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Mast cells microbiota

Martin Schwarzer, Petra Hermanova, Dagmar Srutkova, Jaroslav Golias, Tomas Hudcovic, Christian Zwicker, Marek Sinkora, Johnnie Akgün, Ursula Wiedermann, Ludmila Tuckova, Hana Kozakova, Irma Schabussova
Background: Mucosal mast cells (MC) are key players in IgE-mediated food allergy (FA). The evidence on the interaction between gut microbiota, MC and susceptibility to FA is contradictory. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that commensal bacteria are essential for MC migration to the gut and their maturation impacting the susceptibility to FA. Methods: The development and severity of FA symptoms was studied in sensitized germ-free (GF), conventional (CV), and mice mono-colonized with L. plantarum WCFS1 or co-housed with CV mice...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Ángel Arias, Alfredo J Lucendo
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, allergen-driven inflammatory esophageal disease characterized by predominantly eosinophilic inflammation leading to esophageal dysfunction. Recent efforts to understand EoE have increased our knowledge of the disease. Areas covered: Multiple cells, molecules, and genes interplay with early life environmental factors in the pathophysiology of EoE to converge in the esophageal epithelium at the center of disease pathogenesis. Epithelial cells constitute a mayor cytokine source for TSLP and Calpain-14; an impaired epithelial barrier function allowing penetration of food and microbiota-derived antigens is involved in triggering and maintaining inflammation...
February 2019: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Maryam Hussain, Germán Bonilla-Rosso, Cheong Kc Kwong Chung, Lukas Bäriswyl, Maria Pena Rodriguez, Brian S Kim, Philipp Engel, Mario Noti
BACKGROUND: Diet-induced obesity and food allergies rise in tandem, but a potential cause-and-effect relationship between these diseases of affluence remains to be tested. OBJECTIVE: To test the role of high dietary fat intake, diet-induced obesity and associated changes in gut microbial community structure on food allergy pathogenesis. METHODS: Mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks prior to food allergen sensitization on an atopic dermatitis-like skin lesion followed by intra-gastric allergen challenge to induce experimental food allergy...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Raquel de Souza Vieira, Angela Castoldi, Paulo José Basso, Meire Ioshie Hiyane, Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara, Rafael Ribeiro Almeida
Th9 cells orchestrate allergic lung inflammation by promoting recruitment and activation of eosinophils and mast cells, and by stimulating epithelial mucus production, which is known to be mainly dependent on IL-9. These cells share developmental pathways with induced regulatory T cells that may determine the generation of one over the other subset. In fact, the FOXP3 transcription factor has been shown to bind il9 locus and repress IL-9 production. The microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) butyrate and propionate have been described as FOXP3 inducers and are known to have anti-inflammatory properties...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Jong-Hwa Kim, Kiyoung Kim, Rungravee Kanjanasuntree, Wonyong Kim
Atopic dermatitis (AD) causes chronic inflammatory skin disease that results in a considerable economic expense and social burden. Certain Lactobacillus strains ameliorate AD, but the effects of probiotic yeast on AD have not been investigated to date. In this study, we isolated Kazachstania turicensis CAU Y1706, commonly known as a kefir yeast, and evaluated its mitigating effects using an ovalbumin-sensitized AD mouse model. Overall, K. turicensis CAU Y1706 was generally effective against AD. Oral administration of K...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Awadhesh K Arya, Bingren Hu
Stroke leads to inflammatory and immune response in the brain and immune organs. The gut or gastrointestinal tract is a major immune organ equipped with the largest pool of immune cells representing more than 70% of the entire immune system and the largest population of macrophages in the human body. The bidirectional communication between the brain and the gut is commonly known as brain-gut or gut-brain axis. Stroke often leads to gut dysmotility, gut microbiota dysbiosis, "leaky" gut, gut hemorrhage, and even gut-origin sepsis, which is often associated with poor prognosis...
October 2018: Brain Circulation
Jong-Hwa Kim, Kiyoung Kim, Wonyong Kim
Atopic dermatitis (AD) has a drastic impact on human health owing to complex skin, gut microbiota, and immune responses. Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are effective in ameliorating AD; however, the alleviative effects of dairy products derived from these LAB remain unclear. In this study, the efficacies of Lactococcus chungangensis CAU 28 (CAU 28) cream cheese and L. chungangensis CAU 28 dry cells were evaluated for treating AD in an AD mouse model. Overall, CAU 28 cream cheese administration was more effective against AD than L...
January 24, 2019: Scientific Reports
L Kleinjans, D H Veening-Griffioen, T Wehkamp, J van Bergenhenegouwen, J Knol, J Garssen, L M J Knippels, C Belzer, P V Jeurink
Non-breastfed infants at-risk of allergy are recommended to use a hydrolysed formula before the age of 6 months. The addition of prebiotics to this formula may reduce the allergy development in these infants, but clinical evidence is still inconclusive. This study evaluates (1) whether the exposure duration to different prebiotics alongside a partially hydrolysed whey protein (pHP) influences its' effectiveness to prevent allergy development and (2) whether the gut microbiota plays a role in this process. Mice orally sensitised with whey and/or cholera toxin were orally treated for six days before sensitization with phosphate buffered saline, whey or pHP to potentially induce tolerance...
December 10, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
W-G Kim, G-D Kang, H I Kim, M J Han, D-H Kim
This study aimed to examine whether probiotics, which suppressed the differentiation of splenic T cells into type 2 helper T (Th2) cells and induced into regulatory T cells in vitro, alleviate allergic rhinitis (AR) and gut microbiota disturbance. We isolated Bifidobacterium longum IM55 and Lactobacillus plantarum IM76 from human faecal microbiota and kimchi, respectively, and examined their effects on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR and gut microbiota disturbance in mice. Treatment with IM55, IM76, or their probiotic mixture (PM) significantly reduced OVA-induced allergic nasal symptoms and blood immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in mice...
November 22, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
D Lozano-Ojalvo, C Berin, L Tordesillas
Food allergies are diseases where the normal tolerance response to oral antigens is altered. Recent advances have begun to uncover mechanisms that mediate sensitization to food allergens and maintenance of this disease. Production of alarmins by epithelial cells triggers a cascade that leads to allergen-specific IgE synthesis. A role of IL-9 in mast cell recruitment and amplification of allergic response has also been identified. In recent years, increasing evidence suggests that sensitization to food allergens can be developed by non-oral routes, in particular the skin, which led to the proposal of the 'dual exposure hypothesis'...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
Marco De Zuani, Chiara Dal Secco, Barbara Frossi
The human gut harbors a wide range of microorganisms that play a fundamental role in the well-being of their host. A dysregulation of the microbial composition can lead to the development or exacerbation of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Emerging evidence supports the hypothesis that mast cells (MCs) play a role in host-microbiota communication, modulating the mutual influence between the host and its microbiota through changes in their activation state. The ability of some bacteria to specifically affect MC functions and activation has been extensively studied, with different and sometimes conflicting results, while only little is known about MC-fungi interactions...
November 9, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Jelle Folkerts, Ralph Stadhouders, Frank A Redegeld, See-Ying Tam, Rudi W Hendriks, Stephen J Galli, Marcus Maurer
Many mast cell-associated diseases, including allergies and asthma, have seen a strong increase in prevalence during the past decades, especially in Western(ized) countries. It has been suggested that a Western diet may contribute to the prevalence and manifestation of allergies and asthma through reduced intake of dietary fiber and the subsequent production of their metabolites. Indeed, dietary fiber and its metabolites have been shown to positively influence the development of immune disorders via changes in microbiota composition and the regulation of B- and T-cell activation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hye-Kyung Jung, Nicholas J Talley
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common disorder characterized by chronic epigastric pain or burning, or bothersome postprandial fullness or early satiation, without a definitive organic cause. The pathogenesis of FD is likely heterogeneous. Classically, motor disorders, visceral hypersensitivity, and brain-gut interactions have been implicated in the pathophysiology of FD, but recently an important role for chronic low-grade inflammation and infection in FD has been reported and confirmed. Duodenal low-grade inflammation is frequently observed in FD in those with and without documented previous gastroenteritis...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Giorgia Renga, Silvia Moretti, Vasilis Oikonomou, Monica Borghi, Teresa Zelante, Giuseppe Paolicelli, Claudio Costantini, Marco De Zuani, Valeria Rachela Villella, Valeria Raia, Rachele Del Sordo, Andrea Bartoli, Monia Baldoni, Jean-Christophe Renauld, Angelo Sidoni, Enrico Garaci, Luigi Maiuri, Carlo Pucillo, Luigina Romani
Candida albicans is implicated in intestinal diseases. Identifying host signatures that discriminate between the pathogenic versus commensal nature of this human commensal is clinically relevant. In the present study, we identify IL-9 and mast cells (MCs) as key players of Candida commensalism and pathogenicity. By inducing TGF-β in stromal MCs, IL-9 pivotally contributes to mucosal immune tolerance via the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme. However, Candida-driven IL-9 and mucosal MCs also contribute to barrier function loss, dissemination, and inflammation in experimental leaky gut models and are upregulated in patients with celiac disease...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
Cindy Gutzeit, Kang Chen, Andrea Cerutti
IgD emerged soon after IgM at the time of inception of the adaptive immune system. Despite its evolutionary conservation from fish to humans, the specific functions of IgD have only recently begun to be elucidated. Mature B cells undergo alternative mRNA splicing to express IgD and IgM receptors with identical antigenic specificity. The enigma of dual IgD and IgM expression has been tackled by several recent studies showing that IgD helps peripheral accumulation of physiologically autoreactive B cells through its functional unresponsiveness to self-antigens but prompt readiness against foreign antigens...
July 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Joan A Geoghegan, Alan D Irvine, Timothy J Foster
Staphylococcus aureus is frequently isolated from the skin of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients during flares. The normal microbiota is disrupted and the diversity of the microorganisms on the skin is reduced. Many species that produce inhibitors of S. aureus growth decline. Strains from S. aureus clonal complex 1 are enriched among AD sufferers whereas the CC30 strains most frequently isolated from nasal carriers in the normal population are much rarer in AD. S. aureus expresses several molecules that contribute to the intensity of symptoms, including δ-toxin which stimulates mast cells, α-toxin which damages keratinocytes, phenol-soluble modulins which stimulate cytokine release by keratinocytes, protein A which triggers inflammatory responses from keratinocytes, superantigens which trigger B cell expansion and cytokine release, and proinflammatory lipoproteins...
June 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Masato Tsuda, Haruka Arakawa, Narumi Ishii, Chihiro Ubukata, Mana Michimori, Masanari Noda, Kyoko Takahashi, Shuichi Kaminogawa, Akira Hosono
BACKGROUND: Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are prebiotic agents with immunomodulatory effects involving improvement of the intestinal microbiota and metabolome. In this study, we investigated the cellular mechanisms through which FOS modulate intestinal antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses in food allergy, using OVA23-3 mice. METHODS: OVA23-3 mice were fed an experimental diet containing either ovalbumin (OVA) or OVA and FOS for 1 week. Body weight and mucosal mast cell protease 1 in the serum were measured as the indicator of intestinal inflammation...
2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Karlo Toljan, Bruce Vrooman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE (AIMS): Psychoneuroimmunology is both a theoretical and practical field of medicine in which human biology and psychology are considered an interconnected unity. Through such a framework it is possible to elucidate complex syndromes in gastrointestinal related pain, particularly chronic non-malignant. The aim is to provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms and suggest treatment modalities according to a comprehensive paradigm. The article also presents novel findings that may guide clinicians to recognize new targets or scientists to find new research topics...
October 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Heena Mehta, Philippe-Olivier Goulet, Shunya Mashiko, Jade Desjardins, Gemma Pérez, Martial Koenig, Jean-Luc Senécal, Marco Constante, Manuela M Santos, Marika Sarfati
Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) display altered intestinal microbiota. However, the influence of intestinal dysbiosis on the development of experimental SSc remains unknown. Topoisomerase I peptide-loaded dendritic cell immunization induces SSc-like disease, with progressive skin and lung fibrosis. Breeders were given streptomycin and pups continued to receive antibiotic (ATB) until endpoint (lifelongATB). Alternately, ATB was withdrawn (earlyATB) or initiated (adultATB) during adulthood. Topoisomerase I peptide-loaded dendritic cell (no ATB) immunization induced pronounced skin fibrosis, with increased matrix (Col1a1), profibrotic (Il13, Tweakr), and vascular function (Serpine1) gene expression...
November 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Francesco Girolamo, Cristiana Coppola, Domenico Ribatti
When related to central nervous system (CNS) health and disease, brain mast cells (MCs) can be a source of either beneficial or deleterious signals acting on neural cells. We review the current state of knowledge about molecular interactions between MCs and glia in neurodegenerative diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Epilepsy. We also discuss the influence on MC actions evoked by the host microbiota, which has a profound effect on the host immune system, inducing important consequences in neurodegenerative disorders...
October 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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