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Vitiligo And Cell And Therapy

Sebastian Yu, Cheng-Che E Lan, Hsin-Su Yu
Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy is based on the exposure of biological tissues to low-level laser light (coherent light) or light-emitting diodes (LEDs; noncoherent light), leading to the modulation of cellular functions, such as proliferation and migration, which result in tissue regeneration. PBM therapy has important clinical applications in regenerative medicine. Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentary disorder resulting from disappearance of functional melanocytes in the involved skin. Vitiligo repigmentation depends on available melanocytes derived from (a) melanocyte stem cells located in the bulge area of hair follicles and (b) the epidermis at the lesional borders, which contains a pool of functional melanocytes...
February 2019: Experimental Dermatology
Léa Dousset, Katia Boniface, Julien Seneschal
Antibody-based therapeutics targeting programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) have shown strong efficacy in the treatment of metastatic cancers as melanoma. However, restoring the immune function with these therapies to target cancer cells leads to immune side effects including immune cutaneous events. Vitiligo-like lesions in patients receiving anti-PD-1 is one of the most common skin adverse event reported and the incidence seems to be higher than in patients receiving other immune-checkpoints therapies. Initially described in patients with metastatic melanoma, vitiligo-like lesions have now been reported in other metastatic cancers treated with anti-PD-1...
January 16, 2019: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Katia Boniface, Julien Seneschal
The understanding of the immune-mechanisms of vitiligo has profoundly improved over the past years. The recent discovery of a new population of antigen-experienced memory T cells called resident memory T cells (TRM ) has changed the concept of immune-surveillance in peripheral tissue as skin, and the presence of melanocyte-specific TRM is clearly demonstrated in vitiligo, a disease that could be now seen such as a memory skin disease. This review summarizes the recent knowledge on skin TRM and their role in vitiligo...
January 12, 2019: Experimental Dermatology
Ion G Motofei
Until now, malignancy has been considered a cellular problem represented by the perturbed (uncontrolled) division of the cells associated with invasion and metastasis. Contrary to this classical approach, a new perspective suggests that cancerous disease is, in fact, a supracellular problem represented by inadequate evolution of complex supracellular processes (embryogenesis, development, regeneration, etc.). Such complex processes would be disconnected from the real needs of the body, inducing unnecessary or even dangerous events such as an exacerbated rate of the cell division, angiogenesis, immunosuppression (specific to embryogenesis and melanoma), invasion (mediated by trophoblastic/placental factors in melanoma), and migration (specific to neural crest cells, which generate melanocytes - the most common origin for melanoma)...
January 4, 2019: Melanoma Research
Vishal Thakur, Sheetanshu Kumar, Muthu Sendhil Kumaran, Hitaishi Kaushik, Niharika Srivastava, Davinder Parsad
Importance: Surgical interventions, notably noncultured epidermal suspension (NCES), are the next line of treatment in patients with vitiligo who fail to respond to medical therapy. Noncultured epidermal suspension is usually performed in patients with vitiligo with duration of clinical stability (DS) of 12 months or longer because DS is a vital parameter in determining outcome of NCES. In this pilot study, we planned to assess the efficacy of a novel combination of noncultured epidermal cell suspension and noncultured dermal cell suspension (NCES and NDCS) in patients with vitiligo with shorter DS (3-6 months)...
January 2, 2019: JAMA Dermatology
Tali Czarnowicki, Helen He, Alexandra Leonard, Hyun Je Kim, Naoya Kameyama, Ana B Pavel, Randall Li, Yeriel Estrada, Huei-Chi Wen, Grace W Kimmel, Hee J Kim, Margot Chima, Mark Lebwohl, James G Krueger, Emma Guttman-Yassky
BACKGROUND: Peripheral blood skin-homing/cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA)+ T cells emerge as biomarkers of cutaneous immune activation in patients with inflammatory skin diseases (atopic dermatitis [AD] and alopecia areata [AA]). However, blood phenotyping across these subsets is not yet available in patients with vitiligo. OBJECTIVE: We sought to measure cytokine production by circulating skin-homing (CLA+ ) versus systemic (CLA- ) "polar" CD4+ /CD8+ ratio and activated T-cell subsets in patients with vitiligo compared with patients with AA, AD, or psoriasis and control subjects...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Alice Indini, Lorenza Di Guardo, Carolina Cimminiello, Michele Prisciandaro, Giovanni Randon, Filippo De Braud, Michele Del Vecchio
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic chances for metastatic melanoma have consistently changed over the last years with the advent of antibodies targeting the programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1). Onset of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) during treatment can be a source of concern, and the association with survival outcome is yet to be defined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of consecutive patients treated with anti-PD1 (nivolumab or pembrolizumab) for metastatic melanoma between July 2013 and January 2018 were retrospectively reviewed...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Jorge Ocampo-Candiani, Mauricio Salinas-Santander, Victor Trevino, Rocio Ortiz-López, Jorge Ocampo-Garza, Celia Nohemi Sanchez-Dominguez
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is characterized by a lack of pigmentation in the skin. To date, there are no studies that analyze the changes in gene expression in the skin of vitiligo patients in response to narrow-band ultraviolet B (nb-UVB) phototherapy treatment. OBJECTIVE: Explore the usefulness of new generation RNA sequencing in the identification of gene expression changes in the skin of vitiligo patients treated with nb-UVB phototherapy. METHODS: Four skin biopsies (4mm in diameter) were collected from 45 Mexican vitiligo vulgaris patients, 2 specimens before and 2 after treatment with nb-UVB phototherapy, obtained from pigmented and non-pigmented tissue...
November 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Takeshi Yamauchi, Kenshi Yamasaki, Kenichiro Tsuchiyama, Setsuya Aiba
The skin composes physiological and chemical barrier and renews skin component cells throughout the human life. Melanocytes locate in the basal layer of the epidermis and produce melanin to protect the skin from ultraviolet. Melanin plays key roles in determining human skin and hair color. Melanocyte dysfunction observed in albinism and vitiligo not only causes cosmetic problems but also increases risk of skin cancer. As rejuvenate therapy, embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been reported to generate melanocytes...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jillian M Richmond, James P Strassner, Mehdi Rashighi, Priti Agarwal, Madhuri Garg, Kingsley I Essien, Lila S Pell, John E Harris
Tissue resident memory T cells (Trm) form in the skin in vitiligo and persist to maintain disease, as white spots often recur rapidly after discontinuing therapy. We and others have recently described melanocyte-specific autoreactive Trm in vitiligo lesions. Here, we characterize the functional relationship between Trm and recirculating memory T cells (Tcm) in our vitiligo mouse model. We found that both Trm and Tcm sensed autoantigen in the skin long after stabilization of disease, producing IFNγ, CXCL9, and CXCL10...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Soon-Joung Kwon, Yu-Mi Kim, Hyun-Jun Jang, Young-Kwon Seo
Melanocytes in hair are located around dermal papilla cells at the tip of the hair follicle. In this study, we examined the melanogenesis of a three-dimensional (3D) hair dermal papilla model treated with natural extracts and electromagnetic fields (EMFs). The 3D model involved dermal papilla-like tissue (DPLT), an aggregation of a mixture of dermal papilla cells, and melanocytes in microwells. Rice bran extract (RBE), an EMF, and RBE/EMF were applied to different DPLT groups. The LDH assay indicated no cell stress in all experimental groups, and detection of tyrosinase activity demonstrated high activity in the RBE/EMF group...
December 2018: Bioelectromagnetics
Rachela Bleuel, Bernadette Eberlein
Affecting 0.5 % of the world's population, vitiligo is an acquired skin disorder that poses major challenges in terms of dermatological care. Characterized by patchy depigmentation, the disease is frequently associated with cosmetic disfigurement and considerable psychological distress. The primary pathophysiological causes for the loss of functional melanocytes are thought to include genetic predisposition, autoimmune mechanisms, and oxidative stress. The present article highlights treatment recommendations contained in the European guidelines as well as those provided by recent reviews on vitiligo...
November 2018: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Muhammed Razmi T, T P Afra, Davinder Parsad
Depigmented patches in vitiligo, a common dermatosis, cause a great psychological distress to the patients. Hence, apart from halting the disease process, the strategies to impart normal skin color to these white patches carry an important role in the management of vitiligo. Surgical procedures are often required for stable vitiligo lesions not responding to medical therapies. It involves 'shuffling' of melanocytes from the pigmented skin to the depigmented areas. During the last fifty years, the vitiligo surgery has evolved from tissue transplantation via cellular transplantation to reach a stage where the use of stem cells or immunomodulatory cells is contemplating...
October 17, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Zhi-Mei Zhao, Shi-Chao Liu, Xia-Juan Xu, Zhong-Fa Zhang, Ke-Ke Nie, You-Xin Ji
Skin reaction or dermatological toxicities induced by immunotherapy is common. It usually manifests skin rash or erythema and can be cured by skin lotion or steroid. Nivolumab, a human IgG4 programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor, blocks T cells activation preventing signal and allows the immune system to clear cancer cells. Nivolumab was approved in the second-line therapy in squamous cell lung cancer by FDA, with less than 10% unusual skin reaction, like sensory neuropathy, peeling skin, erythema multiforme, vitiligo, and psoriasis...
September 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
Pablo A Vieyra-Garcia, Peter Wolf
Phototherapy is an efficient treatment for many cutaneous diseases that involve the activation of inflammatory pathways or the overgrowth of cells with aberrant phenotype. In this review, we discuss recent advances in photoimmunology, focusing on the effects of UV-based therapies currently used in dermatology. We describe the molecular responses to the main forms of photo(chemo)therapy such as UVB, UVA-1, and PUVA that include the triggering of apoptotic or immunosuppressive pathways and help to clear diseased skin...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Kamila Zduńska, Anna Kołodziejczak, Helena Rotsztejn
Skin microneedling accelerates the process of skin regeneration through the creation of numerous microinjuries which emerge when skin is deeply punctured with very thin needles. The whole procedure evokes various reactions which can be divided into three major phases: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. It activates platelet growth factors which are responsible for the stimulation of fibroblasts to produce collagen and elastin. Moreover, skin breakdown enhances penetration of active ingredients. Treatment can be performed with the use of different devices, all equipped with needles of various lengths...
September 24, 2018: Dermatologic Therapy
Sayeda Yasmin-Karim, Patrick T Bruck, Michele Moreau, Sijumon Kunjachan, Gui Zhen Chen, Rajiv Kumar, Stephanie Grabow, Stephanie K Dougan, Wilfred Ngwa
Radiation therapy induces immunogenic cell death, which can theoretically stimulate T cell priming and induction of tumor-specific memory T cell responses, serving as an in situ vaccine. In practice, this abscopal effect is rarely observed. We use two mouse models of pancreatic cancer to show that a single dose of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) synergizes with intratumoral injection of agonistic anti-CD40, resulting in regression of non-treated contralateral tumors and formation of long-term immunologic memory...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jian Li, Shujun Chen, Taro Uyama, Wenyu Wu, Jinhua Xu
BACKGROUND: Autologous cultured therapy has emerged as an effective treatment for stable vitiligo. However, culture methods may include harmful agents and be unsuitable for therapeutic use in humans. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the safety and efficacy of autologous cultured epithelial sheets propagated under serum-free and feeder-free conditions for the treatment of stable vitiligo. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with stable vitiligo were included in this study...
August 9, 2018: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Barbara Bellei, Emilia Migliano, Marinella Tedesco, Silvia Caputo, Federica Papaccio, Gianluca Lopez, Mauro Picardo
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue-derived stem cells are considered to be a promising source in the field of cell therapy and regenerative medicine. In addition to direct cell replacement using adipose tissue or purified stem cells, intercellular molecule exchange by the adipose tissue complex, a vast array of bioactive secretory factors, demonstrated beneficial effects by reducing tissue damage and stimulation of endogenous repair. However, for therapeutic purposes, the use of secretome derivatives, such as full conditioned media or purified exosomes generated in vitro, may present considerable disadvantages for cell manufacturing, storage, product safety, and their potential as a ready-to-go therapeutic product...
August 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Kerasia-Maria Plachouri, Eleftheria Vryzaki, Sophia Georgiou
BACKGROUND: The introduction of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in the recent years has resulted in high response rates and extended survival in patients with metastatic/advanced malignancies. Their mechanism of action is the indirect activation of cytotoxic T-cells through the blockade of inhibitory receptors of immunmodulatory pathways, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1). Despite their impressive therapeutic results, they can also induce immune-related toxicity, affecting various organs, including the skin...
July 29, 2018: Current Drug Safety
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