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Neuronal Plasticity Review

Sebastián Vejar, Juan E Oyarzún, Mauricio A Retamal, Fernando C Ortiz, Juan A Orellana
Oligodendrocytes are the myelin forming cells in the central nervous system (CNS). In addition to this main physiological function, these cells play key roles by providing energy substrates to neurons as well as information required to sustain proper synaptic transmission and plasticity at the CNS. The latter requires a fine coordinated intercellular communication with neurons and other glial cell types, including astrocytes. In mammals, tissue synchronization is mainly mediated by connexins and pannexins, two protein families that underpin the communication among neighboring cells through the formation of different plasma membrane channels...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Shadab Batool, Hussain Raza, Jawwad Zaidi, Saba Riaz, Sean Hasan, Naweed I Syed
The precise patterns of neuronal assembly during development determine all functional outputs of a nervous system; these may range from simple reflexes to learning, memory, cognition etc. To understand how brain functions and how best to repair it after injury, disease or trauma, it is imperative that we first seek to define fundamental steps mediating this neuronal assembly. To acquire the sophisticated ensemble of highly specialized networks seen in a mature brain, all proliferated and migrated neurons must extend their axonal and dendritic processes towards targets, which are often located at some distance...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Neurophysiology
Wilmarie Morales-Soto, Brian D Gulbransen
Chronic abdominal pain is the most common gastrointestinal issue and contributes to the pathophysiology of functional bowel disorders and inflammatory bowel disease. Current theories suggest that neuronal plasticity and broad alterations along the brain-gut axis contribute to the development of chronic abdominal pain, but the specific mechanisms involved in chronic abdominal pain remain incompletely understood. Accumulating evidence implicates glial cells in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Astrocytes and microglia in the central nervous system and satellite glia in dorsal root ganglia contribute to chronic pain states through reactive gliosis, the modification of glial networks, and the synthesis and release of neuromodulators...
November 24, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Julia Bandura, Zhong-Ping Feng
Neuronal calcium sensor 1 (NCS-1) is a high-affinity calcium-binding protein and its ubiquitous expression in the nervous system implies a wide range of functions. To date, it has been implicated in regulation of calcium channels in both axonal growth cones and presynaptic terminals, pre- and postsynaptic plasticity mechanisms, learning and memory behaviors, dopaminergic signaling, and axonal regeneration. This review summarizes these functions and relates them to several diseases in which NCS-1 plays a role, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, X-linked mental retardation and fragile X syndrome, and spinal cord injury...
February 4, 2019: Molecular Neurobiology
Christian Geis, Jesus Planagumà, Mar Carreño, Francesc Graus, Josep Dalmau
The rapid expansion in the number of encephalitis disorders associated with autoantibodies against neuronal proteins has led to an incremental increase in use of the term "autoimmune epilepsy," yet has occurred with limited attention to the physiopathology of each disease and genuine propensity to develop epilepsy. Indeed, most autoimmune encephalitides present with seizures, but the probability of evolving to epilepsy is relatively small. The risk of epilepsy is higher for disorders in which the antigens are intracellular (often T cell-mediated) compared with disorders in which the antigens are on the cell surface (antibody-mediated)...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Clinical Investigation
James C R Whittington, Rafal Bogacz
This review article summarises recently proposed theories on how neural circuits in the brain could approximate the error back-propagation algorithm used by artificial neural networks. Computational models implementing these theories achieve learning as efficient as artificial neural networks, but they use simple synaptic plasticity rules based on activity of presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons. The models have similarities, such as including both feedforward and feedback connections, allowing information about error to propagate throughout the network...
January 28, 2019: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Andrej Kral, Michael F Dorman, Blake S Wilson
The modern cochlear implant (CI) is the most successful neural prosthesis developed to date. CIs provide hearing to the profoundly hearing impaired and allow the acquisition of spoken language in children born deaf. Results from studies enabled by the CI have provided new insights into ( a) minimal representations at the periphery for speech reception, ( b) brain mechanisms for decoding speech presented in quiet and in acoustically adverse conditions, ( c) the developmental neuroscience of language and hearing, and ( d) the mechanisms and time courses of intramodal and cross-modal plasticity...
January 30, 2019: Annual Review of Neuroscience
Daniela Mercatelli, Clarissa Anna Pisanò, Salvatore Novello, Michele Morari
Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) and its NOP receptor are highly expressed in motor areas of the rodent, nonhuman, and human primate brain, such as primary motor cortex, thalamus, globus pallidus, striatum, and substantia nigra. Endogenous N/OFQ negatively regulates motor behavior and dopamine transmission through NOP receptors expressed by dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra compacta. Consistent with the existence of an N/OFQ tone over dopaminergic transmission, blockade of NOP receptor antagonists increases striatal dopamine release...
January 29, 2019: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Jason S Snyder
Conflicting reports about whether adult hippocampal neurogenesis occurs in humans raise questions about its significance for human health and the relevance of animal models. Drawing upon published data, I review species' neurogenesis rates across the lifespan and propose that accelerated neurodevelopmental timing is consistent with lower rates of neurogenesis in adult primates and humans. Nonetheless, protracted neurogenesis may produce populations of neurons that retain plastic properties for long intervals, and have distinct functions depending on when in the lifespan they were born...
January 18, 2019: Trends in Neurosciences
Mirko Santello, Nicolas Toni, Andrea Volterra
Astrocytes serve important roles that affect recruitment and function of neurons at the local and network levels. Here we review the contributions of astrocyte signaling to synaptic plasticity, neuronal network oscillations, and memory function. The roles played by astrocytes are not fully understood, but astrocytes seem to contribute to memory consolidation and seem to mediate the effects of vigilance and arousal on memory performance. Understanding the role of astrocytes in cognitive processes may also advance our understanding of how these processes go awry in pathological conditions...
January 21, 2019: Nature Neuroscience
Nina K Popova, Vladimir S Naumenko
Serotonin (5-HT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are known as principal players in different kinds of plasticity. The 5-HT-BDNF interaction in early ontogeny and in adult brain is an intriguing problem. Area covered: This paper concentrates on the interaction between 5-HT and BDNF systems and its implication in different plasticity levels, from neurons to behavior. This review describes: 1. different 5-HT functioning in the embryonic (as neurotrophin) and adult brain (as a neurotransmitter) 2. BDNF as a modulator of 5-HT system and vice versa 3 the prolonged positive effect of BDNF on genetically- and epigenetically-defined CNS disorders; 4...
January 21, 2019: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Saak V Ovsepian
The bulk of brain energy expenditure is allocated for maintenance of perpetual intrinsic activity of neurons and neural circuits. Long-term electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies in anesthetized and behaving animals show, however, that the great majority of nerve cells in the intact brain do not fire action potentials, i.e., are permanently silent. Herein, I review emerging data suggesting massive redundancy of nerve cells in mammalian nervous system, maintained in inhibited state at high energetic costs...
January 18, 2019: Brain Structure & Function
Danylo Khomiak, Leszek Kaczmarek
Epileptogenesis is the process responsible for converting normal brain into an epileptic. It may be triggered by an event such as brain injury or status epilepticus (SE). The main mechanisms responsible include neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, pathologic neuronal networks' reorganisation and aberrant synaptic plasticity. Accumulating amount of evidence from animal models and epileptic patients strongly suggest that matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is potentially one of the key executors of the processes of epileptogenesis...
October 25, 2018: Postepy Biochemii
Eun-Joo Shin, Duy-Khanh Dang, Young Gwang Hwang, Hai-Quyen Tran, Naveen Sharma, Ji Hoon Jeong, Choon-Gon Jang, Seung-Yeol Nah, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Yukio Yoneda, Jean Lud Cadet, Hyoung-Chun Kim
The abuse of methamphetamine (MA), an amphetamine (AMPH)-type stimulant, has been demonstrated to be associated with various neuropsychotoxicity, including memory impairment, psychiatric morbidity, and dopaminergic toxicity. Compelling evidence from preclinical studies has indicated that protein kinase C (PKC), a large family of serine/threonine protein kinases, plays an important role in MA-induced neuropsychotoxicity. PKC-mediated N-terminal phosphorylation of dopamine transporter has been identified as one of the prerequisites for MA-induced synaptic dopamine release...
January 14, 2019: Neurochemistry International
Saravana Babu Chidambaram, A G Rathipriya, Srinivasa Rao Bolla, Abid Bhat, Bipul Ray, Arehslly Marappa Mahalakshmi, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Arokiasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Gilles J Guillemin, Ramesh Chandra, Meena Kishore Sakharkar
Dendritic spines are small, thin, specialized protrusions from neuronal dendrites, primarily localized in the excitatory synapses. Sophisticated imaging techniques revealed that dendritic spines are complex structures consisting of a dense network of cytoskeletal, transmembrane and scaffolding molecules, and numerous surface receptors. Molecular signaling pathways, mainly Rho and Ras family small GTPases pathways that converge on actin cytoskeleton, regulate the spine morphology and dynamics bi-directionally during synaptic activity...
January 14, 2019: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Raphael R Perim, Gordon S Mitchell
Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) elicits distinct mechanisms of phrenic motor plasticity initiated by brainstem neural network activation versus local (spinal) tissue hypoxia. With moderate AIH (mAIH), hypoxemia activates the carotid body chemoreceptors and (subsequently) brainstem neural networks associated with the peripheral chemoreflex, including medullary raphe serotonergic neurons. Serotonin release and receptor activation in the phrenic motor nucleus then elicits phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF)...
January 10, 2019: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
YongTian Liang
Protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is crucial to the maintenance of neuronal integrity and function. As the contact sites between neurons, synapses rely heavily on precisely regulated protein-protein interactions to support synaptic transmission and plasticity processes. Autophagy is an effective degradative pathway that can digest cellular components and maintain cellular proteostasis. Perturbations of autophagy have been implicated in aging and neurodegeneration due to a failure to remove damaged proteins and defective organelles...
January 9, 2019: Cells
Kristjan R Jessen, Peter Arthur-Farraj
Schwann cells respond to nerve injury by cellular reprogramming that generates cells specialized for promoting regeneration and repair. These repair cells clear redundant myelin, attract macrophages, support survival of damaged neurons, encourage axonal growth, and guide axons back to their targets. There are interesting parallels between this response and that found in other tissues. At the cellular level, many other tissues also react to injury by cellular reprogramming, generating cells specialized to promote tissue homeostasis and repair...
January 11, 2019: Glia
Edna Suárez-Pozos, Elizabeth J Thomason, Babette Fuss
Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS), is well known as a regulator of neuronal plasticity and neurodevelopment. Such glutamate function is thought to be mediated primarily by signaling through glutamate receptors. Thus, it requires a tight regulation of extracellular glutamate levels and a fine-tuned homeostasis that, when dysregulated, has been associated with a wide range of central pathologies including neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental, and neurodegenerative disorders...
January 9, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Yasin B Seven, Gordon S Mitchell
Respiratory motor neuron death arises from multiple neurodegenerative and traumatic neuromuscular disorders. Despite motor neuron death, compensatory mechanisms minimize its functional impact by harnessing intrinsic mechanisms of compensatory respiratory plasticity. However, the capacity for compensation eventually reaches limits and pathology ensues. Initially, challenges to the system such as increased metabolic demand reveal sub-clinical pathology. With greater motor neuron loss, the eventual result is de-compensation, ventilatory failure, ventilator dependence and then death...
January 6, 2019: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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