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Behavioral pharmacology

Andrew Winter, Rebecca Ahlbrand, Renu Sah
Individuals with fear-associated conditions such as panic disorder (PD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) display increased emotional responses to interoceptive triggers, such as CO2 inhalation, that signal a threat to physiological homeostasis. Currently, effector systems and mechanisms underlying homeostatic modulation of fear memory are not well understood. In this regard, the renin angiotensin system (RAS), particularly the angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R), a primary homeostatic regulatory target, has gained attention...
February 15, 2019: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
María Tudela Torras, Luis Abad Más
Self-stimulatory and self-injurious behaviors are very frequent in neurodevelopmental disorders, being a source of anxiety and suffering for persons who have that behavior and their families. Sometimes these behaviors are so intense and frequent that it becomes a selfintegrity risk. A bibliographic review was conducted on the different approaches that have been developed until today; in addition, this article explains the methodology applied in our clinic, with a data collection on the effect of therapy on self-injurious and self-stimulatory behaviors in 20 cases, as a starting point for future research...
2019: Medicina
Daniel Vallöf, Jesper Vestlund, Elisabet Jerlhag
The ability of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) to reduce food intake involves activation of GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). It has also been demonstrated that systemic administration of GLP-1R agonists attenuates alcohol-mediated behaviors via, to date, unknown mechanisms. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of NTS-GLP-1R activation by exendin-4 (Ex4) on alcohol-induced locomotor stimulation, accumbal dopamine release and memory of alcohol reward in the conditioned place preference (CPP) model in mice...
February 14, 2019: Neuropharmacology
Patrícia Maidana Miguel, Bruna Ferrary Deniz, Heloisa Deola Confortim, Loise Peres Bronauth, Bruna Chaves de Oliveira, Márcio Bonesso Alves, Patrícia Pelufo Silveira, Lenir Orlandi Pereira
Perinatal complications such as birth asphyxia were associated with a higher risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in humans. Data from a rat model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) have revealed inattention, impulsive behavior and dopamine (DA) disturbances in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), confirming the face validity and construct validity for ADHD study. However, the predictive validity (similar therapeutic efficacy of the pharmacological treatment available in the clinic) should be considered...
February 13, 2019: Experimental Neurology
Samir S Khariwala, Nathan Rubin, Irina Stepanov, Nicole Nollen, Jasjit S Ahluwalia, Heather H Nelson, Dorothy K Hatsukami
BACKGROUND: Tobacco cessation methods employed by patients with head and neck cancer (HNSCC) are previously unstudied and have the potential to inform choice of cessation method and necessary abstinence support. METHODS: A total of 130 current smokers with HNSCC were queried regarding prior unsuccessful tobacco cessation techniques, product used (cold turkey, varenicline, and nicotine patch/gum), and maximum time abstained from smoking. RESULTS: One hundred six smokers retrospectively reported using one of the four main quit methods...
February 15, 2019: Head & Neck
Hui Yun Penny Oh, Sandrine Ellero-Simatos, Ravikumar Manickam, Nguan Soon Tan, Hervé Guillou, Walter Wahli
Living organisms display internal biological rhythms, which are an evolutionarily conserved adaptation to the environment that drives their rhythmic behavioral and physiological activities. The gut microbiota has been proposed, in association with diet, to regulate the intestinal peripheral clock. However, the effect of gut dysbiosis on liver remains elusive, despite that germfree mice show alterations in liver metabolic functions and the hepatic daily rhythm. We analyzed whether the disruption of gut microbial populations with various antibiotics would differentially impact liver functions in mice...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chun-Hwei Tai, Michele Bellesi, An-Chih Chen, Chih-Li Lin, Hsin-Hua Li, Pin-Jiun Lin, Wen-Chieh Liao, Ching-Sui Hung, Rainer K Schwarting, Ying-Jui Ho
Several neurodegenerative disorders, namely Parkinson's disease dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, and Alzheimer's disease, share common pathophysiological features, such as (1) cognitive deficits, (2) glutamatergic hyperactivity-related excitotoxicity, and (3) deposition of α-synuclein (α-syn) and β-amyloid (Aβ). Ceftriaxone (CEF) is a well-tested and safe drug that has been used as an antibiotic for several decades. Recent studies have demonstrated the following effects of CEF: (1) increasing glutamate transporter-1 expression and glutamate reuptake and suppressing excitotoxicity, (2) binding well with α-syn and inhibition of α-syn polymerization, (3) modulating expression of genes related to Aβ metabolism, and (4) enhancing neurogenesis and recovery of neuronal density...
February 12, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Chao Ma, Huida Guan, Zhengcai Ju, Shuping Li, Gang Deng, Yunpeng Zhang, Qiyan Lin, Xuemei Cheng, Li Yang, Zhengtao Wang, Changhong Wang
Notoginsenoside Fc (NGFc), a protopanaxadiol-type saponin, shows multi-pharmacological activities. Chemical stability evaluation plays a crucial role in drug development. In this study, the forced degradation behavior of NGFc was investigated under hydrolytic and oxidative conditions. A specific ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed for the separation, identification, and characterization of the degradation products of NGFc. Fifty potential degradation products were formed via deglycosylation, dehydration, hydration, isomerization, side-chain cleaving, oxidation, and superoxidation...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Separation Science
Katriona Brooksbank, Joanne O'Donnell, Vicky Corbett, Sarah Shield, Rachel Ainsworth, Ross Shearer, Susan Montgomery, Andrew Gallagher, Hannah Duncan, Lorna Hamilton, Valerie Laszlo, Rhonda Noone, Anna Baxendale, David Blane, Jennifer Logue
BACKGROUND: Guidelines for the management of type 2 diabetes universally recommend that adults with type 2 diabetes and obesity be offered individualized interventions to encourage weight loss. Yet despite the existing recommendations, provision of weight management services is currently patchy around the United Kingdom and where services are available, high attrition rates are often reported. In addition, individuals often fail to take up services, that is, after discussion with a general practitioner or practice nurse, individuals are referred to the service but do not attend for an appointment...
February 15, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Ingeborg H Hansen, Claus Agerskov, Lars Arvastson, Jesper F Bastlund, Helge B D Sørensen, Kjartan F Herrik
Quantitative electroencephalography from freely-moving rats is commonly used as a translational tool for predicting drug-effects in humans. We hypothesized that drug-effects may be expressed differently depending on whether the rat is in active locomotion or sitting still during recording sessions, and proposed automatic state-detection as a viable tool for estimating drug-effects free of hypo-/hyperlocomotion induced effects. We aimed at developing a fully automatic and validated method for detecting two behavioral states: active and inactive, in one-second intervals and to use the method for evaluating ketamine, DOI, d-cycloserine, d-amphetamine, and diazepam effects specifically within each state...
February 14, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Yingfang Fan, Najia Mansoor, Tasneem Ahmad, Zhuo X Wu, Rafeeq A Khan, Martin Czejka, Syed Sharib, Mansoor Ahmed, Zhe S Chen, Dong H Yang
BACKGROUND: Computational tools are becoming more and more powerful and comprehensive as compared to past decades in facilitating pharmaceutical, pharmacological and clinical practice. Anticancer agents are used either as monotherapy or in combination therapy to treat malignant conditions of the body. A single anti neoplastic agent may be used in different types of malignancies at different doses according to the stage of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To study the behavior of CPT-11 (Irinotecan) and its metabolite SN-38 in tumor tissue compartment through the Whole Body-Physiologically Pharmacokinetics (WB-PBPK) and to determine the activity of metabolic enzymes and transporters participating in the disposition of CPT-11 and SN-38 working in their physiological environment inside the human body...
February 12, 2019: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
Antonio de Iure, Francesco Napolitano, Goichi Beck, Ana Quiroga Varela, Valentina Durante, Miriam Sciaccaluga, Petra Mazzocchetti, Alfredo Megaro, Michela Tantucci, Antonella Cardinale, Daniela Punzo, Andrea Mancini, Cinzia Costa, Veronica Ghiglieri, Alessandro Tozzi, Barbara Picconi, Stella M Papa, Alessandro Usiello, Paolo Calabresi
OBJECTIVE: Spreading depolarization (SD) is a transient self-propagating wave of neuronal and glial depolarization coupled with large membrane ionic changes and a subsequent depression of neuronal activity. Spreading depolarization in the cortex is implicated in migraine, stroke, and epilepsy. Conversely, spreading depolarization in the striatum, a brain structure deeply involved in motor control and in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathophysiology, has been poorly investigated. METHODS: We characterized the participation of glutamatergic and dopaminergic transmission in the induction of striatal spreading depolarization by using a novel approach combining optical imaging, measurements of endogenous DA levels, and pharmacological and molecular analyses...
February 13, 2019: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Deepali Gupta, Jen-Chieh Chuang, Bharath K Mani, Kripa Shankar, Juan A Rodriguez, Sherri Osborne-Lawrence, Nathan P Metzger, Jeffrey M Zigman
The ghrelin system is a key component of the mood and metabolic responses to chronic psychosocial stress. For example, circulating acyl-ghrelin rises in several rodent and human stress models, administered acyl-ghrelin induces antidepressant-like behavioral responses in mice, and mice with deleted ghrelin receptors (GHSRs) exhibit exaggerated depressive-like behaviors, changed eating behaviors, and altered metabolism in response to chronic stress. However, the mechanisms mediating stress-induced rises in ghrelin are unknown and ghrelin's antidepressant-like efficacy in the setting of chronic stress is incompletely characterized...
February 8, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Inga D Neumann, Rainer Landgraf
This is a short overview over the last thirty years of oxytocin (and vasopressin) research performed in our labs starting with attempts to quantitate the release of this nonapeptide in the rodent brain during physiological conditions such as suckling in the lactating animal. Using push-pull perfusion and microdialysis approaches, release patterns in hypothalamic and limbic brain regions could be characterized to occur from intact neuronal structures, to be independent of peripheral secretion into blood, and to respond differentially to various stimuli, particularly those related to reproduction and stress...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Susan J Curry, Alex H Krist, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Aaron B Caughey, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, David C Grossman, Alex R Kemper, Martha Kubik, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng, John B Wong
Importance: Perinatal depression, which is the occurrence of a depressive disorder during pregnancy or following childbirth, affects as many as 1 in 7 women and is one of the most common complications of pregnancy and the postpartum period. It is well established that perinatal depression can result in adverse short- and long-term effects on both the woman and child. Objective: To issue a new US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on interventions to prevent perinatal depression...
February 12, 2019: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Erik Wibowo, Richard J Wassersug, John W Robinson, Andrew Matthew, Deborah McLeod, Lauren M Walker
BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer has numerous side effects. Clinical guidelines for side effect management exist; however, these are not always integrated into routine practice. What remains undocumented and therefore the objective of this study, is to describe patients' willingness to employ established strategies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Study participants were 91 men who had attended an educational program (ie, attend a class plus read a book), designed to prepare patients for managing ADT side effects...
December 20, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Miji Um, Zachary T Whitt, Rebecca Revilla, Taylor Hunton, Melissa A Cyders
Negative urgency is a personality trait reflecting the tendency to act rashly in response to extreme negative emotions and is considered a transdiagnostic endophenotype for problematic levels of addictive behaviors. Recent research has begun to identify the neural correlates of negative urgency, many of which appear to overlap with neural circuitry underlying addictive disorders associated with negative urgency. The goal of this qualitative review is to summarize the extant literature concerning the neural correlates of negative urgency, to compare these correlates with those implicated with addictive disorders, and to propose new ways to begin to leverage such findings in treatment and intervention approaches...
February 8, 2019: Brain Sciences
Jordan M Buck, Kelsey N Sanders, Charles R Wageman, Valerie S Knopik, Jerry A Stitzel, Heidi C O'Neill
Maternal smoking during pregnancy, a form of developmental nicotine exposure (DNE), is associated with increased nicotine use and neurodevelopmental disorders such as ADHD in children. Here, we characterize the behavioral, rhythmometric, neuropharmacological, and epigenetic consequences of DNE in the F1 (first) and F2 (second) generation adolescent offspring of mice exposed to nicotine prior to and throughout breeding. We assessed the effects of passive oral methylphenidate (MPH) administration and voluntary nicotine consumption on home cage activity rhythms and activity and risk-taking behaviors in the open field...
February 8, 2019: Neuropharmacology
Dario Aspesi, Graziano Pinna
Understanding the neurobiological basis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is fundamental to accurately diagnose this neuropathology and offer appropriate treatment options to patients. The lack of pharmacological effects, too often observed with the most currently used drugs, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), makes even more urgent the discovery of new pharmacological approaches. Reliable animal models of PTSD are difficult to establish because of the present limited understanding of the PTSD heterogeneity and of the influence of various environmental factors that trigger the disorder in humans...
February 7, 2019: Behavioural Pharmacology
Kr Roversi, Caren Tatiane de David Antoniazzi, L H Milanesi, H Z Rosa, M Kronbauer, D R Rossato, T Duarte, M M Duarte, Marilise E Burger
Depression is a common psychiatric disease which pharmacological treatment relieves symptoms, but still far from ideal. Tactile stimulation (TS) has shown beneficial influences in neuropsychiatric disorders, but the mechanism of action is not clear. Here, we evaluated the TS influence when applied on adult female rats previously exposed to a reserpine-induced depression-like animal model. Immediately after reserpine model (1 mg/kg/mL, 1×/day, for 3 days), female Wistar rats were submitted to TS (15 min, 3×/day, for 8 days) or not (unhandled)...
February 11, 2019: Molecular Neurobiology
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