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microbiota microbiome obesity diabetes

Lediya Cheru, Charles F Saylor, Janet Lo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a state of chronic inflammation. This review aims to summarize recent data supporting the role of the intestinal mucosal barrier and the microbiome in causing adipose tissue inflammation as well as metabolic factors that can affect the intestinal barrier. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity and its metabolic consequences, such as diabetes mellitus, are associated with disruption of the intestinal barrier function. Intestinal microbiota and diet play a key role in the maintenance of a healthy intestinal epithelium...
March 7, 2019: Current Obesity Reports
Eleni Xourgia, Athanasia Papazafiropoulou, Nikolaos Papanas, Andreas Melidonis
Numerous micro-organisms naturally reside in the human body assuming a symbiotic, or, at times, even a dysbiotic relationship with the host. These microbial populations are referred to as the human microbiota. Host microbial populations are an important mediator of gastro-intestinal mucosal permeability, bile acid metabolism, short-chain fatty acids synthesis, fermentation of dietary polysaccharides and FXR/TGR5 signaling. Variations in the composition and function of gut microbiota have been observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and obesity, as well as in inflammatory bowel diseases...
March 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Megha Singhal, Benjamin A Turturice, Christopher R Manzella, Ravi Ranjan, Ahmed A Metwally, Juliana Theorell, Yue Huang, Waddah A Alrefai, Pradeep K Dudeja, Patricia W Finn, David L Perkins, Ravinder K Gill
Serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in regulating extracellular availability of serotonin (5-HT) in the gut and brain. Mice with deletion of SERT develop metabolic syndrome as they age. Changes in the gut microbiota are being increasingly implicated in Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes. To investigate the relationship between the gut microbiome and SERT, this study assessed the fecal and cecal microbiome profile of 11 to 12 week-old SERT+/+ and SERT-/- mice. Microbial DNA was isolated, processed for metagenomics shotgun sequencing, and taxonomic and functional profiles were assessed...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Jochen Seitz, Stefanie Trinh, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann
Growing interest exists in the association of gut bacteria with diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and psychiatric disorders. Gut microbiota influence the fermentation of nutrients, body-weight regulation, gut permeability, hormones, inflammation, immunology, and behavior (gut-brain axis). Regarding anorexia nervosa (AN), altered microbial diversity and taxa abundance were found and associated with depressive, anxious, and eating disorder symptoms. Potential mechanisms involve increased gut permeability, low-grade inflammation, autoantibodies, and reduced brain cell neogenesis and learning...
March 2019: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Fumiyoshi Okazaki, Liqing Zang, Hiroko Nakayama, Zhen Chen, Zi-Jun Gao, Hitoshi Chiba, Shu-Ping Hui, Takahiko Aoki, Norihiro Nishimura, Yasuhito Shimada
Understanding the gut microbiota in metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is now gaining importance due to its potential role in disease risk and progression. We previously established a zebrafish model of T2DM, which shows glucose intolerance with insulin resistance and responds to anti-diabetic drugs. In this study, we analysed the gut microbiota of T2DM zebrafish by deep sequencing the 16S rRNA V3-V4 hypervariable regions, and imputed a functional profile using predictive metagenomic tools...
January 29, 2019: Scientific Reports
Zahra Safari, Philippe Gérard
NAFLD is currently the main cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries, and the number of NAFLD patients is growing worldwide. NAFLD often has similar symptoms to other metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. Recently, the role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of many diseases has been revealed. Regarding NAFLD, experiments using gut microbiota transplants to germ-free animal models showed that fatty liver disease development is determined by gut bacteria. Moreover, the perturbation of the composition of the gut microbiota has been observed in patients suffering from NAFLD...
January 25, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Emanuel E Canfora, Ruth C R Meex, Koen Venema, Ellen E Blaak
Evidence is accumulating that the gut microbiome is involved in the aetiology of obesity and obesity-related complications such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The gut microbiota is able to ferment indigestible carbohydrates (for example, dietary fibre), thereby yielding important metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids and succinate. Numerous animal studies and a handful of human studies suggest a beneficial role of these metabolites in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its comorbidities...
January 22, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Heidi H Pak, Nicole E Cummings, Cara L Green, Jacqueline A Brinkman, Deyang Yu, Jay L Tomasiewicz, Shany E Yang, Colin Boyle, Elizabeth N Konon, Irene M Ong, Dudley W Lamming
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are increasing in prevalence around the world, and there is a clear need for new and effective strategies to promote metabolic health. A low protein (LP) diet improves metabolic health in both rodents and humans, but the mechanisms that underlie this effect remain unknown. The gut microbiome has recently emerged as a potent regulator of host metabolism and the response to diet. Here, we demonstrate that a LP diet significantly alters the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiome at the phylum level, altering the relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes...
January 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
Aleksandra A Kolodziejczyk, Danping Zheng, Oren Shibolet, Eran Elinav
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of cardiometabolic syndrome, which often also includes obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. It is rapidly becoming the most prevalent liver disease worldwide. A sizable minority of NAFLD patients develop nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is characterized by inflammatory changes that can lead to progressive liver damage, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent studies have shown that in addition to genetic predisposition and diet, the gut microbiota affects hepatic carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as well as influences the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effectors in the liver, thereby impacting NAFLD and its progression to NASH In this review, we will explore the impact of gut microbiota and microbiota-derived compounds on the development and progression of NAFLD and NASH, and the unexplored factors related to potential microbiome contributions to this common liver disease...
December 27, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Holly A Swain Ewald, Paul W Ewald
The microbiome is composed of hundreds of interacting species that have co-evolved with the host and alterations in microbiome composition have been associated with health and disease. Insights from evolutionary ecology may aid efforts to ameliorate microbiome-associated diseases. One step toward this goal involves recognition that the idea of commensalism has been applied too broadly to human/microbe symbioses. Commensalism is most accurately viewed on a symbiosis continuum as a dividing line that separates a spectrum of mutualisms of decreasing positive interdependence from parasitisms of increasing severity...
December 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Valerio Nobili, Antonella Mosca, Tommaso Alterio, Sabrina Cardile, Lorenza Putignani
Pediatric obesity is rising worldwide leading the worrying phenomenon of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to shift into one of the most frequent causes of chronic liver illness in childhood. Occurrence of NAFLD depends on several factors such as the geographical area and the diagnostic modalities used; overall it ranges between 3% and 10% of pediatric population, increasing up to 70% in patients with metabolic comorbidities (Manco M, Bottazzo G, DeVito R et al, J Am Coll Nutr 27:667-676, 2008).Recent findings have related the intestinal microbiota to a plethora of pathological conditions, including type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)...
December 22, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ramesh Pothuraju, Satyanarayana Rachagani, Wade M Junker, Sanjib Chaudhary, Viswanathan Saraswathi, Sukhwinder Kaur, Surinder K Batra
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is among foremost causes of cancer related deaths worldwide due to generic symptoms, lack of effective screening strategies and resistance to chemo- and radiotherapies. The risk factors associated with PC include several metabolic disorders such as obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Studies have shown that obesity and T2DM are associated with PC pathogenesis; however, their role in PC initiation and development remains obscure...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Norbert Joachim Tripolt, Felix Aberer, Jasmin Url, Christoph Högenauer, Florian Schreiber, Andreas Eherer, Caren Sourij, Anna-Maria Obermayer, Vanessa Stadlbauer, Eva Svehlikova, Martina Brunner, Harald Kojzar, Peter Nikolaus Pferschy, Thomas Rudolf Pieber, Harald Sourij
INTRODUCTION: A 60-cm endoscopically implantable duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (Endobarrier™, GI Dynamics, Lexington, MA, USA) has been introduced as a therapeutic option to support weight loss for a selected group of obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The sleeve prevents contact between chyme and the intestinal mucosa of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The primary aim of this study is to elucidate the changes in insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function after EndoBarrier™ implantation in obese patients with T2DM; changes in gut permeability and gut microbiome are also to be examined...
December 11, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
José E Belizário, Joel Faintuch
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the residence of trillions of microorganisms that include bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses. The collective genomes of whole microbial communities (microbiota) integrate the gut microbiome. Up to 100 genera and 1000 distinct bacterial species were identified in digestive tube niches. Gut microbiomes exert permanent pivotal functions by promoting food digestion, xenobiotic metabolism and regulation of innate and adaptive immunological processes. Proteins, peptides and metabolites released locally and at distant sites trigger many cell signalling and pathways...
2018: Experientia. Supplementum
Yanan An, Yan Li, Xueyan Wang, Zhaobin Chen, Hongyue Xu, Lingyu Wu, Shulin Li, Chao Wang, Wenjing Luan, Xuefei Wang, Mingyuan Liu, Xudong Tang, Lu Yu
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies have shown that obesity is the key etiological agent of cardiovascular diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, type 2 diabetes and several kinds of cancer and that gut microbiota change was one of the reasons suffering from obesity. At present, the gut microbiota has gained increased attention as a potential energy metabolism organ. Our recent study reported that cordycepin, a major bioactive component separated from Cordyceps militaris, prevented body weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet directly acting to adipocytes, however, the effect of cordycepin regulating gut microbiota keeps unknown...
December 6, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Ronan F O'Toole, Sanjay S Gautam
The treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is often viewed in isolation from other human microbial symbionts. Understandably, the clinical priority is eliminating active or latent tuberculosis (TB) in patients. With the increasing resolution of molecular biology technologies, it is becoming apparent that antibiotic treatment can perturb the homeostasis of the host microbiome. For example, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been associated with an increased risk of the development of asthma, obesity and diabetes...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Pourya Gholizadeh, Majid Mahallei, Ali Pormohammad, Mojtaba Varshochi, Khudaverdi Ganbarov, Elham Zeinalzadeh, Bahman Yousefi, Milad Bastami, Asghar Tanomand, Suhad Saad Mahmood, Mehdi Yousefi, Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil
Recent studies have been considered to symbiotic interactions of the human gastrointestinal microbiota and human lifestyle-related disorders. The human gastrointestinal microbiota continuously stimulates the immune system against opportunistic and pathogen bacteria from infancy. Changes in gastrointestinal microbiota have been associated with numbers of human diseases such as allergic diseases, autoimmune encephalitis, atherosclerosis, colorectal cancer, obesity, diabetes etc. In this review article, we evaluate studies on the roles of human gastrointestinal microbiota and interference pathogenicity in allergic diseases, obesity, and diabetes...
November 29, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
W H Wilson Tang, Daniel Y Li, Stanley L Hazen
Advances in our understanding of how the gut microbiota contributes to human health and diseases have expanded our insight into how microbial composition and function affect the human host. Heart failure is associated with splanchnic circulation congestion, leading to bowel wall oedema and impaired intestinal barrier function. This situation is thought to heighten the overall inflammatory state via increased bacterial translocation and the presence of bacterial products in the systemic blood circulation. Several metabolites produced by gut microorganisms from dietary metabolism have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
March 2019: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Sapna Sharma, Prabhanshu Tripathi
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a highly prevalent metabolic disorder characterized by an imbalance in blood glucose level, altered lipid profile and high blood pressure. Genetic constituents, high-fat and high-energy dietary habits, and a sedentary lifestyle are three major factors that contribute to high risk of T2D. Several studies have reported gut microbiome dysbiosis as a factor in rapid progression of insulin resistance in T2D that accounts for about 90% of all diabetes cases worldwide. The gut microbiome dysbiosis may reshape intestinal barrier functions and host metabolic and signaling pathways, which are directly or indirectly related to the insulin resistance in T2D...
January 2019: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Jacob E Friedman
Childhood obesity and its comorbidities continue to accelerate across the globe. Two-thirds of pregnant women are obese/overweight, as are 20% of preschoolers. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is escalating, affecting up to 1 in 5 pregnant women. The field of developmental origins of health and disease has begun to move beyond associations to potential causal mechanisms for developmental programming. Evidence across species compellingly demonstrates that maternal obesity, diabetes, and Western-style diets create a long-lasting signature on multiple systems, including infant stem cells, the early immune system, and gut microbiota...
November 2018: Diabetes
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