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Intermittant energy restriction

V Rubovitch, A Pharayra, M Har-Even, O Dvir, M P Mattson, C G Pick
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of neurological damage in young people. It was previously reported that dietary restriction, by either intermittent fasting (IF) or daily caloric restriction (CR), could protect neurons against dysfunction and degeneration in animal models of stroke and Parkinson's disease. Recently, several studies have shown that the protein Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) plays a significant role in the induced neuroprotection following dietary restriction. In the present study, we found a significant reduction of SIRT1 levels in the cortex and hippocampus in a mouse model of mild weight-drop closed head TBI...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
A Zubrzycki, K Cierpka-Kmiec, Z Kmiec, A Wronska
Obesity is a condition associated with an increased risk of metabolic disorders, and in particular of type-2 diabetes (T2D). The treatment and prevention of obesity and associated metabolic disorders present great medical challenges. A major therapeutic goal in T2D is to control blood glucose levels, which can be achieved by pharmacological and nonpharmacological measures. The latter include increased physical activity and reduction of body fat mass by limiting dietary caloric content. Low-calorie diets (LCDs) involve a reduction in daily caloric intake by 25% to 30%...
October 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Jackson James Peos, Layne Eiseman Norton, Eric Russell Helms, Andrew Jacob Galpin, Paul Fournier
Athletes utilise numerous strategies to reduce body weight or body fat prior to competition. The traditional approach requires continuous energy restriction (CER) for the entire weight loss phase (typically days to weeks). However, there is some suggestion that intermittent energy restriction (IER), which involves alternating periods of energy restriction with periods of greater energy intake (referred to as 'refeeds' or 'diet breaks') may result in superior weight loss outcomes than CER. This may be due to refeed periods causing transitory restoration of energy balance...
January 16, 2019: Sports
Sharayah Carter, Peter M Clifton, Jennifer B Keogh
Importance: Intermittent energy restriction is an alternative weight loss method that is becoming popular; however, to date, there are no long-term clinical trials of intermittent energy restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Objective: To compare the effects of intermittent energy restriction (2 days per week) with those of continuous energy restriction on glycemic control and weight loss in patients with type 2 diabetes during a 12-month period. Design, Setting, and Participants: Adult participants (N = 137) with type 2 diabetes were randomized 1:1 to parallel diet groups (intermittent energy restriction [n = 70] or continuous energy restriction [n = 67]) between April 7, 2015, and September 7, 2017, at the University of South Australia...
July 6, 2018: JAMA network open
Dipak A Jadhav, Ashvini D Chendake, Andrea Schievano, Deepak Pant
Suppression of methanogens is considered as one of the main challenges in achieving the practical application of several types of bioelectrochemical system (BES). Feasibility of mixed culture as an inoculum in BES is mainly restricted by methanogenic population. Methanogens compete with electrogens (in bioanodes) or acetogens (in biocathodes) for substrate which results in diminishing Coulombic efficiency. Selection of particular inoculum pretreatment method affects the microbial diversity in anodic/cathodic microenvironments and hence the performance of BES...
December 27, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Iolanda Cioffi, Andrea Evangelista, Valentina Ponzo, Giovannino Ciccone, Laura Soldati, Lidia Santarpia, Franco Contaldo, Fabrizio Pasanisi, Ezio Ghigo, Simona Bo
BACKGROUND: This systematic review and meta-analysis summarized the most recent evidence on the efficacy of intermittent energy restriction (IER) versus continuous energy restriction on weight-loss, body composition, blood pressure and other cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials were systematically searched from MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, TRIP databases, EMBASE and CINAHL until May 2018. Effect sizes were expressed as weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI)...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Amy T Hutchison, Bo Liu, Rachel E Wood, Andrew D Vincent, Campbell H Thompson, Nathan J O'Callaghan, Gary A Wittert, Leonie K Heilbronn
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare intermittent fasting (IF) versus continuous energy intakes at 100% or 70% of calculated energy requirements on insulin sensitivity, cardiometabolic risk, body weight, and composition. METHODS: Women with overweight (n = 88; 50 ± 1 years, BMI 32.3 ± 0.5 kg/m2 ) were randomized to one of four diets (IF70, IF100, dietary restriction [DR70], or control) in a 2:2:2:1 ratio for 8 weeks. IF groups fasted for 24 hours after breakfast on three nonconsecutive days per week...
January 2019: Obesity
T M Sundfør, S Tonstad, M Svendsen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Weight loss diets affect food choices and control of eating. We evaluated the effects of intermittent energy restriction (IER) vs. continuous energy restriction (CER) on nutritional composition and eating behavior. SUBJECT/METHODS: Individuals with BMI 30-45 kg/m2 , abdominal obesity and ≥1 additional metabolic syndrome component were randomized to IER vs. CER with similar energy restriction. Of 112 participants, 98 completed weighed dietary records and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire at baseline and three months...
December 4, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
A Sainsbury, R E Wood, R V Seimon, A P Hills, N A King, A A Gibson, N M Byrne
Eating patterns involving intermittent energy restriction (IER) include 'intermittent fasting' where energy intake is severely restricted for several 'fasting' days per week, with 'refeeding' days (involving greater energy intake than during fasting days) at other times. Intermittent fasting does not improve weight loss compared to continuous energy restriction (CER), where energy intake is restricted every day. We hypothesize that weight loss from IER could be improved if refeeding phases involved restoration of energy balance (i...
December 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Bo Liu, Amanda J Page, George Hatzinikolas, Miaoxin Chen, Gary A Wittert, Leonie K Heilbronn
Obesity is associated with increased macrophage and extracellular matrix accumulation in adipose tissue, which can be partially reversed following weight loss by daily caloric restriction. This study examined the effects of 8 weeks of intermittent fasting (IF; 24-hour fast on 3 nonconsecutive days per week) in mice fed a chow or high-fat diet (HFD; 43% fat) on markers of adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis. We found that IF decreased energy intake, body weight, and fat cell size in HFD-fed mice and decreased fat mass and improved glucose tolerance in chow- and HFD-fed mice...
January 1, 2019: Endocrinology
Ruth Schübel, Johanna Nattenmüller, Disorn Sookthai, Tobias Nonnenmacher, Mirja E Graf, Lena Riedl, Christopher L Schlett, Oyunbileg von Stackelberg, Theron Johnson, Diana Nabers, Romy Kirsten, Mario Kratz, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Cornelia M Ulrich, Rudolf Kaaks, Tilman Kühn
Background: Although preliminary evidence suggests that intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) exerts stronger effects on metabolic parameters, which may link obesity and major chronic diseases, compared with continuous calorie restriction (CCR), there is a lack of well-powered intervention studies. Objective: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to test whether ICR, operationalized as the "5:2 diet," has stronger effects on adipose tissue gene expression, anthropometric and body composition measures, and circulating metabolic biomarkers than CCR and a control regimen...
November 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Michelle Louise Headland, Peter Marshall Clifton, Jennifer Beatrice Keogh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Intermittent energy restriction (IER) is an alternative to continuous energy restriction (CER) for weight loss. There are few long-term trials comparing efficacy of these methods. The objective was to compare the effects of CER to two forms of IER; a week-on-week-off energy restriction and a 5:2 program, during which participants restricted their energy intake severely for 2 days and ate as usual for 5 days, on weight loss, body composition, blood lipids, and glucose...
November 23, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
David J Clayton, Jack Biddle, Tyler Maher, Mark P Funnell, Jack A Sargeant, James A King, Carl J Hulston, David J Stensel, Lewis J James
Intermittent energy restriction (IER) involves short periods of severe energy restriction interspersed with periods of adequate energy intake, and can induce weight loss. Insulin sensitivity is impaired by short-term, complete energy restriction, but the effects of IER are not well known. In randomised order, fourteen lean men (age: 25 (sd 4) years; BMI: 24 (sd 2) kg/m2; body fat: 17 (4) %) consumed 24-h diets providing 100 % (10 441 (sd 812) kJ; energy balance (EB)) or 25 % (2622 (sd 204) kJ; energy restriction (ER)) of estimated energy requirements, followed by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; 75 g of glucose drink) after fasting overnight...
November 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Jackson J Peos, Eric R Helms, Paul A Fournier, Amanda Sainsbury
Introduction: Reducing fat mass (FM) while retaining fat free mass (FFM) is a common goal of athletes. Evidence suggests that some-but not all-forms of intermittent energy restriction (IER) may be superior to the conventional method of continuous energy restriction (CER) for people with excess body fat that are sedentary, by reducing some of the adaptive responses to ER. However, it is yet to be established whether this dietary approach is effective for athletes. Methods and analysis: A single-blind, parallel group, randomised controlled trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio is proposed...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Christina Potter, Rebecca L Griggs, Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Peter J Rogers
Many believe that eating three meals each day is healthy and that skipping meals can be detrimental. What remains unclear is whether this belief undermines attempts to restrict energy intake by skipping meals. In an online survey, participants (N = 312) with experience of intermittent fasting (IF) reported their beliefs about healthy meal and snack frequency, as well as their non-fasting-dasy and fasting-day eating patterns. They also reported their level of concern with fasting-day meal patterns and their concern to generate fullness when selecting foods...
February 1, 2019: Appetite
Fabian Bonk, Denny Popp, Sören Weinrich, Heike Sträuber, Sabine Kleinsteuber, Hauke Harms, Florian Centler
Background: Demand-driven biogas production could play an important role for future sustainable energy supply. However, feeding a biogas reactor according to energy demand may lead to organic overloading and, thus, to process failures. To minimize this risk, digesters need to be actively steered towards containing more robust microbial communities. This study focuses on acetogenesis and methanogenesis as crucial process steps for avoiding acidification. We fed lab-scale anaerobic digesters with volatile fatty acids under various feeding regimes and disturbances...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
A D Kreisler, M Mattock, E P Zorrilla
Many people restrict their palatable food intake. In animal models, time-limiting access to palatable foods increases their intake while decreasing intake of less preferred alternatives; negative emotional withdrawal-like behavior is sometimes reported. In drug addiction models, intermittent extended access drives greater changes in use than brief access. When it comes to palatable food, the impact of briefer vs. longer access durations within intermittent access conditions remains unclear. Here, we provided male rats with chow or with weekday access to a preferred, sucrose-rich diet (PREF) (2, 4, or 8 h daily) with chow otherwise available...
November 1, 2018: Appetite
David Thivel, Graham Finlayson, Maud Miguet, Bruno Pereira, Martine Duclos, Yves Boirie, Eric Doucet, John E Blundell, Lore Metz
Although there is a growing interest for the effects of intermittent fasting on energy balance, this study aimed to compare appetite, energy intake and food reward responses with an energy depletion induced either by 24-h food restriction or an equivalent deficit with exercise in healthy males. In all, twelve healthy lean males (21·5 (sd 0·5) years old; BMI: 22·5 (sd 1·7) kg/m2) participated in this study. Body composition, aerobic capacity, food preferences and energy intake were assessed. They randomly completed three conditions: (i) no depletion (CON); (ii) full 24-h energy restrictions (Def-EI); and (iii) exercise condition (Def-EX)...
September 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Norbert J Tripolt, Slaven Stekovic, Felix Aberer, Jasmin Url, Peter N Pferschy, Sabrina Schröder, Nicolas Verheyen, Albrecht Schmidt, Ewald Kolesnik, Sophie H Narath, Regina Riedl, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Thomas R Pieber, Frank Madeo, Harald Sourij
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Alternate day fasting (ADF) is a subtype of intermittent fasting and is defined as a continuous sequence of a fast day (100% energy restriction, zero calories) and a feed day (ad libitum food consumption), resulting in roughly 36-h fasting periods. Previous studies demonstrated weight reductions and improvements of cardiovascular risk factors with ADF in obese subjects. However, rigorous data on potential endocrine, metabolic and cardiovascular effects, besides weight loss, are lacking...
August 2018: Advances in Therapy
Seung-Woo Ko, Seong-Lyun Kim
Wireless power transfer (WPT) is a promising technology to realize the vision of Internet-of-Things (IoT) by powering energy-hungry IoT nodes by electromagnetic waves, overcoming the difficulty in battery recharging for massive numbers of nodes. Specifically, wireless charging stations (WCS) are deployed to transfer energy wirelessly to IoT nodes in the charging coverage. However, the coverage is restricted due to the limited hardware capability and safety issue, making mobile nodes have different battery charging patterns depending on their moving speeds...
July 23, 2018: Sensors
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