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CD4 T helper

Quynh P Nguyen, Tianda Deng, Deborah A Witherden, Ananda W Goldrath
In response to infection, naive CD4+ T cells proliferate and differentiate into several possible effector subsets, including conventional T helper effector cells (TH 1, TH 2, TH 17), T regulatory cells (Treg ), and T follicular helper cells (TFH ). Once infection is cleared, a small population of long-lived memory cells remain which mediate immune defenses against reinfection. Memory T lymphocytes have classically been categorized into central memory cell (TCM ) and effector memory cell (TEM ) subsets, both of which circulate between blood, secondary lymphoid organs, and in some cases non-lymphoid tissues...
March 21, 2019: Immunology
Xia Wang, Lin Yang, Ying Cheng, Huiying Liang, Jingping Hu, Peilin Zheng, Gan Huang, Zhiguang Zhou
INTRODUCTION: Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) shows a heterogeneous clinical profile that is dependent on the glutamic acid decaroxylase antibody (GADA) titer. We speculated that LADA patients with a high or low GADA titer may have distinct T-lymphocyte subset profiles and distinct expression patterns of transcription factors involved in T-cell immunomodulation. METHODS: Patients with LADA (n = 40) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM; n = 14) were recruited to the study, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated...
March 20, 2019: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Aziza Saidova, Merima Bublin, Klara Schmidthaler, Veronika Fajgelj, Florian Klinglmueller, Andreas Spittler, Christine Hafner, Zsolt Szépfalusi, Heimo Breiteneder, Thomas Eiwegger
Peanut allergy is considered to be the most common cause for food-induced anaphylaxis. Currently, no approved treatment is available. Avoidance is the only measure to prevent anaphylactic reactions to peanuts. T-helper cells are of special importance for the sensitization process and the maintenance of allergic inflammation. Identifying markers of allergen-specific T-cell responses may help to develop novel treatment approaches. Therefore, we aimed to define new T-cell target genes in Ara h 2-specific T cells and to investigate the possibility of using them as biomarkers of peanut allergy in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
March 20, 2019: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Wang Yong-Zhen, Han Xiu-Min, Zhu Wen-Jun, Shen Mei-Ling, Kang Yong-Shu, Sun Yan-Qiu, Guo Ya-Min
OBJECTIVE: To detect the expression of follicuLar helper T cells (Tfh) and interleukin-21 (IL-21) in the peripheral blood of patients with hepatic echinococcosis and healthy controls, so as to explore the associations of Tfh and IL-21 expression with the progression of hepatic echinococcosis. METHODS: Fifty cases of hepatic echinococcosis and healthy controls were collected from Qinghai Provincial People's Hospital, respectively. Flow cytometry was used to detect the expression of Tfh cells in the peripheral blood of hepatic echinococcosis patients and healthy controls, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect serum IL-21 expression in hepatic echinococcosis patients and healthy controls...
December 25, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Kirstin Harling, Ernest Adankwah, Alptekin Güler, Anthony Afum-Adjei Awuah, Louis Adu-Amoah, Ertan Mayatepek, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Norman Nausch, Marc Jacobsen
T-cells critically contribute to protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and impaired T-cell responses can lead to disease progression. Pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokines affect T-cells, and fine-tuned regulation of cytokine signaling via the Jak/STAT signaling pathways is crucial for appropriate T-cell function. Constitutive STAT3 phosphorylation as a consequence of aberrant cytokine signaling has been described to occur in pathognomonic T-cell responses in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases...
March 2019: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Lidia Szulc-Dąbrowska, Piotr Wojtyniak, Justyna Struzik, Felix N Toka, Anna Winnicka, Małgorzata Gieryńska
Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is the etiological agent of mousepox, an acute and systemic disease with high mortality rates in susceptible strains of mice. Resistance and susceptibility to mousepox are triggered by the dichotomous T-helper (Th) immune response generated in infected animals, with strong protective Th1 or nonprotective Th2 profile, respectively. Th1/Th2 balance is influenced by dendritic cells (DCs), which were shown to differ in their ability to polarize naïve CD4+ T cells in different mouse strains...
March 19, 2019: Immunological Investigations
Ayako Makiyama, Asako Chiba, Daisuke Noto, Goh Murayama, Ken Yamaji, Naoto Tamura, Sachiko Miyake
OBJECTIVE: Peripheral helper T (TPH) cells are a recently identified Th cell subset that promotes B cell differentiation and antibody production in inflamed tissues. This study investigated circulating TPH cells to determine their involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from SLE patients and healthy individuals were analysed. TPH cells were identified as CD3+CD4+CD45RA-CXCR5- cells with a high expression of PD-1...
March 15, 2019: Rheumatology
Hua Jin, Kaibo Yang, Haiyan Zhang, Yanqiu Chen, Hanzhou Qi, Zhiping Fan, Fen Huang, Li Xuan, Ren Lin, Ke Zhao, Qifa Liu
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Previous studies have shown that T follicular helper cells (Tfh) contribute to immune pathology in cGVHD, but the function of extrafollicular helper T cells during cGVHD pathogenesis remains largely unknown. In the current study, we identified circulating extrafollicular helper T-like cells (CD44hi CD62Llo PSGL-1lo CD4+ , c-extrafollicular Th-like) in human peripheral blood...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Autoimmunity
Thiago A Patente, Leonard R Pelgrom, Bart Everts
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that play a crucial role in the priming and differentiation of CD4+ T cells into several distinct subsets including effector T helper (Th) 1, Th17 and Th2 cells, as well as regulatory T cells (Tregs). It is becoming increasingly clear that cellular metabolism shapes the functional properties of DCs. Specifically, the ability of DCs to drive polarization of different Th cell subsets may be orchestrated by the engagement of distinct metabolic pathways...
March 12, 2019: Current Opinion in Immunology
Wenzhi Song, Joe Craft
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells play a crucial role in orchestrating the humoral arm of adaptive immune responses. Mature Tfh cells localize to follicles in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) where they provide help to B cells in germinal centers (GCs) to facilitate immunoglobulin affinity maturation, class-switch recombination, and generation of long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells. Beyond the canonical GC Tfh cells, it has been increasingly appreciated that the Tfh phenotype is highly diverse and dynamic...
March 2019: Immunological Reviews
Marisa Benagiano, Maria Orietta Borghi, Jacopo Romagnoli, Michael Mahler, Chiara Della Bella, Alessia Grassi, Nagaja Capitani, Giacomo Emmi, Arianna Troilo, Elena Silvestri, Lorenzo Emmi, Heba Alnwaisri, Jacopo Bitetti, Simona Tapinassi, Domenico Prisco, Cosima Tatiana Baldari, Pier Luigi Meroni, Mario Milco D'Elios
Systemic lupus erythematosus is frequently associated with antiphospholipid syndrome. Patients with lupus-antiphospholipid syndrome are characterized by recurrent arterial/venous thrombosis, miscarriages, and persistent presence of autoantibodies against phospholipid-binding proteins, such as β2-Glycoprotein I. We investigated the cytokine production induced by β2-Glycoprotein I in activated T cells that infiltrate in vivo atherosclerotic lesions of lupus-antiphospholipid syndrome patients. We examined the helper function of β2-Glycoprotein I-specific T cells for the tissue factor production, as well as their cytolytic potential and their helper function for antibody production...
March 14, 2019: Haematologica
Jordy Saravia, Nicole M Chapman, Hongbo Chi
CD4+ T helper cells are key regulators of host health and disease. In the original model, specialized subsets of T helper cells are generated following activation through lineage-specifying cytokines and transcriptional programs, but recent studies have revealed increasing complexities for CD4+ T-cell differentiation. Here, we first discuss CD4+ T-cell differentiation from a historical perspective by highlighting the major studies that defined the distinct subsets of T helper cells. We next describe the mechanisms underlying CD4+ T-cell differentiation, including cytokine-induced signaling and transcriptional networks...
March 12, 2019: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Suqian Wu, Wentao Wang, Qihua Le
BACKGROUND: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) potentiates TGF-β-dependent regulatory T cells (Treg) induction, while it inhibits pro-inflammatory interleukin-17-producing T helper cells (Th17) differentiation. Combined application of ATRA and TGF-β may shift Treg-Th17 balance towards Treg. OBJECTIVE: To investigates the effect of ATRA on the regulation of Th17-Treg balance through ERK and p38 signaling pathway. METHODS: Mice naive CD4+T cells were isolated and co-cultured with 100 nmol/ml ATRA and 5 ng/ml TGF-β...
March 2019: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
Yingjiao Cao, Qiong Yang, Hui Deng, Jinyi Tang, Jiancong Hu, Huanliang Liu, Min Zhi, Linsen Ye, Bin Zou, Yongdong Liu, Lai Wei, Dmitry I Gabrilovich, Haikun Wang, Jie Zhou
Disruption of mucosal immunity plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, yet its mechanism remains not fully elucidated. Here, we found that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) protects against colitis by regulating follicular helper T (TFH ) cells in the gut. The expression of ATF3 in CD4+ T cells was negatively correlated with the severity of ulcerative colitis in clinical patients. Mice with ATF3 deficiency in CD4+ T cells ( CD4 cre Atf3 fl/fl ) were much more susceptible to dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis...
March 12, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yuliasih Yuliasih, Lita Diah Rahmawati, Rizki Maulidya Putri
Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by T-cells imbalance. There are ongoing controversies about the role of specific T-helper cell subsets and their cytokines. The study aimed to confirm the disturbance of Th17/Treg ratio in SLE patients. Methods: Subjects were SLE patients who met the American College of Rheumatology 1997 criteria. Disease activity assessment was measured by SLAM index. Th17 and Treg level was measured by flow cytometry...
2019: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
Dmitri I Kotov, Jason S Mitchell, Thomas Pengo, Christiane Ruedl, Sing Sing Way, Ryan A Langlois, Brian T Fife, Marc K Jenkins
Naive CD4+ T lymphocytes differentiate into various Th cell subsets following TCR binding to microbial peptide:MHC class II (p:MHCII) complexes on dendritic cells (DCs). The affinity of the TCR interaction with p:MHCII plays a role in Th differentiation by mechanisms that are not completely understood. We found that low-affinity TCRs biased mouse naive T cells to become T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, whereas higher-affinity TCRs promoted the formation of Th1 or Th17 cells. We explored the basis for this phenomenon by focusing on IL-2R signaling, which is known to promote Th1 and suppress Tfh cell differentiation...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Mingqiang Hua, Ju Li, Chunyan Wang, Linlin Shao, Ming Hou, Jun Peng, Qi Feng
INTRODUCTION: Imbalance of T helper 17 (Th17) cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells occurs in primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), but the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated whether expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) related to helper T or Treg cells regulate the Th17/Treg ratio in CD4+ T cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood was obtained from 52 active ITP patients and 56 healthy controls. We detected miRNA expression using RT-PCR with stem-loop primers and U6 as control...
March 5, 2019: Thrombosis Research
Deng-Ke Teng, Yi Liu, Yi-Fei Lv, Li Wang, Wei Zhang, Jiu-Ping Wang, Yu Li
Interleukin (IL)-35 is a responsive anti-inflammatory cytokine implicated in different diseases processes. It has been reported that elevated IL-35 contributed to immunosuppression in chronic hepatitis by modulation of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cells. However, the role of IL-35 in acute hepatitis B (AHB) was still not completely elucidated. Thus, in the present study, we analyzed the expression and regulatory activity of IL-35 to Th17 cells and inflammatory response during acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in both peripheral blood cells isolated from AHB patients and in hydrodynamic induced HBV-infected mouse model...
March 6, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
Ruchika Saroa, Deepender Kaushik, Upma Bagai, Sukhbir Kaur, Deepak B Salunke
Malaria is a serious disease and is one of the most alarming public health issues. Plasmodium is being resistant to various antimalarials including Chloroquine (CQ) which was the first-line therapy for malaria treatment. WHO recommended several combination therapies but declining efficacy was reported to many of these therapies. Despite a great amount of research, efficient malaria vaccine still seems to be a distant dream. Immunochemotherapy could be an alternate strategy to deal with malaria. Based on the differential activity of various cytokines in the pathogenesis of and protection against malaria, the efficacy of highly active TLR7 agonistic imidazoquinoline (BBIQ) in combination with a suboptimal dose of CQ against P...
February 27, 2019: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Ke Zhang, Yan-Ling Sun, Shuang-Nan Zhou, Ruo-Nan Xu, Zhen-Wen Liu, Fu-Sheng Wang, Ming Shi
Circulating T follicular helper (cTFH) cells have been demonstrated to be involved in B-cell-mediated alloreactive responses in kidney and liver transplantation; however, whether these cells are involved in acute liver allograft rejection after liver transplantation, and which subsets are involved, remains to be clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the profiles of cTFH cells in acute liver allograft rejection, including the C-X-C motif receptor 3 (CXCR3)+ chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6)- subset, the CXCR3-CCR6- subset, and the CXCR3-CCR6+ subset...
March 5, 2019: Immunology Letters
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