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inflammation virus

Na Yang, Zhuoran Li, Min Yan, Wende Xiao, Weihong Zhang, Youmin Long, Yingzi Cheng, Kaihua Ming, Banglao Xu
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents an important risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a widely used biomarker for HCC. However, elevated serum AFP levels in different statuses of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is not well defined. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between AFP levels and HCV viral load in CHC patients. We also analyzed the correlation between three liver func-tion enzyme levels (AST, ALT, GGT) and HCV RNA viral load in CHC patients...
January 1, 2019: Clinical Laboratory
Yashoda Ghanekar, Subhashini Sadasivam
Background: Sequencing studies across multiple cancers continue to reveal mutations and genes involved in the pathobiology of these cancers. Exome sequencing of oral cancers, a subset of Head and Neck Squamous cell Carcinomas (HNSCs) common among tobacco-chewing populations, revealed that ∼34% of the affected patients harbor mutations in the CASP8 gene . Uterine Corpus Endometrial Carcinoma (UCEC) is another cancer where ∼10% cases harbor CASP8 mutations. Caspase-8, the protease encoded by CASP8 gene, plays a dual role in programmed cell death, which in turn has an important role in tumor cell death and drug resistance...
2019: PeerJ
Lifu Xiong, Yanan Du, Tianhui Zhou, Bingying Du, Phimphone Visalath, Lanyi Lin, Shisan Bao, Wei Cai
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is characterized by acute deterioration of chronic liver disease with excessive inflammation. N-myc and STAT interactor (NMI), an inflammation-mediated protein, involves in various inflammatory related diseases, but the role of NMI in development and prognosis in HBV-ACLF remains to be elucidated. METHODS: Serum NMI from healthy controls (HCs, n=20), chronic hepatitis B (CHB, n=50) patients and HBV-ACLF patients (n=50) were determined using ELISA...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
S J Holdsworth-Carson, E M Colgrave, J F Donoghue, J N Fung, M L Churchill, S Mortlock, P Paiva, M Healey, G W Montgomery, J E Girling, P A W Rogers
Endometriotic lesions are composed in part of endometrial-like stromal cells, however, there is a shortage of immortalized human endometrial stromal cultures available for research. As genetic factors play a role in endometriosis risk, it is important that genotype is also incorporated into analysis of pathological mechanisms. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) immortalization (using Lenti-hTERT-green fluorescent protein virus) took place following genotype selection; 13 patients homozygous for either the risk or non-risk 'other' allele for one or more important endometriosis risk single nucleotide polymorphism on chromosome 1p36...
February 16, 2019: Molecular Human Reproduction
Caitlyn M Rerucha, John T Ewing, Kathryn E Oppenlander, Wesley Charles Cowan
Acute hand infections are often caused by puncture wounds and are generally classified into superficial or deep infections. Superficial infections occur in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, whereas deep infections can involve the tendon sheaths, adjacent anatomic compartments, deep fascial planes, bursae, joint spaces, and bones. Superficial hand infections are more common than deep infections and are typically managed with elevation, warm soaks, splinting in the position of function, analgesics, and empiric antibiotics when indicated...
February 15, 2019: American Family Physician
Mathew Clement, Ian R Humphreys
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a β-herpesvirus with high sero-prevalence within the human population. Primary HCMV infection and life-long carriage are typically asymptomatic. However, HCMV is implicated in exacerbation of chronic conditions and associated damage in individuals with intact immune systems. Furthermore, HCMV is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the immunologically immature and immune-compromised where disease is associated with tissue damage. Infection-induced inflammation, including robust cytokine responses, is a key component of pathologies associated with many viruses...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Wei Wang, Wenchao Sun, Liang Cao, Min Zheng, Yilong Zhu, Wenjie Li, Cunxia Liu, Xinyu Zhuang, Jialiang Xing, Huijun Lu, Tingrong Luo, Ningyi Jin
BACKGROUND: Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is a single-stranded, closed circular DNA virus, which causes porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS), multisystemic inflammation, and reproductive failure. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of PCV3 in cattle (Bos taurus) in Shandong province, China, and examine its genome diversity. RESULTS: PCR amplification and sequencing showed that 74 of 213 bovine samples (34.7%) were positive for PCV3...
February 13, 2019: BMC Veterinary Research
Mathilde Calvez, George Hseeh, Simon Benzer, Amanda M Brown
Despite the fact that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) does not enter or replicate in neurons, its infection of a subset of resident brain glia cells (microglia and astrocytes) induces via disparate mechanisms, dysregulation of glutamate metabolism, neurotoxicity, and inflammation. Antiretroviral therapies suppress viral load, but cellular activation and release of proinflammatory factors, some of which is likely related to viral reservoirs, continue to promote a microenvironment that is injurious to neurons...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Coraline Canivet, Olus Uyar, Chantal Rhéaume, Jocelyne Piret, Guy Boivin
The cerebral immune response induced by herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis (HSE) was evaluated in susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 mice. BALB/c and C57BL/6 (named C57BL/6-high) mice were respectively infected intranasally with 1 × 103 and 5 × 105 plaque-forming units (PFUs) of HSV-1. C57BL/6 mice (named C57BL/6-low) infected with a low inoculum (1 × 103 PFUs) of HSV-1 were tested in parallel. Mice were monitored for weight loss, sickness signs, and survival for 21 days. The viral load, infectious titers, cytokine/chemokine levels, and peripheral leukocyte infiltration were determined in brain homogenates on days 0 (non-infected), 4, 6, and 8 post-infection (p...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Yu Ho Lee, Se-Yun Kim, Haena Moon, Jung-Woo Seo, Dong-Jin Kim, Seon Hwa Park, Yang-Gyun Kim, Ju-Young Moon, Jin Sug Kim, Kyung-Hwan Jeong, Sung-Jig Lim, Chan-Duck Kim, Jae Berm Park, Byung Ha Chung, Yeong Hoon Kim, Jaeseok Yang, Hyung-In Yang, Kyoung Soo Kim, Sang-Ho Lee
Endocan is a water-soluble proteoglycan exclusively secreted by vascular endothelium. Endocan levels may be elevated in kidney transplant recipients experiencing antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), which is characterized by vascular inflammation in transplanted kidney. We evaluated the clinical relevance of endocan as markers of microvascular inflammation in patients who underwent kidney transplantation. Plasma and urinary endocan levels were measured in 203 kidney transplant recipients and were compared across different etiologies of allograft dysfunction and various pathologic scores...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
Mona Dehhaghi, Hamed Kazemi Shariat Panahi, Edward C Holmes, Bernard J Hudson, Richard Schloeffel, Gilles J Guillemin
There are 17 human-biting ticks known in Australia. The bites of Ixodes holocyclus, Ornithodoros capensis , and Ornithodoros gurneyi can cause paralysis, inflammation, and severe local and systemic reactions in humans, respectively. Six ticks, including Amblyomma triguttatum, Bothriocroton hydrosauri, Haemaphysalis novaeguineae, Ixodes cornuatus, Ixodes holocyclus , and Ixodes tasmani may transmit Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia australis, Rickettsia honei , or Rickettsia honei subsp. marmionii . These bacterial pathogens cause Q fever, Queensland tick typhus (QTT), Flinders Island spotted fever (FISF), and Australian spotted fever (ASF)...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Evgeni V Nikolaev, Andrew Zloza, Eduardo D Sontag
It was recently reported that acute influenza infection of the lung promoted distal melanoma growth in the dermis of mice. Melanoma-specific CD8+ T cells were shunted to the lung in the presence of the infection, where they expressed high levels of inflammation-induced cell-activation blocker PD-1, and became incapable of migrating back to the tumor site. At the same time, co-infection virus-specific CD8+ T cells remained functional while the infection was cleared. It was also unexpectedly found that PD-1 blockade immunotherapy reversed this effect...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Annika Wyss, Tina Raselli, Nathan Perkins, Florian Ruiz, Gérard Schmelczer, Glynis Klinke, Anja Moncsek, René Roth, Marianne R Spalinger, Larissa Hering, Kirstin Atrott, Silvia Lang, Isabelle Frey-Wagner, Joachim C Mertens, Michael Scharl, Andreas W Sailer, Oliver Pabst, Martin Hersberger, Caroline Pot, Gerhard Rogler, Benjamin Misselwitz
The gene encoding for Epstein-Barr virus-induced G-protein-coupled receptor 2 (EBI2) is a risk gene for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Together with its oxysterol ligand 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol, EBI2 mediates migration and differentiation of immune cells. However, the role of EBI2 in the colonic immune system remains insufficiently studied. We found increased mRNA expression of EBI2 and oxysterol-synthesizing enzymes (CH25H, CYP7B1) in the inflamed colon of patients with ulcerative colitis and mice with acute or chronic dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis...
February 11, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
Maja Potokar, Jernej Jorgačevski, Robert Zorec
Virus infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can manifest in various forms of inflammation, including that of the brain (encephalitis) and spinal cord (myelitis), all of which may have long-lasting deleterious consequences. Although the knowledge of how different viruses affect neural cells is increasing, understanding of the mechanisms by which cells respond to neurotropic viruses remains fragmented. Several virus types have the ability to infect neural tissue, and astrocytes, an abundant and heterogeneous neuroglial cell type and a key element providing CNS homeostasis, are one of the first CNS cell types to get infected...
February 6, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Nicolas Chamberlain, Bethany R Korwin-Mihavics, Emily M Nakada, Sierra R Bruno, David E Heppner, David G Chapman, Sidra M Hoffman, Albert van der Vliet, Benjamin T Suratt, Oliver Dienz, John F Alcorn, Vikas Anathy
Protein disulfide isomerases (PDI) are a family of redox chaperones that catalyze formation or isomerization of disulfide bonds in proteins. Previous studies have shown that one member, PDIA3, interacts with influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA), and this interaction is required for efficient oxidative folding of HA in vitro. However, it is unknown whether these host-viral protein interactions occur during active infection and whether such interactions represent a putative target for the treatment of influenza infection...
January 29, 2019: Redox Biology
Arturo Reyes-Sandoval
Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). This virus is considered a priority pathogen to the UK government, the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the US military personnel, due to the potential of CHIKV to cause major outbreaks. Nearly all CHIKV infections are symptomatic, often incapacitating and patients experience severe joint pain and inflammation that can last for more than one year with 0.4-0.5% fatality rates. Mother-to-child transmission has also been described...
February 8, 2019: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Daithi S Heffernan
BACKGROUND: The influenza virus is a pathogenic virus responsible for large numbers of deaths and long-term disabilities worldwide. Although the very young, the very old, and immunocompromised individuals are most susceptible, the effects of the influenza virus can be observed across the entire spectrum of individuals. DISCUSSION: Infection with the influenza virus induces a substantial inflammatory and immunologic response and induces marked pulmonary inflammation...
February 6, 2019: Surgical Infections
Ling-Feng Wan, Jian-Jiang Shen, Yao-Hui Wang, Wei Zhao, Nan-Yuan Fang, Xin Yuan, Bo-Yu Xue
Hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma are serious human diseases. Here, we examined the in vivo and in vitro inhibitory effect of extracts of Qizhu decoction (a traditional Chinese medicine) on hepatitis caused by diethylnitrosamine or hepatitis B virus and on diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. The results showed that both the aqueous and ethanol extracts (QC and QS, respectively) of Qizhu decoction significantly inhibited hepatic inflammation and liver cancer induced by diethylnitrosamine or hepatitis B virus by suppressing NF-κB signaling and decreasing the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β...
February 5, 2019: Scientific Reports
Alice E Denton, Silvia Innocentin, Edward J Carr, Barry M Bradford, Fanny Lafouresse, Neil A Mabbott, Urs Mörbe, Burkhard Ludewig, Joanna R Groom, Kim L Good-Jacobson, Michelle A Linterman
Ectopic lymphoid structures form in a wide range of inflammatory conditions, including infection, autoimmune disease, and cancer. In the context of infection, this response can be beneficial for the host: influenza A virus infection-induced pulmonary ectopic germinal centers give rise to more broadly cross-reactive antibody responses, thereby generating cross-strain protection. However, despite the ubiquity of ectopic lymphoid structures and their role in both health and disease, little is known about the mechanisms by which inflammation is able to convert a peripheral tissue into one that resembles a secondary lymphoid organ...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Robert A Campbell, Hansjorg Schwertz, Eugenio D Hottz, Jesse W Rowley, Bhanu Kanth Manne, A Valance Washington, Robert Hunter-Mellado, Neal D Tolley, Miles Christensen, Alicia S Eustes, Emilie Montenont, Seema Bhatlekar, Cassandra H Ventrone, Beth D Kirkpatrick, Kristen K Pierce, Stephen S Whitehead, Sean A Diehl, Paul F Bray, Guy A Zimmerman, Yasuhiro Kosaka, Patricia T Bozza, Fernando A Bozza, Andrew S Weyrich, Matthew T Rondina
Evolving evidence indicates that platelets and megakaryocytes (MKs) have unexpected activities in inflammation and infection; but whether viral infections upregulate biologically active, anti-viral immune genes in platelets and MKs is unknown. We examined anti-viral immune genes in these cells in dengue and influenza infections, viruses that are global public health threats. Using complementary biochemical, pharmacological, and genetic approaches, we examined the regulation and function of interferon induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3), an anti-viral immune effector gene not previously studied in human platelets and MKs...
February 5, 2019: Blood
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