, Christian Wolfrum, Marion Horsch, Birgit Rathkolb, Martin Klingenspor, Johannes Beckers, Eckhard Wolf, Valérie Gailus-Durner, Helmut Fuchs, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Nenad Blau, Jan Rozman, Beat Thöny
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, alkylglycerol monooxygenase, and nitric oxide synthases (NOS). Inborn errors of BH4 metabolism lead to severe insufficiency of brain monoamine neurotransmitters while augmentation of BH4 by supplementation or stimulation of its biosynthesis is thought to ameliorate endothelial NOS (eNOS) dysfunction, to protect from (cardio-) vascular disease and/or prevent obesity and development of the metabolic syndrome. We have previously reported that homozygous knock-out mice for the 6-pyruvolytetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS; Pts-ko/ko) mice with no BH4 biosynthesis die after birth...
March 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Nadia J T Roumans, Stefan G Camps, Johan Renes, Freek G Bouwman, Klaas R Westerterp, Edwin C M Mariman
Initial successful weight loss is often followed by weight regain after the dietary intervention. Compared with lean people, cellular stress in adipose tissue is increased in obese subjects. However, the relation between cellular stress and the risk for weight regain after weight loss is unclear. Therefore, we determined the expression levels of stress proteins during weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to weight regain. In vivo findings were compared with results from in vitro cultured human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes...
March 14, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Ayumi Ido, Yuki Nakayama, Kojiro Ishii, Motoyuki Iemitsu, Koji Sato, Masahiro Fujimoto, Toshiyuki Kurihara, Takafumi Hamaoka, Noriko Satoh-Asahara, Kiyoshi Sanada
Sarcopenia has never been diagnosed based on site-specific muscle loss, and little is known about the relationship between site-specific muscle loss and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. To this end, this cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between site-specific muscle size and MetS risk factors. Subjects were 38 obese men and women aged 40-82 years. Total body fat and lean body mass were assessed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Muscle thickness (MTH) was measured using B-mode ultrasound scanning in six body regions...
2015: PloS One
Prince Dadson, Linda Landini, Mika Helmiö, Jarna C Hannukainen, Heidi Immonen, Miikka-Juhani Honka, Marco Bucci, Nina Savisto, Minna Soinio, Paulina Salminen, Riitta Parkkola, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Patricia Iozzo, Ele Ferrannini, Pirjo Nuutila
OBJECTIVE: We investigated fat distribution and tissue-specific insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) in seven fat compartments (visceral and subcutaneous) and skeletal muscle in morbidly obese patients with (T2D) and without (ND) type 2 diabetes before and 6 months after bariatric surgery. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 23 obese patients (BMI 43.0 ± 3.6 kg/m(2); 9 T2D and 14 ND) were recruited from a larger, randomized multicenter SLEEVEPASS study. MRI (for fat distribution) and [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose PET (for GU) studies were performed for the obese patients before and 6 months postsurgery; 10 lean subjects served as control subjects and were studied once...
February 2016: Diabetes Care
Volkan Yumuk, Constantine Tsigos, Martin Fried, Karin Schindler, Luca Busetto, Dragan Micic, Hermann Toplak
Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease characterised by an increase of body fat stores. It is a gateway to ill health, and it has become one of the leading causes of disability and death, affecting not only adults but also children and adolescents worldwide. In clinical practice, the body fatness is estimated by BMI, and the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat (marker for higher metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk) can be assessed by waist circumference. Complex interactions between biological, behavioural, social and environmental factors are involved in regulation of energy balance and fat stores...
2015: Obesity Facts
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