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South america

Joanna Burger, David Mizrahi, Christian Jeitner, Nellie Tsipoura, Jason Mobley, Michael Gochfeld
Identifying animals as sentinels for humans and other animal species is an excellent method for understanding exposure to environmental contamination at different times and places. Shorebirds are useful sentinels because they have a world-wide distribution, eat a range of prey, and are eaten by a range of other species, including humans. We collected blood from semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) wintering in northern (Suriname N = 71) and northeastern (Brazil N = 61) South America to examine levels of heavy metals and metalloids (arsenic, selenium), and compare them to blood levels in sandpipers at a heavily used stopover site in New Jersey (N = 30; Delaware Bay, NJ)...
March 1, 2019: Environmental Research
Ryan S Fuller, Mitchell E McGlaughlin
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Climate cycles of the Quaternary have impacted plants at a global scale, leaving behind a complex genetic legacy. Species of the northern Rocky Mountains of North America were exposed to more uniform glacial patterns than the central and southern ranges, where synergistic relationships between temperature and precipitation caused differences in the timing and extent of glacier onset. We examined the genetic impacts of climate oscillations on Calochortus gunnisonii (Liliaceae) in the central and southern Rocky Mountains...
March 22, 2019: American Journal of Botany
James O'Donovan, Misha Verkerk, Niall Winters, Shelly Chadha, Mahmood F Bhutta
Introduction: Community health workers (CHWs) have the potential to improve access to ear and hearing services for people across low-income or middle-income countries, remote, underserved, or resource-poor areas of the world. We performed a systematic scoping review to identify evidence on how CHWs are currently deployed in the prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment and management of ear disease and hearing loss; methods to train and support CHWs in this context; and cost-effectiveness of CHWs...
2019: BMJ Global Health
(no author information available yet)
Severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) remain one of the leading causes of mortality around the world in all age groups. There is large global variation in epidemiology, clinical management and outcomes, including mortality. We performed a short period observational data collection in critical care units distributed globally during regional peak SARI seasons from 1 January 2016 until 31 August 2017, using standardised data collection tools. Data were collected for 1 week on all admitted patients who met the inclusion criteria for SARI, with follow-up to hospital discharge...
2019: BMJ Global Health
Daniel R Kollath, Karis J Miller, Bridget M Barker
The genus Coccidioides consists of two species: C. immitis and C. posadasii. Prior to 2000, all disease was thought to be caused by a single species, C. immitis. The organism grows in arid to semiarid alkaline soils throughout western North America and into Central and South America. Regions in the United States, with highest prevalence of disease, include California, Arizona, and Texas. The Mexican states of Baja California, Coahuila, Sonora, and Neuvo Leon currently have the highest skin test positive results...
December 2019: Virulence
Mónica A G Otálora, Reinhard Berndt
Puccinia telimutans is described as a new species of rust fungi (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales) and causal agent of Mexican potato rust disease of the endemic wild potatoes Solanum demissum and S. verrucosum from Mexico. It is microcyclic and produces telia that show a unique succession of one-celled, catenulate teliospores that germinate upon maturity, followed by resting teliospores that are pedicellate and two-celled. Puccinia telimutans appears to be restricted to Mexico and has formerly been confused with P...
March 21, 2019: Mycologia
Carlos Alvarez-Moreno, Rose-Anne Lavergne, Ferry Hagen, Florent Morio, Jacques F Meis, Patrice Le Pape
Aspergillus fumigatus resistant to azole as first-line therapy has been reported in azole-naïve patients. This worldwide resistance phenomenon has been linked to fungicide-driven alterations in the cyp51A gene and its promoter region (such as TR34 /L98H and TR46 /Y121F/T289A). Azole-resistant A. fumigatus related to the use of triazole fungicides in flower fields was recently reported In Colombia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus in soil samples from vegetable crops such as carrots, potatoes, maize, strawberries, and pea, and from prepared farming land surrounding the city of Bogotá...
March 21, 2019: Mycologia
Guido Alberto Gnecchi-Ruscone, Stefania Sarno, Sara De Fanti, Laura Gianvincenzo, Cristina Giuliani, Alessio Boattini, Eugenio Bortolini, Tullia Di Corcia, Cesar Sanchez Mellado, Taylor Jesus Dàvila Francia, Davide Gentilini, Anna Maria Di Blasio, Patrizia Di Cosimo, Elisabetta Cilli, Antonio Gonzalez-Martin, Claudio Franceschi, Zelda Alice Franceschi, Olga Rickards, Marco Sazzini, Donata Luiselli, Davide Pettener
Extensive European and African admixture coupled with loss of Amerindian lineages makes the reconstruction of pre-Columbian history of Native Americans based on present-day genomes extremely challenging. Still open questions remain about the dispersals that occurred throughout the continent after the initial peopling from the Beringia, especially concerning the number and dynamics of diffusions into South America. Indeed, if environmental and historical factors contributed to shape distinct gene pools in the Andes and Amazonia, the origins of this East-West genetic structure and the extension of further interactions between populations residing along this divide are still not well understood...
March 20, 2019: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Junyu Lu, Gregory J Carbone, John M Grego
Future climate changes could alter hydrometeorological patterns and change the nature of droughts at global to regional scales. However, there are considerable uncertainties in future drought projections. Here, we focus on agricultural drought by analyzing surface soil moisture outputs from CMIP5 multi-model ensembles (MMEs) under RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5 scenarios. First, the annual mean soil moisture by the end of the 21st century shows statistically significant large-scale drying and limited areas of wetting for all scenarios, with stronger drying as the strength of radiative forcing increases...
March 20, 2019: Scientific Reports
Elena L A Malpezzi-Marinho, Graziela R Molska, Lyvia I G P Freire, Cristiane I Silva, Eduardo K Tamura, Laís F Berro, Carlos A Parada, Eduardo Ary Villela Marinho
BACKGROUND: Solidago chilensis (syn. microglossa) is a plant from the Asteraceae family widely distributed in South America and used to treat inflammatory diseases. In 2009, it was listed as one of the native medicinal herbal plants used in the Brazilian public health system. In addition to its anti-inflammatory properties, a recent clinical study has shown antinociceptive effects of S. chilensis, introducing a new potential medical use for this plant. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antinociceptive activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Solidago chilensis (HESc) in rodent models of pain...
March 20, 2019: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
L Felipe Daibes, Juli G Pausas, Nathalia Bonani, Jessika Nunes, Fernando A O Silveira, Alessandra Fidelis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In many flammable ecosystems, physically dormant seeds show dormancy-break patterns tied to fire, but the link between heat shock and germination in the tropical savannas of Africa and South America remains controversial. Seed heat tolerance is important, preventing seed mortality during fire passage, and is usually predicted by seed traits. This study investigated the role of fire frequency (ecological effects) and seed traits through phylogenetic comparison (historical effects), in determining post-fire germination and seed mortality in legume species of the Cerrado, a tropical savanna-forest mosaic...
March 20, 2019: Annals of Botany
Winan J van Houdt, Chandrajit P Raut, Sylvie Bonvalot, Carol J Swallow, Rick Haas, Alessandro Gronchi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) is a rare disease, and until recently, its natural history and outcome were poorly understood. Recently, collaborations between individual centers have led to an unprecedented collection of retrospective and prospective data and successful recruitment to the first randomized trial as described here. RECENT FINDINGS: A debate about the beneficial role of extended surgery in RPS triggered an initial collaboration between Europe and North America, the TransAtlantic RetroPeritoneal Sarcoma Working Group (TARPSWG)...
March 15, 2019: Current Opinion in Oncology
Fernando A M Herbella, Vic Velanovich
Although there is a natural passage of responsibilities and duties from one generation to the next in any organization, academic or otherwise, managing intergenerational differences is challenging. In academic surgery, in which there are duties to patients, institutional administrators, faculty colleagues, resident trainees, and medical students are faced with multi-generations of individuals who have their own perspectives of what is "required" of them and what is "fulfilling" to them. The purpose of this essay is to relate our observations of the challenges and opportunities to manage these relationships from the perspective of North and South America in all levels involved with surgical care and teaching...
February 2019: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Cátia Alexandra Ribeiro Meneses, Valdinete Alves do Nascimento, Victor Costa de Souza, Rodrigo Melo Maito, Marconi Aragão Gomes, Claudeth Rocha Santa Brígida Cunha, Ilma de Aguiar Antony, Maria Eliane Oliveira E Silva, Daniela Palha de Souza Campos, André de Lima Guerra Corado, Karina Pinheiro Pessoa, Dana Cristina da Silva Monteiro, Osnei Okumoto, Marília Coelho Cunha, Flávia Caselli Pacheco, Felipe Gomes Naveca
Measles is a human infectious disease of global concern that is caused by the measles virus. In this study, we report the complete genome sequencing of one measles virus isolate, genotype D8, that was obtained directly from a urine sample in Boa Vista city, the capital of Roraima state in Brazil. Phylogenetic reconstruction grouped the genome described in this study with that of samples from Australia, South Korea, and Italy. To our knowledge, this is the first complete genome sequence of a wild-type measles virus reported from Latin America...
March 18, 2019: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Holly M Dixon, Georgina Armstrong, Michael Barton, Alan J Bergmann, Melissa Bondy, Mary L Halbleib, Winifred Hamilton, Erin Haynes, Julie Herbstman, Peter Hoffman, Paul Jepson, Molly L Kile, Laurel Kincl, Paul J Laurienti, Paula North, L Blair Paulik, Joe Petrosino, Gary L Points, Carolyn M Poutasse, Diana Rohlman, Richard P Scott, Brian Smith, Lane G Tidwell, Cheryl Walker, Katrina M Waters, Kim A Anderson
To assess differences and trends in personal chemical exposure, volunteers from 14 communities in Africa (Senegal, South Africa), North America (United States (U.S.)) and South America (Peru) wore 262 silicone wristbands. We analysed wristband extracts for 1530 unique chemicals, resulting in 400 860 chemical data points. The number of chemical detections ranged from 4 to 43 per wristband, with 191 different chemicals detected, and 1339 chemicals were not detected in any wristband. No two wristbands had identical chemical detections...
February 2019: Royal Society Open Science
Umair Iqbal, Brandon J Perumpail, Daud Akhtar, Donghee Kim, Aijaz Ahmed
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a wide spectrum of liver damage from the more prevalent (75%⁻80%) and nonprogressive nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) category to its less common and more ominous subset, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFLD is now the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the developed world and is a leading indication for liver transplantation in United States (US). The global prevalence of NAFLD is estimated to be 25%, with the lowest prevalence in Africa (13...
March 18, 2019: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Nancy M Endersby-Harshman, Jason K Axford, Ary A Hoffmann
Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes for control of dengue transmission are being released experimentally in tropical regions of Australia, south-east Asia, and South America. To become established, the Wolbachia Hertig (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) strains used must induce expression of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in matings between infected males and uninfected females so that infected females have a reproductive advantage, which will drive the infection through field populations. Wolbachia is a Rickettsia-like alphaproteobacterium which can be affected by tetracycline antibiotics...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
Sebastián Metz, Adriana Lopes Dos Santos, Manuel Castro Berman, Estelle Bigeard, Magdalena Licursi, Fabrice Not, Enrique Lara, Fernando Unrein
Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPE) are key components of primary production in marine and freshwater ecosystems. In contrast with those of marine environments, freshwater PPE groups have received little attention. In this work, we used flow cytometry cell sorting, microscopy and metabarcoding to investigate the composition of small photosynthetic eukaryote communities from six eutrophic shallow lakes in South America, Argentina. We compared the total molecular diversity obtained from PPE sorted populations as well as from filtered total plankton samples (FTP)...
March 19, 2019: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Anum Minhas, Marc Dewey, Andrea L Vavere, Yutaka Tanami, Mohammad R Ostovaneh, Michael Laule, Carlos E Rochitte, Hiroyuki Niinuma, Klaus F Kofoed, Jacob Geleijns, John Hoe, Marcus Y Chen, Kakuya Kitagawa, Cesar Nomura, Melvin E Clouse, Frank J Rybicki, Swee Yaw Tan, Narinder Paul, Matthew Matheson, Christopher Cox, Matthias Rief, Pia Maier, Sarah Feger, Michail Plotkin, Eva Schönenberger
Background Patient preference is pivotal for widespread adoption of tests in clinical practice. Patient preferences for invasive versus other noninvasive tests for coronary artery disease are not known. Purpose To compare patient acceptance and preferences for noninvasive and invasive cardiac imaging in North and South America, Asia, and Europe. Materials and Methods This was a prospective 16-center trial in 381 study participants undergoing coronary CT angiography with stress perfusion, SPECT, and invasive coronary angiography (ICA)...
March 19, 2019: Radiology
Larissa Zatorre Almeida-Lugo, Camila Mareti Bonin-Jacob, Vanessa Terezinha Gubert de Matos, Inês Aparecida Tozetti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cervical cancer, the third cause of death by cancer among Brazil's women, is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. In some countries of South America, North America, Europe, and Oceania, initial screening for HPV DNA and subsequent follow-up with HPV-positive patients using colposcopy and cytological testing are used as preventative measures. RECENT FINDINGS: For HPV DNA detection, it is necessary to obtain cervical cells by conventional clinical collection method or self-collection of the cells that flake off from the uterine cervix and vaginal canal...
March 19, 2019: Current Infectious Disease Reports
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