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The end of the road

Mariaelena Tagliabue, Michela Sarlo, Evelyn Gianfranchi
The present research is aimed at investigating processes associated with learning how to drive safely. We were particularly interested in implicit mechanisms related to the automatic processing system involved in decision making in risky situations (Slovic et al., 2007). The operation of this system is directly linked to experiential and emotional reactions and can be monitored by measuring psychophysiological variables, such as skin conductance responses (SCRs). We focused specifically on the generalization of previously acquired skills to new and never before encountered road scenarios...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Ousmane Ba, Mohamed Ouldabdallahi, Mohamedou Koïta, Ousmane Sy, Sid Ahmed Dahdi
BACKGROUND: Faced with the challenges of immigration, the opening of the Trans-Saharan road and the increase in the volume of trade with sub-Saharan Africa, there is a steady increase in the number of malaria cases. An introduction of the disease in the Maghreb is possible. OBJECTIVE: The general objective is to take stock of the epidemiological situation and the malaria control strategy in the Maghreb countries. METHODS: This is a synthesis of data from a literature search on: PubMed (publications), International and national reports (epidemiology and strategies)...
October 2018: La Tunisie Médicale
Giota Touloumi, Anna Karakatsani, Argiro Karakosta, Eleni Sofianopoulou, Panagiotis Koustenis, Magda Gavana, Yannis Alamanos, Maria Kantzanou, George Konstantakopoulos, Xenia Chryssochoou, Alexis Benos, Apostolos Vantarakis, Christos Hadjichristodoulou, Gregory Chlouverakis, Gregory Trypsianis, Paraskevi V Voulgari, Konstantinos Makrilakis, Stavros Liatis, George Stergiou
BACKGROUND: Main causes of death in Greece are cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), malignant neoplasms, respiratory diseases, and road traffic crashes. To assess the population health status, monitor health systems, and adjust policies, national population-based health surveys are recommended. The previous health surveys that were conducted in Greece were restricted to specific regions or high-risk groups. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents the design and methods of the Greek Health Examination Survey EMENO (National Survey of Morbidity and Risk Factors)...
February 4, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Judith Plante, Jochen A G Jaeger, André Desrochers
Road mortality is the most easily visible effect of roads and traffic on wildlife populations. Mitigation measures such as fences and wildlife passages have been applied to reduce these effects. During the widening of Quebec's Highway 175 from two to four lanes between 2006 and 2012, 33 wildlife passages designed specifically for small and medium-sized mammals were installed under the road in combination with short fences. This study examined the effectiveness of the fences at reducing the number of small and medium-sized mammals killed along a 68 km section of the road while controlling for the potential confounding effects of landscape variables...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Indranil Saha, Bobby Paul
Tuberculosis (TB), one of the oldest diseases known to mankind has become a notifiable disease. Public private mixes guidelines for TB programme managers had already been published by Central TB Division in the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. One of the tremendous challenges that impede private sector involvement in TB care is delayed diagnosis, treatment of variable quality, surveillance, adherence monitoring, contact investigation, and outcome recording. The present article has addressed the involvement of the private sector with special emphasis on Tuberculosis Health Action Learning Initiative (THALI) model...
January 2019: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Timothy G Townsend, Wesley W Ingwersen, Briana Niblick, Pradeep Jain, Jim Wally
National generation estimates for seven material types in the construction and demolition debris stream are regularly published in the United States. However, the quantities of these materials in different end-of-life management pathways are not published or otherwise made available. Quantification of end-of-life management pathways is useful for identifying approaches to decrease disposal and increase material recovery. An issue for construction and demolition debris is that data needed for a nationwide estimate of management pathways are not tracked in a single system...
February 1, 2019: Waste Management
Kai Wang, Shanshan Zhao, Eric Jackson
Safety Performance Functions (SPFs) play a prominent role in estimating intersection crashes, and identifying the sites with the highest potential for safety improvement. To maximize the crash prediction accuracy, this paper describes the application of different functional forms of the Negative Binomial (NB) models (i.e. NB-1, NB-2 and NB-P) in estimating safety performance functions by crash type for three types of rural two-lane intersections, including three-leg stop-controlled (3ST) intersections, four-leg stop-controlled (4ST) intersections and four-leg signalized (4SG) intersections...
January 18, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Yuan-Chung Lin, Ya-Ching Li, Kassian T T Amesho, Feng-Chih Chou, Pei-Cheng Cheng
Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter in the atmospheric environment. Notwithstanding its significance, there are noteworthy challenges in quantitative assessment of its contribution to the concentrations of airborne. This study reports on the characterization and quantification of PM2.5 emissions and PAHs concentration in PM2.5 from the exhausts of on-road diesel vehicles with various accumulated mileages in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Urban areas could be a subject matter not just in connection to deprived air quality, but similarly to pollution of other significant environmental media by air contaminants...
January 5, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Zhi-Hao Yang, Ming-Jing He, Ting Yang, Jun-Feng Lu, Shi-Qiang Wei
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) in surface soil of four different functional areas in Chongqing were identified and quantified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). The composition and characteristics of OPEs were discussed along with the relationships between soil organic matter (SOM) and OPEs through correlation analysis, and possible sources of OPEs were simultaneously investigated through principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that the concentrations of ∑OPEs ranged from 10...
November 8, 2018: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Mark A Gromski, Evan L Fogel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2019: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Lucas R F Henneman, Cong Liu, Howard Chang, James Mulholland, Paige Tolbert, Armistead Russell
The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments codified major institutional changes relating to the management of air pollutants in the United States. Recent research years has attributed reduced emissions over the past two decades to regulations enacted under these Amendments, but none have separated long-term daily impacts of individual regulatory programs on multiple source categories under a consistent framework. Using daily emissions and air quality measurements along with a detailed review of national and local regulations promulgated after the Amendments, we quantify daily changes in emissions and air quality attributable to regulations on electricity generating units and on-road mobile sources...
December 29, 2018: Environment International
Vikram S Kashyap, Alexander H King, Mazin I Foteh, Matthew Janko, Jeffrey Jim, Raghu L Motaganahalli, Jeffrey M Apple, Saideep Bose, Norman H Kumins
OBJECTIVE: Transcarotid artery revascularization (TCAR) is a novel approach to carotid intervention that uses a direct carotid cut-down approach coupled with cerebral blood flow reversal to minimize embolic potential. The initial positive data with TCAR indicates that it may be an attractive alternative to trans-femoral carotid artery stenting and possibly carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for high-risk patients. The purpose of this study was to present 30-day and 1-year outcomes after treatment by TCAR and to compare these outcomes against a matched control group undergoing CEA at the same institutions...
January 6, 2019: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Mahmoud B Malas, Jose Ignacio Leal Lorenzo, Besma Nejim, Todd M Hanover, Manish Mehta, Vikram Kayshyap, Christopher J Kwolek, Richard Cambria
OBJECTIVE: We report the 1-year outcomes of the Safety and Efficacy Study for Reverse Flow Used During Carotid Artery Stenting Procedure (ROADSTER) multicenter trial. This trial introduced a novel transcarotid neuroprotection system (NPS), the ENROUTE transcarotid NPS (Silk Road Medical Inc, Sunnyvale, Calif). Postoperative results demonstrated that the use of the ENROUTE transcarotid NPS is safe and effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of transcarotid artery revascularization (TCAR) and to present the 1-year outcomes...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Marc Bourlière, Olivia Pietri, Paul Castellani, Valérie Oules, Xavier Adhoute
The advent of oral direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has dramatically improved the hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment landscape in the last 4 years, providing cure rates over 95% with a shorter duration of treatment and a very good safety profile. This has enabled access to treatment in nearly all HCV infected patients. The launch of two pangenotypic fixed dose combinations (FDCs) in 2017 made a new step forward in HCV treatment by slightly increasing efficacy and more importantly allowing the treatment of patients without HCV genotyping, and in some cases without fibrosis assessment...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
T A Fattahov, A I Piankova
The road traumatism and its aftermath are global and increasing problem. In 2014 Russia ranked first position in relation to number of deaths because of road accidents per one million of population among countries being members of the UN European economic commission. The purpose of study is to establish gender age characteristics and dynamics of burden of road traffic mortality in Russia. The non-clinical observation study was carried out covering years of life lost as a result of premature mortality due to road traffic accidents in Russia and standard of life expectancy on one-year age groups for males and females during 2000-2012...
September 2018: Problemy Sot︠s︡ialʹnoĭ Gigieny, Zdravookhranenii︠a︡ i Istorii Medit︠s︡iny
Lai Zheng, Tarek Sayed, Mohamed Essa
A range of conflict indicators have been developed for traffic conflict observation. The various conflict indicators have been shown in earlier studies to be of different and sometimes independent nature. Therefore, there is a need to combine different indicators to gain better understanding of the underlying severity of traffic events and for more reliable safety analysis. This study proposes a bivariate extreme value model to integrate different traffic conflict indicators for road safety estimation, and the model is validated with actual crash data...
December 15, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Divera Twisk, Simone Wesseling, Willem Vlakveld, Jan Vissers, Geertje Hegeman, Nikki Hukker, Erik Roelofs, Wilma Slinger
INTRODUCTION: In the Netherlands, young cyclists are extremely vulnerable in traffic, which may partly be due to their still underdeveloped higher-order cycling skill. So far, knowledge on their actual level of skill is lacking. Using a computerized test battery mimicking real-life risky traffic conditions, this study assessed the level of higher-order cycling skill in children 11 and 12 years of age and tested the hypothesis that these skills show caveats. Furthermore, factors potentially influencing the development and impact of these skills were studied, such as cycling experience, risky road behavior, crash involvement, and self-assessed skill...
December 2018: Journal of Safety Research
Mehrdad Azmin, Ayyoob Jafari, Nazila Rezaei, Kavi Bhalla, Dipan Bose, Saeid Shahraz, Mina Dehghani, Parastoo Niloofar, Soraya Fatholahi, Javad Hedayati, Hamidreza Jamshidi, Farshad Farzadfar
OBJECTIVE: Deaths due to road traffic accidents (RTAs) are a major public health concern around the world. Developing countries are over-represented in these statistics. Punitive measures are traditionally employed to lower RTA related behavioural risk factors. These are, however, resource intensive and require infrastructure development. This is a randomised controlled study to investigate the effect of non-punitive behavioural intervention through peer-comparison feedback based on driver behaviour data gathered by an in-vehicle telematics device...
November 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Nay Aung, Mihir M Sanghvi, Filip Zemrak, Aaron M Lee, Jackie A Cooper, Jose M Paiva, Ross J Thomson, Kenneth Fung, Mohammed Y Khanji, Elena Lukaschuk, Valentina Carapella, Young Jin Kim, Patricia B Munroe, Stefan K Piechnik, Stefan Neubauer, Steffen E Petersen
Background: Exposure to ambient air pollution is strongly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the influence of air pollutants on cardiac structure and function. We aim to investigate the relationship between chronic past exposure to traffic-related pollutants and the cardiac chamber volume, ejection fraction, and left ventricular remodeling patterns after accounting for potential confounders. Methods: Exposure to ambient air pollutants including particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide was estimated from the Land Use Regression models for the years between 2005 and 2010...
November 13, 2018: Circulation
David Latz, Erik Schiffner, Johannes Schneppendahl, Konstantin Klein, Lisa Oezel, Lars Fabian Seiler, Pascal Jungbluth, Robert Alexander Kaufmann, Joachim Windolf, Sebastian Viktor Gehrmann
BACKGROUND: One of the most important activities of daily living is operating a motor vehicle. With increasing age the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders such as knee osteoarthritis may interfere with an individual's ability to do so safely. Physicians are tasked with determining a patient's ability to drive and yet the necessary joint range of motion required for driving a car has not been characterized. METHODS: The range of motion of the right and left knees was recorded using electrogoniometers in 20 healthy subjects while driving a car on three route types (a) city streets, b) country roads and c) highways)...
November 29, 2018: Knee
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