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Toxic shock syndrom

K S Houschyar, C Tapking, D Duscher, C Wallner, A Sogorski, S Rein, D Pförringer, G Reumuth, K Weissenberg, G Grieb, L K Branski, F Siemers, B Behr, M Lehnhardt
BACKGROUND: Due to the loss of the natural skin barrier function with reduced immune competence as a result of a plasma loss and the numerous intensive care interventions, burn patients are particularly at risk for infection. STUDY DESIGN: systematic review METHODS: A systematic review of German and English literature between 1990 and 2018 analyzes the epidemiological and diagnostic aspects as well as the therapeutic use of antibiotics in infections of burn patients in clinical trials...
February 14, 2019: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
Joshua Osowicki, Kristy I Azzopardi, Liam McIntyre, Tania Rivera-Hernandez, Cheryl-Lynn Y Ong, Ciara Baker, Christine M Gillen, Mark J Walker, Pierre R Smeesters, Mark R Davies, Andrew C Steer
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a major cause of global infection-related morbidity and mortality. A modern controlled human infection model (CHIM) of GAS pharyngitis can accelerate vaccine development and pathogenesis research. A robust rationale for strain selection is central to meeting ethical, scientific, and regulatory requirements. Multifaceted characterization studies were done to compare a preferred candidate emm 75 (M75) GAS strain to three other strains: an alternative candidate emm 12 (M12) strain, an M1 strain used in 1970s pharyngitis CHIM studies (SS-496), and a representative (5448) of the globally disseminated M1T1 clone...
February 13, 2019: MSphere
Sadako Yoshizawa, Takayuki Matsumura, Tadayoshi Ikebe, Ryo Ichibayashi, Yuto Fukui, Takahiro Satoh, Takaya Tsubota, Mitsuru Honda, Yoshikazu Ishii, Kazuhiro Tateda, Manabu Ato
OBJECTIVES: β-Hemolytic streptococci occasionally cause severe infections such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). Here, we conducted a prospective study to investigate the production of cytokines and chemokines in patients with STSS to explore its pathogenesis in survivors and fatal cases. METHODS: From January 2013 through August 2015, all culture results from normally sterile sites were prospectively followed and screened for STSS...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Mariano Oscar Abrego, Javier Eduardo Sanchez Saba, Carolina Halliburton, Danilo Roger Eric Taype, Carlos Federico Sancineto
Introduction: Fasciitis of the limb and toxic-shock syndrome due to Streptococcus Pyogenes infection is considered a surgical emergency. This condition may occur in previously healthy patients. It is a life-threatening condition with high morbidity rates when treatment is delayed due to poor diagnosis and non-surgical intervention. Case Report: 17-year-old male patient sustained a minor ankle trauma while skating. Initials findings were a 1cm wound in relation with his left lateral malleolus and moderate swelling...
September 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
I A Placinta, E España-Gregori, A Rodrigo-Hernández, C Martínez-Rubio, J Safont-Albert, M Á Bort-Martí
An 80 year-old woman with no relevant medical history, consulted for worsening of right palpebral itching and pain after an insect bite. Her eyelids had areas of laceration due to scratching, which rapidly progressed to fibrinoid necrosis over the first 24hours. Lesions were cultivated, revealing Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. The patient was admitted to hospital with the diagnosis of periorbital necrotising fasciitis, in order to receive treatment with intravenous ceftriaxone, linezolid, and immediate surgical debridement...
February 4, 2019: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
Tadao Hasegawa, Masakado Matsumoto, Nanako Hata, Hisako Yano, Masanori Isaka, Ichiro Tatsuno
Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is primarily caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, but it may also be caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE). The analyses of S. pyogenes have revealed the important roles of NAD+ -glycohydrolase (Nga) and CovR/CovS, a two-component regulatory system. We examined these factors in SDSE by analyzing mainly two isogenic SDSE strains (12-10-1 and 12-10-3) from the blood of a patient with STSS. The Nga activities were measured and the nucleotide sequences of covR and covS genes were determined...
February 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
P-M Dugourd, A Dupont, T Hubiche, C Chiaverini, A Alkhalifa, L Roudiere, A Tristan, C-A Gustave, P Del Giudice
BACKGROUND: Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) was first described by Todd in 1978. The relevant Lancet publication reported 7 cases of children with fever, exanthema, hypotension and diarrhoea associated with multiple organ failure. An association between TSS and use of hyper-absorbent tampons in menstruating women was discovered in the 1980s. Following the market withdrawal of such tampons, TSS virtually disappeared. Herein we report a new case of TSS in a 15-year-old girl. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 15-year-old patient was admitted to intensive care for severe sepsis and impaired consciousness associated with diffuse abdominal pain...
January 25, 2019: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Shunsuke Yamada, Masaki Shibasaki, Kazunori Murase, Takayasu Watanabe, Chihiro Aikawa, Takashi Nozawa, Ichiro Nakagawa
BACKGROUND: Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a major human pathogen, which is associated with a wide spectrum of invasive diseases, such as pharyngitis, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). It is hypothesized that differences in GAS pathogenicity are related to the acquisition of diverse bacteriophages (phages). Nevertheless, the GAS genome also harbors clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (cas) genes, which play an important role in eliminating foreign DNA, including those of phages...
January 28, 2019: BMC Microbiology
Niklas Schurmann Hansen, Lars Toft Nielsen, Steffen Leth
Toxic shock syndrome is a rare disease caused by Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes. These bacteria are able to produce a variety of exotoxins, including superantigens, which causes a cytokine storm and induces a shock condition. This is a case report of S. aureus toxic shock syndrome originating from a split skin transplant in a 75-year-old man, who met all clinical and laboratory criteria including development of rash, conjunctival hyper-aemia and desquamation of the skin. After treatment with antibiotics, immunoglobulins and supportive treatment, the disease dissolved...
January 14, 2019: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Amy E Bryant, Sumiko Gomi, Eva Katahira, David B Huang, Dennis L Stevens
PURPOSE: Extracellular protein toxins contribute to the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus infections. The present study compared the effects of iclaprim and trimethoprim - two folic acid synthesis inhibitors - with nafcillin and vancomycin on production of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), alpha haemolysin (AH) and toxic-shock syndrome toxin I (TSST-1) in methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (MRSA and VISA, respectively). METHODOLOGY: Northern blotting and RT-PCR were used to assess gene transcription; toxin-specific bioassays were used to measure protein toxin production...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Xueting Liu, Yuhuan Wen, De Wang, Zhongqiu Zhao, Joseph Jeffry, Liping Zeng, Zehong Zou, Huifang Chen, Ailin Tao
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) is a well-known superantigen and stimulates human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) involving in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders and cancer. OBJECTIVE: To better understand the biological activities of SEA and the possible intracellular mechanisms by which SEA plays its roles in conditions like staphylococcal inflammatory and/or autoimmune disorders and immunotherapy. METHODS: Recombinant SEA (rSEA) was expressed in a prokaryotic expression system and its effects on the cytokine and chemokine production was examined by Enzyme-linked Immunospot (ELISpot) Assay and ELISA analysis...
January 13, 2019: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
Ivan Comelli, Matteo Riccò, Gianfranco Cervellin
The gastro enteric toxic effects of the barbel eggs have been described up to two centuries ago, but deliberate or serendipitous ingestion of this fish product still occur, often eliciting a gastrointestinal syndrome usually known as barbel cholera. Barbel cholera is a self-limited gastrointestinal diarrheic syndrome that develops 2 to 4 hours after ingestion of the eggs, lasting up to 12-36 hours, nearly always complicated by vomiting and severe abdominal pain. The disease is usually self-limited, and the prognosis is thus benign even without hospitalization and medical treatment...
January 15, 2019: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Benfang Lei, Anthony R Flores, Carl Yeoman, Mengyao Liu
We report the complete genome sequence for Streptococcus pyogenes strain 1838 (type emm 3) isolated from a patient with toxic shock syndrome. The strain lacked the speK - and sla -encoding prophage frequently encountered among emm 3 strains and possessed an Arg66His mutation in CovR of the 2-component virulence regulatory system CovRS.
January 2019: Microbiology resource announcements
Talha Ahmed, Faisal Inayat, Muhammad Haq, Taha Ahmed
Myocardial calcification is a rare and life-threatening condition. It has been associated with a myriad of causes, including ischaemic heart disease, cardiac surgery, rheumatic fever, and myocarditis. However, this entity is less well recognised in the setting of toxic shock syndrome. Published medical literature is scarce with regard to the pathogenesis and clinical implications of this potential association. We chronicle here the case of a patient with myocardial calcification secondary to toxic shock syndrome from our clinical experience...
January 10, 2019: BMJ Case Reports
Amy E Ford, Catherine Denicourt, Kevin A Morano
The eukaryotic cytosolic proteome is vulnerable to changes in proteostatic and redox balance caused by temperature, pH, oxidants and xenobiotics. Cysteine-containing proteins are especially at risk as the thiol side chain is subject to oxidation, adduction and chelation by thiol-reactive compounds. The thiol-chelating heavy metal cadmium is a highly toxic environmental pollutant demonstrated to induce the heat shock response and recruit protein chaperones to sites of presumed protein aggregation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
January 2, 2019: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Meng Wang, Yang Li, Liming Zheng, Wenxian Guan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) enterocolitis after gastrointestinal surgery. METHODS: Clinical and pathological data of 17 cases with MRSA enteritis after gastrointestinal surgery from March 2015 to March 2017 at Department of General Surgery of Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. INCLUSION CRITERIA: (1) age of 18 to 80 years;(2) with history of gastrointestinal surgery; (3) diarrhea symptoms within 7 days after gastrointestinal surgery; (4) use of antibiotics before diarrhea; (5) fecal smear showing a large number of gram positive cocci; (6) fecal culture suggested the presence of MRSA; (7) application of antibiotic therapy against MRSA was effective...
December 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Sagnik Biswas, Animesh Ray, Farhan Fazal, Swati Mahajan
Toxic shock syndrome is a rare but potentially lethal toxin-mediated illness that can be caused by streptococcal and staphylococcal species. It initially presents as a febrile illness that rapidly progresses to multiorgan dysfunction, hence a high index of suspicion coupled with rapid verification of the diagnosis and aggressive treatment is required to improve the outcome of the disease. A 23-year-old man presented with high-grade fever associated with headache, retro-orbital pain, gastroenteritis and gum bleeds...
November 28, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
F P Vire, P E Akpaka, C Unakal
Aims: To determine the virulence and antimicrobial resistant genes in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from patients attending two rural health centers in Trinidad and Tobago. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional observational analysis of patients from two local health centers located in communities in northern region of the country. Materials and Methods: Nasal and wound swabs from 300 patients were analyzed using standard and molecular techniques...
December 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Eva J Katahira, Stephen M Davidson, Dennis L Stevens, Devin D Bolz
PURPOSE: Potent extracellular toxins including alpha-haemolysin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and toxic-shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) significantly contribute to Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis, thus, toxin suppression is a primary focus in treatment of staphylococcal disease. S. aureus maintains complex strategies to regulate toxin expression and previous data have demonstrated that subinhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics can adversely increase S. aureus exotoxin production...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Javid Sadeghi, Naser Alizadeh, Mahin Ahangar Oskouei, Delara Laghusi, Daryush Savadi Oskouei, Masoud Nikanfar, Mir Naser Seyyed Mousavi
BACKGROUND: Bacterial superantigens are potent T cell activators that can have acute or chronic effects on the central nervous system. OBJECTIVES: In this study, the role of enterotoxins, exfoliative toxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in MS patients and healthy nasal carriers. METHODS: Three-hundred fifty nasal swabs were collected from healthy nasal carriers (n = 210) and MS (n = 140) patients...
December 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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