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Diversity of Sexual Development

Joah L Williams, Alyssa A Rheingold, Janet Shealy, Robin LaRocque
Researchers and policy makers are devoting considerable attention to the development and evaluation of sexual violence prevention programming for college campuses. Although several programs have been developed over the last decade, questions remain about whether programs can be effectively implemented across diverse campuses and whether individual-level factors like alcohol use moderate program effectiveness. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the impact of a brief, sexual violence prevention program-The Men's Program-on two diverse campuses...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Nadav Antebi-Gruszka, Eric W Schrimshaw
Substantial evidence exists about the negative role of internalized homonegativity on the health and well-being of lesbian women and gay men. However, existing measures of internalized homonegativity assume a gay or lesbian sexual identity ("I wish I wasn't gay") and therefore may be inappropriate for non-gay identified individuals, including bisexual people. Therefore, we developed and tested the psychometric properties of the Negative Attitudes Towards Same-Sex Behavior Inventory (NATSBI) which was designed to assess one's negative attitudes towards their same-sex behavior, regardless of their self-identification...
June 2018: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Maider Arando Lasagabaster, Luis Otero Guerra
Syphilis is an infectious disease caused by the spirochaete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum which is transmitted by sexual contact or vertical transmission during pregnancy. The incidence of syphilis has increased in the last years, mainly among men who have sex with men. Without treatment, the disease develops into different clinical stages, being able to present cardiovascular or irreversible neurological complications after a number of years. The disease is classified as early syphilis - primary, secondary and early latent syphilis (less than 12 months) - which is contagious, and as late syphilis - late latent and tertiary syphilis- which is rarely contagious...
February 6, 2019: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Shan Qiao, Eileen Yuk-Ha Tsang, Jeffrey S Wilkinson, Freddy Lipeleke, Xiaoming Li
Male sex workers (MSWs) in Zimbabwe are a vulnerable sub-group at risk of violence, abuse, and HIV infection. This qualitative study examines the practices of male sex workers and vulnerabilities to HIV infection based on interviews among 15 MSWs in Bulawayo. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed with the guidance of grounded theory. The transcripts were translated by the interviewer into English using NVivo 11.0 software for coding and analysis. The MSWs interviewed reported diverse backgrounds in sexual orientation and life situations, plus a variety of work settings, income levels and access to clients...
January 30, 2019: AIDS Care
Stefan Prost, Ellie E Armstrong, Johan Nylander, Gregg W C Thomas, Alexander Suh, Bent Petersen, Love Dalen, Brett W Benz, Mozes P K Blom, Eleftheria Palkopoulou, Per G P Ericson, Martin Irestedt
The diverse array of phenotypes and courtship displays exhibited by birds-of-paradise have long fascinated scientists and laymen alike. Remarkably, almost nothing is known about the genomics of this iconic radiation. There are 41 species in 16 genera currently recognized within the birds-of-paradise family (Paradisaeidae), most of which are endemic to the island of New Guinea. In this study, we sequenced genomes of representatives from all five major clades within this family to characterize genomic changes that may have played a role in the evolution of the group's extensive phenotypic diversity...
January 24, 2019: GigaScience
Rebecca L Volpe, Margaret Hopkins, Paul Haidet, Daniel R Wolpaw, Nancy E Adams
OBJECTIVE: Despite a recent surge in literature identifying professional identity formation (PIF) as a key process in physician development, the empiric study of PIF in medicine remains in its infancy. To gain insight about PIF, the authors examined the medical literature and that of two other helping professions. METHODS: The authors conducted a scoping review and qualitative metasynthesis of PIF in medicine, nursing and counselling/psychology. For the scoping review, four databases were searched using a combination of keywords to identify empiric studies on PIF in trainees...
February 2019: Medical Education
Melissa A Frick, Carolyn C Vachani, Margaret K Hampshire, Christina Bach, Karen Arnold-Korzeniowski, James M Metz, Christine E Hill-Kayser
PURPOSE: Multimodal treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) yields excellent outcomes; however, survivors are at risk of developing myriad late and long-term effects. METHODS: From a convenience sample of 964 survivors of HL (37%) and NHL (63%) using a publicly available Internet-based survivorship care plan (SCP) tool between 2011 and 2016, we examined patient-reported cancer care, toxicities, and survivorship care data. RESULTS: Of all survivors, 67% were female and 84% were white and 88% were free of cancer...
December 2018: JCO clinical cancer informatics
Rubén de Alarcón, Javier I de la Iglesia, Nerea M Casado, Angel L Montejo
In the last few years, there has been a wave of articles related to behavioral addictions; some of them have a focus on online pornography addiction. However, despite all efforts, we are still unable to profile when engaging in this behavior becomes pathological. Common problems include: sample bias, the search for diagnostic instrumentals, opposing approximations to the matter, and the fact that this entity may be encompassed inside a greater pathology (i.e., sex addiction) that may present itself with very diverse symptomatology...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Joseph H Williams, John B Reese
With the origin of pollination in ancient seed plants, the male gametophyte ("pollen") began to evolve a new and unique life history stage, the progamic phase, a post-pollination period in which pollen sexual maturation occurs in interaction with sporophyte-derived tissues. Pollen performance traits mediate the timing of the fertilization process, often in competition with other pollen, via the speed of pollen germination, sperm development, and pollen tube growth. Studies of pollen development rarely address the issue of performance or its evolution, which involves linking variation in developmental rates to relative fitness within populations or to adaptations on a macroevolutionary scale...
2019: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Filipa Godoy-Vitorino, Gilmary Ortiz-Morales, Josefina Romaguera, Maria M Sanchez, Magaly Martinez-Ferrer, Natalyia Chorna
Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the world's most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection, and high-risk HPV types are strongly linked to cervical dysplasia and carcinoma. Puerto Ricans are among the US citizens with higher HPV prevalence and lower screening rates and access to treatment. This bleak statistic was as a motivation to detect biomarkers for early diagnosis of HPV in this population. We collected both urine and cervical swabs from 43 patients attending San Juan Clinics. Cervical swabs were used for genomic DNA extractions and HPV genotyping with the HPV SPF10-LiPA25 kit, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed on the urine-derived products for metabolomics analyses...
2018: PloS One
Guo-Min Zhang, Ting-Ting Zhang, Shi-Yu An, M A El-Samahy, Hua Yang, Yong-Jie Wan, Fan-Xing Meng, Shen-Hua Xiao, Feng Wang, Zhi-Hai Lei
Hippo signaling pathway is essential for tissue development and homeostasis, while its specific role in male reproductive tract development is still unclear. The objective of this study is to elucidate the localization and expressions of key Hippo pathway components (MST1/2, LATS1/2 and YAP1) in male reproductive tract (testis, epididymis, and ductus deferens) of prepubertal (3-month-old) and postpubertal (9-month-old) Hu sheep, as well as in the cauda epididymal and ejaculated spermatozoa. Results showed that the Hippo pathway proteins were diversely localized in male reproductive tract portions, and most of their expression levels increased during sheep testicular maturation...
December 17, 2018: Theriogenology
Benjamin I Baarda, Ryszard A Zielke, Robert A Nicholas, Aleksandra E Sikora
Neisseria gonorrhoeae ( Ng ) is a human-specific pathogen and the etiological agent of gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted infection with a significant global health burden. While often asymptomatic, untreated gonorrhea can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, infertility, and increased transmission/acquisition of HIV. A protective gonorrhea vaccine may be the only way to control disease transmission in the future due to the inexorable development of antibiotic resistance. Subunit antigens are proven candidates for vaccine development due to their safety, cost-effectiveness, and rapid preparation...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Clare R Evans
Examining health inequalities intersectionally is gaining in popularity and recent quantitative innovations, such as the development of intersectional multilevel methods, have enabled researchers to expand the number of dimensions of inequality evaluated while avoiding many of the theoretical and methodological limitations of the conventional fixed effects approach. Yet there remains substantial uncertainty about the effects of integrating numerous additional interactions into models: will doing so reveal statistically significant interactions that were previously hidden or explain away interactions seen when fewer dimensions were considered? Furthermore, how does the multilevel approach compare empirically to the conventional approach across a range of conditions? These questions are essential to informing our understanding of population-level health inequalities...
January 2019: Social Science & Medicine
Kady Lyons, Katherine E Wynne-Edwards
Despite a wide range of elasmobranch (sharks, skates and rays) matrotrophic strategies, and thus potentially diverse pathways for maternal-fetal hormone exchange, little attention has been given to uterine steroids during development. Round Stingrays (Urobatis halleri) with matrotrophic histotrophy were captured during every month of their annual reproductive season from post-ovulation to near parturition, and paired samples of plasma and histotroph were analyzed for a suite of steroid hormones using LC-ESI/MRM...
December 18, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
David Cáceres-Castillo, Yussel Pérez-Navarro, Julio César Torres-Romero, Gumersindo Mirón-López, Jimmy Ceballos-Cruz, Victor Arana-Argáez, Laura Vázquez-Carrillo, José Manuel Fernández-Sánchez, María Elizbeth Alvarez-Sánchez
Preclinical Research & Development Trichomoniasis, caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Although drug treatment is available, unpleasant side effects and increased resistance to the nitroimidazole family have been documented. Hence, there is a need for the identification of new and safe therapeutic agents against T. vaginalis. Antimicrobial activity of anthraquinone compounds has been reported by a number of authors...
December 20, 2018: Drug Development Research
Antonella Giorgio, Salvatore De Bonis, Rosario Balestrieri, Giovanni Rossi, Marco Guida
Worldwide, bacteria are the most ubiquitous microorganisms, and it has been extensively demonstrated that migratory wild birds can increase bacterial global scale dispersion through long-distance migration and dispersal. The microbial community hosted by wild birds can be highly diverse, including pathogenic strains that can contribute to infections and disease spread. This study focused on feather and plumage bacteria within bird microbial communities. Samples were collected during ornithological activities in a bird ringing station...
December 5, 2018: Microorganisms
Aaron J Robinson, Donald O Natvig
A survey of genomes reported here for 10 isolates of Monosporascus species and an additional 25 genomes from other members of the Xylariales (representing 15 genera) available in public databases indicated that genes typically associated with MAT1-1 (mat A) or MAT1-2 (mat a) mating types are absent or have diverged greatly relative to counterparts in other Pezizomycotina. This was particularly surprising for isolates known to be homothallic, given that homothallic members of the Pezizomycotina typically possess a MAT1-1-1 (mat A-1) gene and one or both of two other closely-linked mating-type genes, MAT1-1-2 (mat A-2) and MAT1-1-3 (mat A-3), in addition to MAT1-2-1 (mat a-1)...
December 14, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Ho-Wen Yang, Takashi Akagi, Taiji Kawakatsu, Ryutaro Tao
Separating male and female sex organs is one of the main strategies used to maintain genetic diversity within a species. However, the genetic determinants and their regulatory mechanisms have been identified in only a few species. In dioecious persimmons, the homeodomain transcription factor, MeGI, which is the target of a Y chromosome-encoded small-RNA, OGI, can determine floral sexuality. The basic features of this system are conserved in the monoecious hexaploid Oriental persimmon, where an additional epigenetic regulation of MeGI determines floral sexuality...
December 17, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Peipei Zhao, Bolin Cao, Cedric H Bien-Gund, Weiming Tang, Jason J Ong, Yi Ding, Weiying Chen, Joseph D Tucker, Zhenzhou Luo
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and sexually transmitted infection (STI) in China. Inadequate clinical services and poor clinical competency among physicians are major barriers to improving the sexual health of MSM. This study aims to understand physician clinical competency in providing MSM health services in China. METHODS: We conducted an online cross-sectional survey among Chinese physicians who have seen male patients for STI complaints in the past year...
December 13, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Sree Rohit Raj Kolora, Anne Weigert, Amin Saffari, Stephanie Kehr, Maria Beatriz Walter Costa, Cathrin Spröer, Henrike Indrischek, Manjusha Chintalapati, Konrad Lohse, Gero Doose, Jörg Overmann, Boyke Bunk, Christoph Bleidorn, Annegret Grimm-Seyfarth, Klaus Henle, Katja Nowick, Rui Faria, Peter F Stadler, Martin Schlegel
Background: Lacerta viridis and L. bilineata are sister species of European green lizards (eastern and western clades respectively), which until recently were grouped together as the L. viridis complex. Genetic incompatibilities were observed between lacertid populations through crossing experiments, which led to the delineation of two separate species within the L. viridis complex. The population history of these sister species and processes driving divergence are unknown. We constructed high quality de novo genome assemblies for both L...
December 10, 2018: GigaScience
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