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Clinical embryology

N V Ankith, M Avinash, K S Srivijayanand, Ajoy Prasad Shetty, Rishi Mugesh Kanna, Shanmuganathan Rajasekaran
Study Design: Observational retrospective computed tomography (CT) based study. Purpose: To analyze the congenital anomalies of the cervical spine, their morphological variations and their clinical significance. Overview of Literature: Studies published to date have focused mainly on upper cervical anomalies; no study has comprehensively reported on anomalies of both the occipitocervical and subaxial cervical spine. Methods: Nine hundred and thirty cervical spine CT scans performed in Ganga Hospital, Coimbatore, India between January 2014 and November 2017 were screened by two independent observers to document anomalies of both the upper and lower cervical spine...
March 14, 2019: Asian Spine Journal
Giovanni Coticchio, Cristina Lagalla, Roger Sturmey, Francesca Pennetta, Andrea Borini
BACKGROUND: Assisted reproduction technology offers the opportunity to observe the very early stages of human development. However, due to practical constraints, for decades morphological examination of embryo development has been undertaken at a few isolated time points at the stages of fertilisation (Day 1), cleavage (Day 2-3) and blastocyst (Day 5-6). Rather surprisingly, the morula stage (Day 3-4) has been so far neglected, despite its involvement in crucial cellular processes and developmental decisions...
March 11, 2019: Human Reproduction Update
Giuseppe Mamone, Vincenzo Carollo, Kelvin Cortis, Sarah Aquilina, Rosa Liotta, Roberto Miraglia
Fibropolycystic liver diseases, also known as ductal plate malformations, are a group of associated congenital disorders resulting from abnormal development of the biliary ductal system. These disorders include congenital hepatic fibrosis, biliary hamartomas, polycystic liver disease, choledochal cysts and Caroli disease. Recently, it has been thought to include biliary atresia in this group of diseases, because ductal plate malformations could be implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease. Concomitant associated renal anomalies can also be present, such as autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), medullary sponge kidney and nephronophthisis...
March 9, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
R Babu, P Vittalraj, S Sundaram, S Shalini
The etiology of ureterovesical junction obstruction (UVJO) and ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is obscure with an adynamic narrow segment causing the obstruction. In this study, the authors compared interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and collagen-to-muscle ratio (CM ratio) between UVJO, UPJO, and fetal ureters to investigate whether a maturational arrest of the fetal ureter could explain both clinical pathologies. METHODS: Group 1 (control) involved specimens of the normal ureter (nephrectomy for trauma/tumor; n = 20), while group 2, specimens of UVJO (n = 14); group 2 was further divided into group 2a, the dilated megaureter above UVJO, and group 2b, UVJO narrow segment; group 3, UPJO narrow segment excised during pyeloplasty (n = 31); and group 4, normal fetal ureters (n = 12)...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Karina Sutherland, Joanne Leitch, Helen Lyall, Bryan Woodward
RESEARCH QUESTION: Can detailed scrutiny of time-lapse imaging (TLI) of inner cell mass (ICM) splitting help to reduce the frequency of multiple pregnancies following elective single embryo transfer (eSET)? DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of time-lapse images of an embryo in vitro, which resulted in a monochorionic triamniotic pregnancy following eSET on Day 5 of development. RESULTS: A 37-year-old female patient underwent a frozen embryo transfer cycle whereby a single vitrified/warmed embryo was transferred at the hatching blastocyst stage...
December 21, 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
K Stocking, J Wilkinson, S Lensen, D R Brison, S A Roberts, A Vail
STUDY QUESTION: How much statistical power do randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses have to investigate the effectiveness of interventions in reproductive medicine? SUMMARY ANSWER: The largest trials in reproductive medicine are unlikely to detect plausible improvements in live birth rate (LBR), and meta-analyses do not make up for this shortcoming. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Effectiveness of interventions is best evaluated using RCTs...
March 6, 2019: Human Reproduction
Shiva M Nair, Nicholas E Power, Tyler S Beveridge
The spermatic ganglia are collections of sympathetic neuron cell bodies located within the cords of the infrarenal aortic plexus, positioned at the origin of the testicular arteries in males. During routine dissection of the aortic plexus at our institution, one specimen exhibited a second (accessory) testicular artery on the right side that coursed retrocaval. Histology was used to confirm the presence of an accessory right spermatic ganglion at the base of the accessory retrocaval testicular artery. Interestingly, the accessory spermatic ganglion was also supplied by its own right lumbar splanchnic nerve...
February 28, 2019: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Lloyd W Klein, Enrique Padilla Campos
Vieussens' ring is an embryologic remnant that acquires clinical significance as an intercoronary collateral vessel in advanced coronary artery disease. Its origin as a peritruncal structure early in embryologic development, and its association with congenital pulmonary artery fistula, provides a crucial insight into the early stages of the coronary circulation. This review describes the embryologic basis of Vieussens' ring in relation to the formation of the coronary arteries, which explains its location, appearance, and clinical importance...
March 2019: Journal of Invasive Cardiology
Heron D Baumgarten, Alan W Flake
Fetal surgery is an established but still rapidly evolving specialty, born from the rationale that destructive embryologic processes, recognized early in gestation, can be curtailed by prenatal correction. As more and more centers begin offering fetal interventions, quality of care must be verified through transparency about clinical capabilities and resources. Level designations should be assigned based on capability, as in trauma and neonatal ICU centers for excellence, and volume requirements must be set for fetal surgery certification...
April 2019: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Terry L Levin, Bradford W Betz, Lisa M Gennarini, Chana Wircberg
BACKGROUND: Congenital unilateral absence of the pulmonary vein (UCAPV) is a rare entity with characteristic clinical and imaging findings. Despite its congenital nature, the radiographic findings and symptoms of UCAPV may not be recognized at birth and patients may present in childhood or early adulthood with findings that may mimic other diagnoses. METHODS: The evolution of imaging findings in UCAPV is presented through two cases, one of which demonstrates the progression of findings over several years...
January 30, 2019: Clinical Imaging
Hubert Gresser
Objective: Three Omega points on the human auricle were first described by Paul Nogier, MD, of France. Each Omega point theoretically represents a different embryologic tissue layer, with a correspondence to specific physical body attributes and certain emotional developments. Maurice Verdun, MD, and René J. Bourdiol, MD, developed the use of distinguishable anthropobiometric parameters and specific psychologic tests to classify a large clinical population into 4 categories that have both somatic and emotional features...
February 1, 2019: Medical Acupuncture
Barbara Käsmann-Kellner, Kayed Moslemani, Berthold Seitz
To control the development of the ocular phenotype, several coordinated steps of temporally- and spatially-organized networked triggers (inductions) are necessary. This is regulated at the level of transcription. Crucial here are the so-called master genes or DNA-binding transcription factors PAX6, FOXC1, SOX2, FOXE3, OTX2, PITX2 and PAX2. Depending on the disease phenotype, it is possible to conclude on the gestational period in which ocular development was profoundly disrupted. The so-called neural crest cells contribute significantly to the development of eye structures, especially of the anterior segment...
February 8, 2019: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Swapnil Patel, Alok A Bhatt
Congenital anterior neck masses comprise a rare group of lesions typically diagnosed in childhood. Most commonly, lesions are anomalies of the thyroglossal duct, namely the thyroglossal duct cyst, along with ectopic thyroid tissue. Although usually suspected based on clinical examination, imaging can confirm the diagnosis, assess the extent, and evaluate for associated complications. Imaging characteristics on ultrasound, CT, and MRI may at times be equivocal; differential considerations include branchial cleft cyst, dermoid/epidermoid, laryngocele, thymic cyst, lymphatic malformation, and metastatic disease...
February 6, 2019: Insights Into Imaging
Elizabeth R Hammond, Dean E Morbeck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2019: Human Reproduction
Joo Whan Kim, Kyu-Chang Wang, Sangjoon Chong, Seung-Ki Kim, Ji Yeoun Lee
BACKGROUND: Limited dorsal myeloschisis (LDM) is postulated to be a result of incomplete dysjunction in primary neurulation. However, clinical experience of LDM located below the first-second sacral (S1-S2) vertebral level, which is formed from secondary neurulation (S2-coccyx), suggested that LDM may not be entirely explained as an error of primary neurulation. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the location and characteristics of LDM to investigate the possible relation of its pathoembryogenesis to secondary neurulation...
January 23, 2019: Neurosurgery
Lizy M Paniagua Gonzalez, Jaime A Tschen, Philip R Cohen
Hair embryogenesis is a complex process. The development of this skin appendage originates from both ectoderm and mesoderm layers. Multiple signaling pathways and regulation are required for proper hair formation. However, anomalies occasionally arise, such as ectopic sebaceous glands in the hair follicle matrix. Two men who demonstrate this developmental anomaly are reported and the characteristics of individuals in whom this aberration in hair follicle maturation has occurred are reviewed. In addition, the anatomy of the hair follicle is summarized and the embryologic features of hair morphogenesis are discussed...
November 17, 2018: Curēus
Aamir Ali, Neda I Sedora Roman, Mougnyan Cox, David Kung, Omar Choudhri, Robert W Hurst, Bryan A Pukenas
The anomalous origin of the right vertebral artery (VA) from the right common carotid artery (CCA) is a rare vascular anomaly, which is usually clinically asymptomatic and found incidentally during angiographic examinations. This anomaly is invariably associated with an aberrant right subclavian artery (RSCA). Approximately 31 cases have been reported in the literature. We present a case of a right VA originating from the right CCA in a patient with Down syndrome and discuss the imaging findings, embryological etiology of the anomaly, as well as its implications for endovascular/surgical treatment...
November 16, 2018: Curēus
Zeynep B Gürtin, Trina Shah, Jinjun Wang, Kamal Ahuja
RESEARCH QUESTION: What can we learn from 5 years of egg-freezing practice in the UK? What are the different categories of egg freezing, and what are the social and demographic characteristics of patients, and their decisions regarding subsequent storage or thawing? DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory data of all 514 cycles of 'own' egg freezing conducted at the London Women's Clinic in the 5-year period from the start of 2012 to the end of 2016...
December 11, 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Alyssa Goldbach, Chandra Dass, Krishna Surapaneni
The normal aortic arch branching pattern is of a three-vessel arch with the vertebral arteries arising from the subclavian arteries. There are a variety of well-known symptomatic and asymptomatic aortic branching patterns widely reported in the literature. An anomalous right vertebral artery with a diverticulum of Kommerell is an extremely rare variant, with few other cases reported in the literature. Herein, we review the embryology of the aortic arch and vertebral artery, the various types of Kommerell's diverticula and the clinical significance of this anomaly...
May 2018: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Pietro Calcagno, Marco Lotti, Luca Campanati, Salvatore Greco, Rosangela Trezzi, Andrea Assolari, Elisa Vaterlini, Cristina Bertani, Niccolò Allievi, Michela Giulii Capponi
Ectopic pancreas is a rare embryological abnormality apparently not in association with others. Stomach and duodenum are the most common organs involved. Symptoms are nonspecific. Patients may complain of dyspepsia, abdominal pain or intestinal obstruction. Malignant evolution of ectopic pancreatic cells has been reported. Diagnosis can be very challenging due to the rarity of the disease and the absence of specific symptoms and radiological findings. We report two cases of young-adult men admitted to the emergency department due to acute upper gastro-intestinal and pancreatic symptoms...
November 8, 2018: Curēus
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