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Vitamin esrd

Irene Capelli, Giuseppe Cianciolo, Lorenzo Gasperoni, Fulvia Zappulo, Francesco Tondolo, Maria Cappuccilli, Gaetano La Manna
Patients affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) experience a huge cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular events represent the leading causes of death. Since traditional risk factors cannot fully explain such increased cardiovascular risk, interest in non-traditional risk factors, such as hyperhomocysteinemia and folic acid and vitamin B12 metabolism impairment, is growing. Although elevated homocysteine blood levels are often seen in patients with CKD and ESRD, whether hyperhomocysteinemia represents a reliable cardiovascular and mortality risk marker or a therapeutic target in this population is still unclear...
February 13, 2019: Nutrients
Vassilios Liakopoulos, Stefanos Roumeliotis, Andreas Bozikas, Theodoros Eleftheriadis, Evangelia Dounousi
The disruption of balance between production of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant systems in favor of the oxidants is termed oxidative stress (OS). To counteract the damaging effects of prooxidant free radicals, all aerobic organisms have antioxidant defense mechanisms that are aimed at neutralizing the circulating oxidants and repair the resulting injuries. Antioxidants are either endogenous (the natural defense mechanisms produced by the human body) or exogenous, found in supplements and foods. OS is present at the early stages of chronic kidney disease, augments progressively with renal function deterioration, and is further exacerbated by renal replacement therapy...
2019: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Pierluigi Merella, Gavino Casu, Patrizio Mazzone, Giovanni Lorenzoni, Giuseppe D'Angelo, Simonetta Genovesi
Non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent arrhythmia in the general population and its prevalence increases with age. The prevalence and incidence of AF is high in patients with chronic kidney failure (CKD). The most important complication associated with AF, both in the general population and in that with CKD, is thromboembolic stroke. For this reason, in patients with AF, the Guidelines indicate oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for thromboembolic risk prevention...
February 2019: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Tsai-Sung Tai, Yueh-Han Hsu, Jia Ming Chang, Chien-Chin Chen
BACKGROUND: Renal hyperparathyroidism is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) characterized by elevated parathyroid hormone levels secondary to derangements in the homeostasis of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D. Rapid correction of severe and prolonged hyperparathyroidism by surgical parathyroidectomy in long-term hemodialysis patients occasionally causes hungry bone syndrome. These patients then exhibit severe and long-lasting secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism with high bone turnover...
January 28, 2019: BMC Endocrine Disorders
José Tarcisio Giffoni de Carvalho, Marion Schneider, Lilian Cuppari, Caren Cristina Grabulosa, Miguel Cendoroglo, Maria Aparecida Dalboni
BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease results in B cell lymphopenia and low levels of vitamin D. Since the link between vitamin D deficiency and B lymphocytes dysfunction are not clear in patients with end-stage renal disease, we suggest that vitamin D adequacy and factors related to the homeostasis of these cells should be investigated. B lymphocytes homeostasis is a process mainly regulated signals of grown and death as interleukin (IL)-7, B cell-activating factor (BAFF)/BAFF-receptor and CD95 expression...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Bertha F Polegato, Amanda G Pereira, Paula S Azevedo, Nara A Costa, Leonardo A M Zornoff, Sergio A R Paiva, Marcos F Minicucci
Thiamin is a hydrosoluble vitamin that plays a role in several biological processes, mainly in glucose metabolism. There are several risk factors for developing thiamin deficiency, such as malnutrition, refeeding syndrome, gastrointestinal surgery, and alcoholism. Recently, the role of thiamin in critically ill patients has gained prominence, and the prevalence of thiamin deficiency was found to be increased in patients with severe burns, major surgery, septic shock, end-stage renal disease, and heart failure...
January 15, 2019: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Jabe Weaver, Jaclyn Kawsky, Alexander Corboy
Introduction: Recent meta-analyses have found a correlation between schizophrenia and increased fracture risk with one contributing factor potentially being antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia, which may accelerate bone turnover. The objective of this study is to evaluate fracture rates in patients on long-term antipsychotic therapy to see if screening for osteoporosis should be included with routine monitoring. Methods: Patients exposed to antipsychotics for ≥3 months during a 10-year study period were included in this retrospective analysis...
January 2019: The mental health clinician
Asmaa H Ibrahim, Hanan H Omar, Amal M Imam, Amany M Hassan, Hamdy Omar
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Type 2 diabetes is a global health problem and leading to many dangerous complications. Diabetic nephropathy is a significant microvascular complication resulting from diabetes mellitus that is affecting up to 50% of patients with end stage renal disease. Vitamin D deficiency may occur due to many different factors and is associated with many serious diseases as diabetic nephropathy. To investigate the 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and predictive factors in patients with diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus...
June 2018: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
Bahman Bashardoust, Anahita Zakeri, Nasrin Fouladi, Zeinab Izadi, Fariba Hosseini
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem in end-stage renal disease patients under hemodialysis. Both active and nutritional vitamin D supplementation have been recommended for its treatment. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effects of treatment with ergocalciferol on bone metabolism indexes in hemodialysis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, 40 hemodialysis patients were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 20) and placebo (n = 20) groups...
November 2018: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
Jacob Weber, Ali Olyaei, Joseph Shatzel
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been shown to be superior to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in regards to safety and efficacy in numerous clinical trials, and are now the preferred oral anticoagulant by multiple professional societies. However, patients with significant levels of organ dysfunction were excluded from all major clinical trials, leaving the clinical benefit in these subsets uncertain. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) specifically often require anticoagulation for acute or long-term indications such as venous thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation, or mechanical heart valves...
December 28, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
Ignacio Portales-Castillo, Daniela Kroshinksy, Cindy K Malhotra, Roberta Culbert-Costley, Mario Gennaro Cozzolino, Shelly Karparis, Charles L Halasz, Jeremy Goverman, Harold J Manley, Rajeev Malhotra, Sagar U Nigwekar
Calciphylaxis is a rare but devastating disease with a mortality rate up to 50% in 1 year. It is characterized by profoundly painful ischemic skin lesions and vascular calcification that affects predominantly patients with end stage renal disease. The use of certain medications is an important modifiable risk factor in calciphylaxis and discontinuation of these is a mainstay of treatment. Areas Covered: This review will provide an overview of calciphylaxis and will focus on how certain therapeutic agents can affect the risk of calcification and associated thrombosis, key processes involved in the development of calciphylaxis...
December 21, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Laura Bianchi, Federica Gaiani, Barbara Bizzarri, Roberta Minelli, Paolo Cortegoso Valdivia, Gioacchino Leandro, Francesco Di Mario, Gian Luigi De' Angelis, Claudio Ruberto
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: Historical studies have demonstrated that the prevalence of symptomatic nephrolithiasis is higher in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), compared to general population. The aim of the review was to analyze literature data in order to identify the main risk conditions described in literature and the proposed treatment. METHODS: A research on the databases PubMed, Medline, Embase and Google Scholar was performed by using the keywords "renal calculi/lithiasis/stones" and "inflammatory bowel diseases"...
December 17, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Dina A Tallman, Sharmela Sahathevan, Tilakavati Karupaiah, Pramod Khosla
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are often instructed to adhere to a renal-specific diet depending on the severity and stage of their kidney disease. The prescribed diet may limit certain nutrients, such as phosphorus and potassium, or encourage the consumption of others, such as high biological value (HBV) proteins. Eggs are an inexpensive, easily available and high-quality source of protein, as well as a rich source of leucine, an essential amino acid that plays a role in muscle protein synthesis...
December 7, 2018: Nutrients
Alexander Weigert, Christina Martin-Higueras, Bernd Hoppe
Currently, three types of primary hyperoxaluria (PH I-III) are known, all based on different gene-mutations affecting the glyoxylate metabolism in the liver. Disease hallmark is an increased endogenous oxalate production and thus massively elevated urinary excretion of oxalate and other type-specific metabolites. Hyperoxaluria induces the formation of calcium-oxalate kidney stones and/or nephrocalcinosis. In addition to that, a chronic inflammasome activation by hyperoxaluria per se, often leads to an early deterioration of kidney function, regularly resulting in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) at least in patients with type I PH...
December 12, 2018: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Pieter Evenepoel, Kathleen Claes, Bjorn Meijers, Michaël Laurent, Bert Bammens, Maarten Naesens, Ben Sprangers, Hans Pottel, Etienne Cavalier, Dirk Kuypers
Chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis are major public health problems associated with an aging population. Vitamin K insufficiency is prevalent among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Preliminary data indicate that poor vitamin K status may compromise bone health and that increased inflammation may be in the causal pathway. We performed an ancillary analysis of data collected in the frame of prospective observational cohort studies exploring various aspects of bone health in de novo renal transplant recipients to investigate the association between vitamin K status, inflammation, bone mineral density, and incident clinical fractures...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Mariam Chettati, Adil Adnouni, Wafae Fadili, Inass Laouad
Calcific uremic arteriolopathy, also called calciphylaxis, is a rare and severe disorder that presents with skin ischemia and necrosis, sometimes it presents with systemic necrosis, the process is secondary to the obliteration of the arterioles first by sub-intimal calcium deposits and then by thrombosis. These lesions can often lead to death due to infectious complications and comorbidities such as diabetes, obesity, arteritis, diffuse vascular calcifications, heart disease and undernutrition. The diagnosis is suggested by the characteristic ischemic skin lesions and their distribution, often bilateral and painful, associeted with calcific uremic arteriolopathy risk factors (phosphocalcic abnormalities, anti-vitamin K)...
November 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
Jo-Yen Chao, Hsu-Chih Chien, Te-Hui Kuo, Yu-Tzu Chang, Chung-Yi Li, Ming-Cheng Wang, Yea-Huei Kao Yang
BACKGROUND: Patients with end stage renal disease have a high all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Secondary hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency are considered part of the mechanism for the excess mortality observed. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D use and all-cause mortality. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we included all incident patients who started hemodialysis in Taiwan between 2001 and 2009. Patients were followed from landmark time, i...
November 6, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Pongsakorn Choochuen, Kitiwan Rojneuangnit, Thanitchet Khetkham, Sookkasem Khositseth
Multicentric carpotarsal osteolysis syndrome (MCTO) is a rare skeletal disorder characterized by aggressive osteolysis associated with progressive nephropathy. The early clinical presentation can mimic polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Since 2012, MAFB mutations have been discovered in all MCTO patients. Therefore, the early diagnosis can be made based on genetic confirmation. We report the clinical manifestation of mineral bone disease and the molecular genetic study of a Thai female adolescent with MCTO...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
Claire Harris, Mercedeh Kiaii, Wynnie Lau, Myriam Farah
Background: Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA), also known as calciphylaxis, is a rare but life-threatening condition predominately occurring in patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis. In the absence of randomized clinical trials to guide management, clinicians must rely on observational data. We have previously reported the outcomes of our multi-intervention management in seven patients and now present a larger series of patients with extended follow-up. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients diagnosed with CUA at a single academic center between 2008 and 2017...
October 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
Farahnaz Anwar, Joseph Abraham, Ahmad Nakshabandi, Eugene Lee
INTRODUCTION: Hungry bone syndrome (HBS) is rapid, intense and prolonged hypocalcemia that follows parathyroidectomy. The focus of this paper is HBS in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) due to end stage renal disease (ESRD). Various risk factors are correlated with developing HBS post-parathyroidectomy due to SHPT which include: old age (>60 years); the preoperative level of parathyroid hormone (PTH); increased osteoclasts; and evidence of bone disease before surgery...
2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
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