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Review nano

David O'Connor, Deyi Hou, Yong Sik Ok, Jan Mulder, Lei Duan, Qingru Wu, Shuxiao Wang, Filip M G Tack, Jörg Rinklebe
Mercury (Hg) is a potentially harmful trace element in the environment and one of the World Health Organization's foremost chemicals of concern. The threat posed by Hg contaminated soils to humans is pervasive, with an estimated 86 Gg of anthropogenic Hg pollution accumulated in surface soils worldwide. This review critically examines both recent advances and remaining knowledge gaps with respect to cycling of mercury in the soil environment, to aid the assessment and management of risks caused by Hg contamination...
March 14, 2019: Environment International
Sara López-Sanz, Francisco J Guzmán Bernardo, Rosa C Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, Ángel Ríos
Nanoscience and nanotechnology have emerged in recent years as revolutionary trends in almost all fields of activity. Their impact has taken place in the analytical science, too. Firstly, because the use of nanomaterials as analytical tools is more and more frequent and secondly, because the analytical control of nanomaterials in a wide variety of samples is required. In both aspects, analytical metrology for nanomaterials is involved as the scientific discipline responsible for providing reliable information (based on experimental measurements) to end users...
June 20, 2019: Analytica Chimica Acta
Haleh Nazemi, Aashish Joseph, Jaewoo Park, Arezoo Emadi
Micro- and nano-sensors lie at the heart of critical innovation in fields ranging from medical to environmental sciences. In recent years, there has been a significant improvement in sensor design along with the advances in micro- and nano-fabrication technology and the use of newly designed materials, leading to the development of high-performance gas sensors. Advanced micro- and nano-fabrication technology enables miniaturization of these sensors into micro-sized gas sensor arrays while maintaining the sensing performance...
March 14, 2019: Sensors
Jingang Li, Eric H Hill, Linhan Lin, Yuebing Zheng
Recent advances in chemical sciences have enabled the tailorable synthesis of colloidal particles with variable composition, size, shape and properties. Building superstructures with colloidal particles as building blocks is appealing for the fabrication of functional metamaterials and nanodevices. Optical nano-printing provides a versatile platform to print various particles into arbitrary configurations with nanometric precision. In this review, we summarize recent progress in optical nano-printing of colloidal particles and its related applications...
March 15, 2019: ACS Nano
Leila Kafshdooz, Houman Kahroba, Tayebeh Kafshdooz, Roghayeh Sheervalilou, Hojjat Pourfathi
Labour is considered to be one of the most painful procedures in human experience. The most effective technique for pain relief during labour is neuraxial labour analgesia which provides analgesia without maternal or fetal sedation. Genetic predisposition may be of importance for pain perception and women experience varying degrees of pain in labour. Genetic variations in opioid receptor (OPR) genes may influence the response to epidural opioid analgesia during labour. The single-nucleotide polymorphism, A118G of the mu opioid receptor gene (oprm1), has been associated with altered pain perception...
December 2019: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Marta Truffi, Serena Mazzucchelli, Arianna Bonizzi, Luca Sorrentino, Raffaele Allevi, Renzo Vanna, Carlo Morasso, Fabio Corsi
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) are the most abundant cells of the tumor stroma and they critically influence cancer growth through control of the surrounding tumor microenvironment (TME). CAF-orchestrated reactive stroma, composed of pro-tumorigenic cytokines and growth factors, matrix components, neovessels, and deregulated immune cells, is associated with poor prognosis in multiple carcinomas, including breast cancer. Therefore, beyond cancer cells killing, researchers are currently focusing on TME as strategy to fight breast cancer...
March 13, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ie Mei Bhattacharyya, Shira Cohen, Awad Shalabny, Muhammad Bashouti, Barak Akavayov, Gil Shalev
The importance of specific and label-free detection of proteins via antigen-antibody interactions for the development of point-of-care testing devices has greatly influenced the search for a more accessible, sensitive, low cost and robust sensors. The vision of silicon field-effect transistor (FET)-based sensors has been an attractive venue for addressing the challenge as it potentially offers a natural path to incorporate sensors with the existing mature Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) industry; this provides a stable and reliable technology, low cost for potential disposable devices, the potential for extreme minituarization, low electronic noise levels, etc...
March 5, 2019: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Michael Schindler, Haley Mantha, Michael F Hochella
Mineralogical studies of contaminated soils affected by smelter emission and dust from mining activities indicate that minerals of the spinel group are one of the common hosts of metal-bearing contaminants. Spinel group minerals typically originate from high temperature processes, but an increasing number of studies indicate that metal-bearing spinel group minerals can also form under ambient Earth surface conditions in surficial soils. In this contribution to honor Donald Sparks, we show that the spinels Zn-bearing magnetite (Zn0...
March 13, 2019: Geochemical Transactions
Fan Yang, Nana Yang, Xiaoye Huo, Shengyong Xu
Temperature is one of the most fundamental parameters for the characterization of a physical system. With rapid development of lab-on-a-chip and biology at single cell level, a great demand has risen for the temperature sensors with high spatial, temporal, and thermal resolution. Nevertheless, measuring temperature in liquid environment is always a technical challenge. Various factors may affect the sensing results, such as the fabrication parameters of built-in sensors, thermal property of electrical insulating layer, and stability of fluorescent thermometers in liquid environment...
July 2018: Biomicrofluidics
Eunice Carrilho, Miguel Cardoso, Manuel Marques Ferreira, Carlos Miguel Marto, Anabela Paula, Ana Sofia Coelho
The incorporation of functional monomers in dental adhesive systems promotes chemical interaction with dental substrates, resulting in higher adhesion forces when compared to micromechanical adhesion only. The 10-MDP monomer, whose chemical structure allows for a polar behavior which is favorable to adhesion, also promotes the protection of collagen fibers through the formation of MDP-calcium salts. This systematic review aimed to characterize the interface created by 10-MDP containing adhesive systems through an evaluation of the following parameters: Formation of nano-layered structures, capacity to produce an acid-base resistant zone, and adhesion stability...
March 7, 2019: Materials
Mingli Cao, Xing Ming, Kaiyu He, Li Li, Shirley Shen
Calcium carbonate is wildly used in cementitious composites at different scales and can affect the properties of cementitious composites through physical effects (such as the filler effect, dilution effect and nucleation effect) and chemical effects. The effects of macro (>1 mm)-, micro (1 μm⁻1 mm)- and nano (<1 μm)-sizes of calcium carbonate on the hydration process, workability, mechanical properties and durability are reviewed. Macro-calcium carbonate mainly acts as an inert filler and can be involved in building the skeletons of hardened cementitious composites to provide part of the strength...
March 7, 2019: Materials
Khaista Rahman, Shahid Ullah Khan, Shah Fahad, Ming Xian Chang, Aqleem Abbas, Wasim Ullah Khan, Lutfur Rahman, Zaheer Ul Haq, Ghulam Nabi, Dilfaraz Khan
Malaria, the exterminator of ~1.5 to 2.7 million human lives yearly, is a notorious disease known throughout the world. The eradication of this disease is difficult and a challenge to scientists. Vector elimination and effective chemotherapy for the patients are key tactics to be used in the fight against malaria. However, drug resistance and environmental and social concerns are the main hurdles in this fight against malaria. Overcoming these limitations is the major challenge for the 21st-century malarial researchers...
2019: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Shannon Brown, Shreedevi Kumar, Blanka Sharma
Osteoarthritis is a prevalent and debilitating disease that involves pathological contributions from numerous joint tissues and cells. The joint is a challenging arena for drug delivery, since the joint has poor bioavailability for systemically administered drugs and experiences rapid clearance of therapeutics after intra-articular injection. Moreover, each tissue within the joint presents unique barriers to drug localization. In this review, the various applications of nanotechnology to overcome these drug delivery limitations are investigated...
March 9, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Lei Chen, Shuo Wang, Qianqian Yu, Paul D Topham, Changzhong Chen, Linge Wang
Electrospinning provides a versatile and cost-effective route for the generation of continuous nanofibres with high surface area-to-volume ratio from various polymers. In parallel, block copolymers (BCPs) are promising candidates for many diverse applications, where nanoscale operation is exploited, owing to their intrinsic self-assembling behaviour at these length scales. Judicious combination of BCPs (with their ability to make nanosized domains at equilibrium) and electrospinning (with its ability to create nano- and microsized fibres and particles) allows one to create BCPs with high surface area-to-volume ratio to deliver higher efficiency or efficacy in their given application...
March 12, 2019: Soft Matter
Assaad Kassem, George M Ayoub, Lilian Malaeb
Bacteriological contamination of water sources is a major challenge that has a detrimental impact on both the environment and human health. This imposes the search for the most efficient disinfectant. Despite their antibacterial efficiency, traditional methods can often form disinfection byproducts through their reaction with organic and inorganic compounds. Substitutes for conventional bacterial inactivation methods should not produce harmful byproducts and must also be cost effective. Nanotechnology is an attractive option that is suited for surface reactions as nanostructures offer large surface to volume ratios...
March 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Hany A Abdel Samie, Mohd Saeed, Syed Mohd Faisal, M A Kamal
BACKGROUND: Nanotechnology-based therapies are emerging as a promising new anticancer approach. Early clinical studies suggest that nanoparticle-based therapeutics can show enhanced efficacy while reducing side effects minimal, owing to targeted delivery and active intracellular uptake. METHODS: To overcome the problems of gene and drug delivery, nanotechnology based delivery system gained interest in the last two decades. Encouraging results from Nano formulation based drug delivery systems reveals that these emerging restoratives can efficiently lead to more effective, targeted, selective and efficacious delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to the affected target cells...
March 8, 2019: Current Drug Metabolism
Sónia P Miguel, Rosa S Sequeira, André F Moreira, Cátia C Cabral, António G Mendonça, Paula Ferreira, Ilídio J Correia
Nowadays, despite the intensive research performed in the area of skin tissue engineering, the treatment of skin lesions remains a big challenge for healthcare professionals. In fact, none of the wound dressings currently used in the clinic is capable of re-establishing all the native features of skin. An ideal wound dressing must confer protection to the wound from external microorganisms, chemical, and physical aggressions, as well as promote the healing process by stimulating the cell adhesion, differentiation, and proliferation...
March 7, 2019: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Rosanne E Veerman, Gözde Güçlüler Akpinar, Maria Eldh, Susanne Gabrielsson
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano-sized vesicles with the capacity to transfer nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, and are released by all cells. EV is an umbrella term for exosomes originating from the endosomal compartment, microvesicles from the cell membrane, and apoptotic bodies released during apoptosis. EVs are being investigated for their role in health and disease, and as potential biomarkers, with newly developed FDA-approved assays reaching the market. Currently, both academic institutions and industrial ventures are developing clinical trials to use EVs in diseases such as cancer, graft-versus-host disease, and neurodegenerative diseases...
March 7, 2019: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Sourbh Thakur, Jyoti Chaudhary, Vinod Kumar, Vijay Kumar Thakur
Pectin is one of the finest natural polymer which has drawn great attention because of its applications in different fields. Due to the quintessential structure of pectin, it can be transformed into variety of useful products. It can be utilized as a blend in many polymers to make a mixture or a composite material. Owing to considerable collection in chemical conformation and cross-linking mechanism, different pectin based hydrogels have been prepared for different characteristics in pharmaceutical and bio-medical sites...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Archana George, Priyanka A Shah, Pranav S Shrivastav
Nanomedicines are now considered as the new-generation medication in the current era mainly because of their features related to nano size. The efficacy of many drugs in their micro/macro formulations is shown to have poor bioavailability and pharmacokinetics after oral administration. To overcome this predicament, use of natural/synthetic biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have gained prominence in the field of nanomedicine for targeted drug delivery to improve biocompatibility, bioavailability, safety, enhanced permeability, better retention time and lower toxicity...
March 6, 2019: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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