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Down Syndrome AND Obesity

Ni Cheng, Sinan Chen, Xinyan Liu, Haoan Zhao, Wei Cao
Schisandrachinensis bee pollen has been used as a health food in China for centuries; however, its bioactive constituents and functions are not very clear. In this study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of Schisandrachinensis bee pollen extract (SCPE) by UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS/HPLC-DAD-ECD and its prevention from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and modulation of gut microbiota in high fat diet induced obese C57BL/6 mice. The results showed that 12 phenolic compounds were identified in SCPE, and naringenin, rutin and chrysin were the main constituents...
February 6, 2019: Nutrients
Constanza Méndez, Mario Carrasco, Betty Mora, Magdalena Araya
INTRODUCTION: The worldwide prevalence of celiac disease (CD) is ~1% of the population. In Chile, the National Health Survey 2009-2010 showed a serological prevalence in individuals older than 15 years of 0.76% (IgA-tTG2), which corresponded in Concepción to 0.6%. OBJECTIVE: Determine cli nical characteristics, search, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of CD in the two public hospitals in Concepción that have a Gastroenterology Department. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Descriptive study...
December 2018: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Megan Quist, Debra Chopp, Camille M Wilson, Jenny Radesky
Charles is a 10-year-old African-American male who presents to the Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics Clinic for evaluation of his learning. His primary care provider (PCP) was concerned that his developmental delays were negatively affecting his ability to engage in his homeschooling curriculum and also that his mother seemed unaware of the severity of his delays. Neuropsychological evaluation had been recommended by the PCP several times in the past, but the family declined. At one point, the PCP had considered potential child protective services (CPS) referral for medical neglect because of missed appointments and lack of follow-through on recommendations, which motivated the parent to bring him to this appointment...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
A Carfì, D L Vetrano, D Mascia, E Meloni, E R Villani, N Acampora, V Brandi, B E Fries, L Martin, R Bernabei, G Onder
BACKGROUND: Down syndrome (DS) is characterised by premature ageing that affects selected organ systems, and persons with this condition can present patterns of co-morbidities and deficits often observed in the older population without DS. However, information on the characteristics of adult persons with DS is limited. The objective of the study is to describe characteristics of adults with DS collected with a standardised, comprehensive assessment instrument. METHODS: Cross-sectional study...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Dong Soo Seo, Gia Cac Chau, Kwan-Hyuck Baek, Sung Hee Um
OBJECTIVES: During fasting, hepatic gluconeogenesis is induced to maintain energy homeostasis. Moreover, abnormal dysregulation of hepatic glucose production is commonly observed in type 2 diabetes. However, the signaling components controlling hepatic glucose production to maintain normal glucose levels are not fully understood. Here, we examined the physiological role of Down syndrome critical region 1-4 (DSCR1-4), an endogenous calcineurin signaling inhibitor in the liver that mediates metabolic adaptation to fasting...
December 5, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Glenn E Palomaki, Edward M Kloza
PURPOSE: We systematically reviewed the published literature on test failure rates for the sequencing of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in maternal plasma to identify Down syndrome. METHODS: We searched peer-reviewed English publications with diagnostic results on all pregnancies that provided test failure rates. Data on the odds of failure in Down syndrome and euploid pregnancies and the impact of repeat testing were extracted. Random-effects modeling was then used to identify moderators that could explain variability...
November 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
V Belluscio, E Bergamini, G Salatino, T Marro, P Gentili, M Iosa, D Morelli, G Vannozzi
Down (DS) and Prader-Willi (PWS) syndromes are chromosomal disorders both characterized by obesity, ligament laxity, and hypotonia, the latter associated with gait instability. Although these shared features may justify a common rehabilitation approach, evidence exists that adults with DS and PWS adopt different postural and walking strategies. The development of an instrumented protocol able to describe these strategies and quantify patients' gait stability in the current clinical routine would be of great benefit for health professionals, allowing them to design personalized rehabilitation programs...
November 28, 2018: Human Movement Science
Yong Wang, Yun-Sheng Cheng, Xiao-Qiang Yin, Gang Yu, Ben-Li Jia
Insulin resistance (IR) continues to pose a major threat to public health due to its role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, and its ever-increasing prevalence on a global scale. The aim of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of Anxa2 in obesity-induced IR through the mediation of the NF-кB signaling pathway. Microarray analysis was performed to screen differentially expressed genes associated with obesity. To verify whether Anxa2 was differentially expressed in IR triggered by obesity, IR mice models were established in connection with a high-fat diet (HFD)...
November 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Rita Kleinauskienė, Regina Jonkaitienė
Degenerative aortic stenosis (DAS) is the most frequently diagnosed heart valve disease in Europe and North America. DAS is a chronic progressive disease which resembles development of atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction, lipid infiltration, calcification and ossification are evidenced in both diseases. The same risk factors such as older age, male sex, smoking, and elevated levels of lipids are identified. The effect of smoking, visceral obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypercholesterolemia, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, lipoprotein(a), adiponectin and apolipoprotein(a) on development of DAS are being studied...
April 25, 2018: Medicina
Michele Polfuss, Andrea Moosreiner, Carol J Boushey, Edward J Delp, Fengqing Zhu
Obesity prevalence is higher in children with developmental disabilities as compared to their typically developing peers. Research on dietary intake assessment methods in this vulnerable population is lacking. The objectives of this study were to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and compare the nutrient intakes of two technology-based dietary assessment methods in children with-and-without developmental disabilities. This cross-sectional feasibility study was an added aim to a larger pilot study. Children ( n = 12; 8⁻18 years) diagnosed with spina bifida, Down syndrome, or without disability were recruited from the larger study sample, stratified by diagnosis...
October 11, 2018: Nutrients
Oksana V Marusyn
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the relationship between obesity, glucose and leptin level of 2 type diabetes mellitus patients with metabolic syndrome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: 79 male patients were examined. They were divided into 2 groups. The first group included 48 patients who took Metformin and the second one - 31 persons taking Metformin, Glimepiride of one-day functioning and Thiazolidinediones. The patients were examined to determine their waistline, body mass index (BMI), level of glucose, glycohemoglobin, and leptin...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Ryne Simpson, Anthony A Oyekan, Zarmina Ehsan, David G Ingram
For individuals with Down syndrome (DS), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a complex disorder with significant clinical consequences. OSA is seen frequently in DS, and when present, it tends to be more severe. This increased prevalence is likely related to common anatomic abnormalities and a greater risk of additional comorbidities such as hypotonia and obesity. Because signs and symptoms do not often correlate with disease, all children and adults with DS should receive routine screening for OSA. Similar to the general population, polysomnography remains the gold standard for diagnosis...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
Y Meng, A Eirin, X-Y Zhu, H Tang, L J Hickson, A Lerman, A J van Wijnen, L O Lerman
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) constitute an important repair system, but may be impaired by exposure to cardiovascular risk factors. Consequently, adipose tissue-derived MSCs from pigs with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) show decreased vitality. A growing number of microRNAs (miRNAs) are recognized as key modulators of senescence, but their role in regulating senescence in MSC in MetS is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that MetS upregulates in MSC expression of miRNAs that can serve as post-transcriptional regulators of senescence-associated (SA) genes...
October 2018: Cell Transplantation
Bahir H Chamseddin, Romaine F Johnson, Ron B Mitchell
Objectives To evaluate demographic, clinical, and polysomnographic features of children with Down syndrome suspected of having obstructive sleep apnea. To identify factors that predict severe obstructive sleep apnea among children with Down syndrome. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Children's Medical Center Dallas / University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. Subject and Methods Demographic, clinical, and polysomnographic data were collected for children with Down syndrome aged 2 to 18 years...
August 28, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Antonella Izzo, Nunzia Mollo, Maria Nitti, Simona Paladino, Gaetano Calì, Rita Genesio, Ferdinando Bonfiglio, Rita Cicatiello, Maria Barbato, Viviana Sarnataro, Anna Conti, Lucio Nitsch
Trisomy of chromosome 21 (TS21) is the most common autosomal aneuploidy compatible with postnatal survival with a prevalence of 1 in 700 newborns. Its phenotype is highly complex with constant features, such as mental retardation, dysmorphic traits and hypotonia, and variable features including heart defects, susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD), type 2 diabetes, obesity and immune disorders. Overexpression of genes on chromosome-21 (Hsa21) is responsible for the pathogenesis of Down syndrome (DS) phenotypic features either in a direct or in an indirect manner since many Hsa21 genes can affect the expression of other genes mapping to different chromosomes...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Medicine
Yu-Lin Ma, Ji-Lin Xia, Xi Gao
Increasing studies indicate that high fat diet (HFD) induces neuroinflammation in animal models with obesity, yet the pathology of it is unclear. Interferon Regulatory Factor 2 Binding Protein 2 (Irf2bp2) is a key regulator of macrophage polarization, playing an essential role in regulating inflammatory response. This study investigated the effects of Irf2bp2 on HFD-induced brain injury, and explored the possible molecular mechanisms using wild type (WT) and Irf2bp2 knockout (KO) mice. The results indicated that HFD-increased body weight of mice was further elevated by Irf2bp2-knockout...
September 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Limei Wu, Surya Amarachintha, Jian Xu, Frank Oley, Wei Du
The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment (niche) plays important roles in supporting normal/abnormal haematopoiesis. We investigated the interaction between leukaemic mesenchymal niche and haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) using the model of Fanconi anaemia (FA), a genetic disorder characterized by BM failure and leukaemia. Healthy donor HSPCs co-cultured on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from FA patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) exhibited higher human engraftment and myeloid expansion in Non-obese diabetic severe combined immunodeficiency IL-2γ-/- /SGM3 recipients...
August 14, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
Robert J Fleck, Sally R Shott, Mohamed Mahmoud, Stacey L Ishman, Raouf S Amin, Lane F Donnelly
Sleep-disordered breathing has a spectrum of severity that spans from snoring and partial airway collapse with increased upper airway resistance, to complete upper airway obstruction with obstructive sleep apnea during sleeping. While snoring occurs in up to 20% of children, obstructive sleep apnea affects approximately 1-5% of children. The obstruction that occurs in obstructive sleep apnea is the result of the airway collapsing during sleep, which causes arousal and impairs restful sleep. Adenotonsillectomy is the first-line treatment of obstructive sleep apnea and is usually effective in otherwise healthy nonsyndromic children...
August 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Jingjing Qi, Dan Li, Guoping Shi, Xuefang Zhang, Yuchen Pan, Huan Dou, Genhong Yao, Yayi Hou
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) can regulate various aspects of immune responses based on their potent immune-suppressive activity. Studies reported that MDSCs participated in many autoimmune diseases. However, the role of MDSCs in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is unknown. In this study, we determined the frequencies and function of MDSCs in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and SS patients. The NOD mice were adoptively transferred with MDSCs or treated with anti-Gr1 antibody. Results showed that peripheral MDSCs increased significantly with the development of SS-like syndrome in NOD mice and the percentage of MDSCs was higher in SS patients than healthy controls...
September 2018: Molecular Immunology
L R Perotti, O Abousamra, M Del Pilar Duque Orozco, K J Rogers, J P Sees, F Miller
Purpose: Foot and ankle deformities are common orthopaedic disorders in children with Down syndrome. However, radiographic measurements of the foot and ankle have not been previously reported. The aim of this study is to describe the foot and ankle deformity in children with Down syndrome. Methods: Children who had foot and ankle radiographs in the standing weight-bearing position were selected. Three groups of patients were identified. The relationship of radiographic measurements with age, body mass index and pain is discussed...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
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