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Algonquin Park

Melanie D Massey, Sarah M Holt, Ronald J Brooks, Njal Rollinson
For many oviparous animals, incubation temperature influences sex through temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Although climate change may skew sex ratios in species with TSD, few available methods predict sex under natural conditions, fewer still are based on mechanistic hypotheses of development, and field tests of existing methods are rare. We propose a new approach that calculates the probability of masculinization (PM) in natural nests. This approach subsumes the mechanistic hypotheses describing the outcome of TSD, by integrating embryonic development with the temperature-sex reaction norm...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
David Benoit, Donald A Jackson, Mark S Ridgway
Detecting all species in a given survey is challenging, regardless of sampling effort. This issue, more commonly known as imperfect detection, can have negative impacts on data quality and interpretation, most notably leading to false absences for rare or difficult-to-detect species. It is important that this issue be addressed, as estimates of species richness are critical to many areas of ecological research and management. In this study, we set out to determine the impacts of imperfect detection, and decisions about thresholds for inclusion in occupancy, on estimates of species richness and community structure...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
M Alex Smith, Amanda Boyd, Amelia Chan, Simonne Clout, Paulson des Brisay, Sarah Dolson, Thanushi Eagalle, Sean Espinola, Aaron Fairweather, Sydney Frank, Christopher Fruetel, Cristina Garrido Cortes, James Hall, Chris Ho, Eryk Matczak, Sandra McCubbin, Megan McPhee, Kate A Pare, Kelsie Paris, Ellen Richard, Morgan Roblin, Cassandra Russell, Ryan Snyder, Carolyn Trombley, Tyler Schmitt, Caitlin Vandermeer, Connor Warne, Natasha Welch, Chelsie Xavier-Blower
Arthropods are the most diverse taxonomic group of terrestrial eukaryotes and are sensitive to physical alterations in their environment such as those caused by forestry. With their enormous diversity and physical omnipresence, arthropods could be powerful indicators of the effects of disturbance following forestry. When arthropods have been used to measure the effects of disturbance, the total diversity of some groups is often found to increase following forestry. However, these findings are frequently derived using a coarse taxonomic grain (family or order) to accommodate for various taxonomic impediments (including cryptic diversity and poorly resourced taxonomists)...
2017: PloS One
Shannon Whelan, Dan Strickland, Julie Morand-Ferron, D Ryan Norris
Timing of reproduction can influence individual fitness whereby early breeders tend to have higher reproductive success than late breeders. However, the fitness consequences of timing of breeding may also be influenced by environmental conditions after the commencement of breeding. We tested whether ambient temperatures during the incubation and early nestling periods modulated the effect of laying date on brood size and dominant juvenile survival in gray jays ( Perisoreus canadensis ), a sedentary boreal species whose late winter nesting depends, in part, on caches of perishable food...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Rachael Derbyshire, Dan Strickland, D Ryan Norris
Several species of birds and mammals overcome periods of scarcity by caching food, but for the vast majority of species, it is virtually unknown whether they are food limited during these periods. The Gray Jay (Perisoreus canadensis) is a boreal-resident, food-caching passerine that breeds in late winter when fresh food is scarce. Using a two-year experiment and 43 years of monitoring data, we examined the food limitation hypothesis in a population of Gray Jays in Algonquin Park, Ontario, Canada, that has declined by over 50% in the last three decades...
November 2015: Ecology
Julia L Riley, Glenn J Tattersall, Jacqueline D Litzgus
Many temperate animals spend half their lives in a non-active, overwintering state, and multiple adaptations have evolved to enable winter survival. One notable vertebrate model is Chrysemys picta, whose hatchlings display dichotomous overwintering strategies: some hatchlings spend their first winter aquatically after nest emergence in the autumn, whereas others overwinter terrestrially within their natal nest with subsequent emergence in the spring. The occurrence of these strategies varies among populations and temporally within populations; however, factors that determine the strategy employed by a nest in nature are unknown...
December 1, 2014: Journal of Experimental Biology
John F Benson, Brent R Patterson, Peter J Mahoney
It is widely recognized that protected areas can strongly influence ecological systems and that hybridization is an important conservation issue. However, previous studies have not explicitly considered the influence of protected areas on hybridization dynamics. Eastern wolves are a species of special concern and their distribution is largely restricted to a protected population in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada, where they are the numerically dominant canid. We studied intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing survival and cause-specific mortality of hybrid and parental canids in the three-species hybrid zone between eastern wolves, eastern coyotes, and gray wolves in and adjacent to APP...
February 2014: Ecology
John F Benson, Brent R Patterson
Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) generally exhibit intraspecific territoriality manifesting in spatial segregation between adjacent packs. However, previous studies have found a high degree of interspecific spatial overlap between sympatric wolves and coyotes. Eastern wolves (Canis lycaon) are the most common wolf in and around Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada and hybridize with sympatric gray wolves and coyotes. We hypothesized that all Canis types (wolves, coyotes, and hybrids) exhibit a high degree of spatial segregation due to greater genetic, morphologic, and ecological similarities between wolves and coyotes in this hybrid system compared with western North American ecosystems...
December 2013: Oecologia
S S Desser, H Hong, M E Siddall, J R Barta
A diplomonad flagellate found in the blood of frogs in Algonquin Park, Ontario is described by light and electron microscopy. Based on comparisons to earlier ultrastructural descriptions of various diplomonads, this flagellate warrants separate generic status and is consequently named Brugerolleia algonquinensis gen. nov., sp. nov. This organism measures 8.4 × 3.2 μm with the following features: paired reniform nuclei with kinetids arranged in binary axial symmetry; 3 pairs of flagella emerging from the anteriad and a pair of posteriorly directed recurrent flagella which emerge through fibrillar funnel-like structures; dimpled terminus; direct fibres posterior to the nuclei that recurve near the posterior end of the organism; concentric layers of endoplasmic reticulum; absence of mitochondria, Golgi bodies and caudal spike...
February 19, 1993: European Journal of Protistology
John F Benson, Brent R Patterson, Tyler J Wheeldon
Eastern wolves have hybridized extensively with coyotes and gray wolves and are listed as a 'species of special concern' in Canada. However, a distinct population of eastern wolves has been identified in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP) in Ontario. Previous studies of the diverse Canis hybrid zone adjacent to APP have not linked genetic analysis with field data to investigate genotype-specific morphology or determine how resident animals of different ancestry are distributed across the landscape in relation to heterogeneous environmental conditions...
December 2012: Molecular Ecology
Gordana Rasic, Nusha Keyghobadi
We investigated the pattern of spatial genetic structure and the extent of gene flow in the pitcher plant flesh fly Fletcherimyia fletcheri, the largest member of the inquiline community of the purple pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea. Using microsatellite loci, we tested the theoretical predictions of different hypothesized population models (patchy population, metapopulation, or isolated populations) among 11 bogs in Algonquin Provincial Park (Canada). Our results revealed that the pitcher plant flesh fly exhibits a mixture of patchy and metapopulation characteristics...
September 2012: Journal of Heredity
M Thompson, N Mykytczuk, K Gooderham, A Schulte-Hostedde
Zoonotic diseases impact both wild and domestic animal populations and can be transmitted to humans through close contact with animal species. Reservoir species acting as vectors are major traffickers of disease. Rodents contribute to the transmission of Coxiella burnetii although little is known about its prevalence in wild animal populations. DNA was extracted from genital swabs collected from woodland jumping mice, deer mice, Southern red-backed voles, Eastern chipmunks, North American red squirrels, as well as Southern and Northern flying squirrels collected from Algonquin Park, Canada...
December 2012: Zoonoses and Public Health
Rhiannon Leshyk, Erica Nol, Dawn M Burke, Gary Burness
Silviculture (logging) creates a disturbance to forested environments. The degree to which forests are modified depends on the logging prescription and forest stand characteristics. In this study we compared the effects of two methods of group-selection ("moderate" and "heavy") silviculture (GSS) and undisturbed reference stands on stress and offspring sex ratios of a forest interior species, the Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla), in Algonquin Provincial Park, Canada. Blood samples were taken from nestlings for corticosterone and molecular sexing...
2012: PloS One
Linda Y Rutledge, Bradley N White, Jeffrey R Row, Brent R Patterson
Despite ethical arguments against lethal control of wildlife populations, culling is routinely used for the management of predators, invasive or pest species, and infectious diseases. Here, we demonstrate that culling of wildlife can have unforeseen impacts that can be detrimental to future conservation efforts. Specifically, we analyzed genetic data from eastern wolves (Canis lycaon) sampled in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada from 1964 to 2007. Research culls in 1964 and 1965 killed the majority of wolves within a study region of APP, accounting for approximately 36% of the park's wolf population at a time when coyotes were colonizing the region...
January 2012: Ecology and Evolution
Gordana Rasic, Nusha Keyghobadi
The spatial scale at which samples are collected and analysed influences the inferences that can be drawn from landscape genetic studies. We examined genetic structure and its landscape correlates in the pitcher plant midge, Metriocnemus knabi, an inhabitant of the purple pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, across several spatial scales that are naturally delimited by the midge's habitat (leaf, plant, cluster of plants, bog and system of bogs). We analysed 11 microsatellite loci in 710 M. knabi larvae from two systems of bogs in Algonquin Provincial Park (Canada) and tested the hypotheses that variables related to habitat structure are associated with genetic differentiation in this midge...
January 2012: Molecular Ecology
Dan Strickland, Brian Kielstra, D Ryan Norris
Variation in habitat quality can have important consequences for fitness and population dynamics. For food-caching species, a critical determinant of habitat quality is normally the density of storable food, but it is also possible that quality is driven by the ability of habitats to preserve food items. The food-caching gray jay (Perisoreus canadensis) occupies year-round territories in the coniferous boreal and subalpine forests of North America, but does not use conifer seed crops as a source of food. Over the last 33 years, we found that the occupancy rate of territories in Algonquin Park (ON, Canada) has declined at a higher rate in territories with a lower proportion of conifers compared to those with a higher proportion...
December 2011: Oecologia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1946: University of Toronto Studies. Biological Series
Jonathan A Mee, Locke Rowe
Hybrid Phoxinus are one of the few asexually reproducing vertebrates species. The distribution of hybrid Phoxinus among lakes in Algonquin Park, Ontario, was evaluated relative to the distribution of parental species and relative to physiochemical lake characteristics. No association between the distribution of hybrids and the distribution of parental species was found, suggesting that the hybrids can successfully coexist with either parental species. In addition, we found no association between hybrid distribution and the physiochemical characteristics of lakes, suggesting that the hybrids are generalists with respect to the ecological niches available in Algonquin Park...
2010: PloS One
L Y Rutledge, C J Garroway, K M Loveless, B R Patterson
Distinguishing genetically differentiated populations within hybrid zones and determining the mechanisms by which introgression occurs are crucial for setting effective conservation policy. Extensive hybridization among grey wolves (Canis lupus), eastern wolves (C. lycaon) and coyotes (C. latrans) in eastern North America has blurred species distinctions, creating a Canis hybrid swarm. Using complementary genetic markers, we tested the hypotheses that eastern wolves have acted as a conduit of sex-biased gene flow between grey wolves and coyotes, and that eastern wolves in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP) have differentiated following a history of introgression...
December 2010: Heredity
Jonathon J H Forest, Stanley D King, David K Cone
The microsporidian Glugea pimephales was found parasitizing larval fathead minnow Pimephales promelas in Scott Lake, Algonquin Park, Ontario. These fish were estimated to be 2-3 weeks posthatch and, given the development time of the parasite, must have acquired infection soon after commencement of exogenous feeding. Histological sections revealed that the parasite typically developed in loose connective tissue between the peritoneum and the dermis of the abdominal cavity, with protruding xenomas of up to 2...
September 2009: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
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