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Ntm Resource

Yeya Ds Sarro, Bourahima Kone, Bassirou Diarra, Alisha Kumar, Ousmane Kodio, Djeneba B Fofana, Chad J Achenbach, Abdoul H Beavogui, Moussa Seydi, Jane L Holl, Babafemi Taiwo, Souleymane Diallo, Seydou Doumbia, Robert L Murphy, Sally M McFall, Mamoudou Maiga
Tuberculosis (TB) is the deadliest infectious disease in the world which disproportionately affects low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) where diagnostic resources and treatment options are limited. The incidence of pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is also rapidly increasing in these regions traditionally dominated by TB infections. This poses significant diagnostic and treatment challenges, since these two diseases are often indistinguishable clinically or by sputum smear microscopy (SSM), the most commonly used TB diagnostic tool in LMICs...
December 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Nuntita Singpanomchai, Yukihiro Akeda, Kazunori Tomono, Aki Tamaru, Pitak Santanirand, Panan Ratthawongjirakul
BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is key to controlling the spread of tuberculosis, which is a global health concern. In this study, isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) was developed to detect specific targets of Mtb, IS6110 and IS1081. Additionally, SYBR Green I was used for endpoint detection of the RPA products by the naked eye. METHOD: A total of 146 genomic Mtb DNA samples and 24 genomic nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) DNA samples were amplified at IS6110 and IS1081 by RPA...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Gurpreet S Bhalla, Manbeer S Sarao, Dinesh Kalra, Kuntal Bandyopadhyay, Arun Ravi John
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are composed of mycobacterial species other than the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Initially thought to be mere contaminants when isolated from clinical specimens, literature is increasing by the day showing NTM as proven pathogens. Due to the difference in antimicrobial susceptibility of different species, it becomes imperative for the microbiology laboratory to identify them to the species level. Molecular methods are available for rapid and accurate identification, but in a resource limited nation, phenotypic methods, albeit time consuming, are of paramount importance...
November 2018: Practical Laboratory Medicine
David C Shih, P Maureen Cassidy, Kiran M Perkins, Matthew B Crist, Paul R Cieslak, Richard L Leman
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), ubiquitous in soil and water, usually infect immunocompromised persons. However, even healthy persons are susceptible to infection through percutaneous inoculation. Although 77% of NTM diseases manifest as primarily pulmonary illnesses (1), NTM also infect skin, bones, joints, the lymphatic system, and soft tissue. NTM infections can have incubation periods that exceed 5 years (2), often require prolonged treatment, and can lead to sepsis and death. Extrapulmonary NTM outbreaks have been reported in association with contaminated surgical gentian violet (3), nail salon pedicures (4), and tattoos received at tattoo parlors (5), although few surveillance data have been available for estimating the public health burden of NTM...
August 10, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Shrikala Baliga, Christina Murphy, Leesha Sharon, Suchitra Shenoy, Dhanashree Biranthabail, Helena Weltman, Steve Miller, Ranjan Ramasamy, Jyotsna Shah
OBJECTIVE: In resource-limited tuberculosis-endemic countries, Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum is mainly detected by acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining and the identification of sputum-derived cultures. PCR techniques are practical only in well-resourced laboratories. This study investigated the application of a rapid, simple, and inexpensive fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay to identify and differentiate M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in sputum...
October 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Anna Lombardo, Giuseppa Raitano, Domenico Gadaleta, Emilio Benfenati
Nontesting methods (NTM) proved to be a valuable resource for risk assessment of chemical substances. Indeed, they can be particularly useful when the information provided by different sources was integrated to increase the confidence in the final result. This integration can be sometimes difficult because different methods can lead to conflicting results, and because a clear guideline for integrating information from different sources was not available in the recent past. In this chapter, we present and discuss the recently published guideline from EFSA for integrating and weighting evidence for scientific assessment...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Agnieszka Broda, Vlad Nikolayevskyy, Nicki Casali, Huma Khan, Richard Bowker, Gemma Blackwell, Bhakti Patel, James Hume, Waqar Hussain, Francis Drobniewski
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most deadly infections with approximately a quarter of cases not being identified and/or treated mainly due to a lack of resources. Rapid detection of TB or drug-resistant TB enables timely adequate treatment and is a cornerstone of effective TB management. We evaluated the analytical performance of a single-tube assay for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) on an experimental platform utilising RT-PCR and melting curve analysis that could potentially be operated as a point-of-care (PoC) test in resource-constrained settings with a high burden of TB...
July 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Samira Mohammadi, Bahram Nasr Esfahani, Sharareh Moghim, Hossein Mirhendi, Fatemeh Riyahi Zaniani, Hajieh Ghasemian Safaei, Hossein Fazeli, Mahshid Salehi
Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a group of opportunistic pathogens and these are widely dispersed in water and soil resources. Identification of mycobacteria isolates by conventional methods including biochemical tests, growth rates, colony pigmentation, and presence of acid-fast bacilli is widely used, but these methods are time-consuming, labor-intensive, and may sometimes remain inconclusive. Materials and Methods: The DNA was extracted from NTM cultures using CTAB, Chelex, Chelex + Nonidet P-40, FTA® Elute card, and boiling The quantity and quality of the DNA extracted via these methods were determined using UV-photometer at 260 and 280 nm, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the heat-shock protein 65 gene with serially diluted DNA samples...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
Jason P Rice, Marva Seifert, Kathleen S Moser, Timothy C Rodwell
Performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay, designed to simultaneously detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and rifampin (RIF) resistance, has been well documented in low-resource settings with high TB-incidence. However, few studies have assessed its accuracy in low TB incidence settings. We evaluated the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF using clinical sputum specimens routinely collected from suspect pulmonary TB patients over a 4-year time period in San Diego County, California. Xpert MTB/RIF results were compared to acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy, mycobacterial culture, and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST)...
2017: PloS One
Hee Jung Yoon, Hwa Young Choi, Moran Ki
BACKGROUND: The incidence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections is increasing worldwide, however formal evaluations of the epidemiology of NTM infections are limited. Understanding the trends and true prevalence of NTM is a major priority for optimizing infection control programmes and resources. The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and radiologic findings in NTM-infected patients at specialized Tuberculosis (Tb) treatment centre in South Korea, which is endemic to Tb, and find solutions to control NTM infections...
June 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Vincent Delafont, Ascel Samba-Louaka, Emmanuelle Cambau, Didier Bouchon, Laurent Moulin, Yann Héchard
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are environmental bacteria increasingly associated to public health problems. In water systems, free-living amoebae (FLA) feed on bacteria by phagocytosis, but several bacteria, including many NTM, are resistant to this predation. Thus, FLA can be seen as a training ground for pathogenic bacteria. Mycobacterium llatzerense was previously described as frequently associated with FLA in a drinking water network. The present study aimed to characterize the interactions between M...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rachel Thomson, Ellen Donnan, Anastasios Konstantinos
In Queensland, Australia, all cases of mycobacterial infection (tuberculosis [TB] and nontuberculous mycobacteria [NTM]) are notifiable under the Queensland Public Health Act (2005). This process originally emerged to avoid NTM confounding with notification of cases of TB, but has facilitated awareness of the increasing incidence and changing epidemiology of NTM. Although initially not a public health priority, the notification process has facilitated research that has led to an appreciation of both public health and environmental health issues associated with these pathogens...
March 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Pallavi Sinha, Anamika Gupta, Pradyot Prakash, Shampa Anupurba, Rajneesh Tripathi, G N Srivastava
BACKGROUND: Control of the global burden of tuberculosis is obstructed due to lack of simple, rapid and cost effective diagnostic techniques that can be used in resource poor-settings. To facilitate the early diagnosis of TB directly from clinical specimens, we have standardized and validated the use of nested multiplex PCR, targeting gene fragments IS6110, MTP40 and 32kD α-antigen encoding genes specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and non-tubercular mycobacteria (NTM), in comparison to smear microscopy, solid culture and single step multiplex PCR...
March 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ravikiran M Raju, Sagar M Raju, Yanlin Zhao, Eric J Rubin
The nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), defined as any mycobacterial pathogen other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium leprae, are a diverse group of pathogens that collectively cause a substantive but often unappreciated worldwide burden of illness. Although NTMs may cause illness similar to M. tuberculosis, these pathogens generally do not respond to classic tuberculosis (TB) drug regimens, resulting in misdiagnosis and poor treatment, particularly in resource-poor settings. Although a few high-quality epidemiologic surveys have been made on the topic, existing evidence suggests that NTM-associated disease is much more common than previously thought: more common than TB in the industrialized world and likely increasing in prevalence globally...
March 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Benjamin J Garcia, Gargi Datta, Rebecca M Davidson, Michael Strong
BACKGROUND: Central to most omic scale experiments is the interpretation and examination of resulting gene lists corresponding to differentially expressed, regulated, or observed gene or protein sets. Complicating interpretation is a lack of functional annotation assigned to a large percentage of many microbial genomes. This is particularly noticeable in mycobacterial genomes, which are significantly divergent from many of the microbial model species used for gene and protein functional characterization, but which are extremely important clinically...
2015: BMC Genomics
Kaustuv Nayak, Lichen Jing, Ronnie M Russell, D Huw Davies, Gary Hermanson, Douglas M Molina, Xiaowu Liang, David R Sherman, William W Kwok, Junbao Yang, John Kenneth, Syed F Ahamed, Anmol Chandele, Kaja Murali-Krishna, David M Koelle
Elicitation of CD4 IFN-gamma T cell responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a rational vaccine strategy to prevent clinical tuberculosis. Diagnosis of MTB infection is based on T-cell immune memory to MTB antigens. The MTB proteome contains over four thousand open reading frames (ORFs). We conducted a pilot antigen identification study using 164 MTB proteins and MTB-specific T-cells expanded in vitro from 12 persons with latent MTB infection. Enrichment of MTB-reactive T-cells from PBMC used cell sorting or an alternate system compatible with limited resources...
May 2015: Tuberculosis
Alfred C Nwofor, Amaase Nyamngee, Charles Nwabuisi, Mosunmola Iwakun, Masur Gidado, Charles Mensah, Patrick Dakum, Oladjide O Agbede, Nicaise Ndembi, William A Blattner, Alashle G Abimiku
BACKGROUND: Performance of Genotype MTBDRplus assay against Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) proportion method of Drug Susceptibility Testing (DST) in detection of resistance among clinical mycobacteria isolates to rifampicin (RMP) and isoniazid (INH) was evaluated in Ilorin, Nigeria. METHODS: This retrospective study characterized one hundred mycobacteria isolates from pulmonary TB patients, stored on LJ medium and subcultured unto fresh LJ slants before being genotyped using MTBDRplus assay...
2015: Current HIV Research
Elisa López-Varela, Alberto L García-Basteiro, Begoña Santiago, Dirk Wagner, Jakko van Ingen, Beate Kampmann
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a large family of acid-fast bacteria, widespread in the environment. In children, NTM cause lymphadenitis, skin and soft tissue infections, and occasionally also lung disease and disseminated infections. These manifestations can be indistinguishable from tuberculosis on the basis of clinical and radiological findings and tuberculin skin testing. A diagnostic and therapeutic problem for respiratory physicians and other clinicians is therefore evident, particularly in settings where childhood tuberculosis is common, and bacteriological confirmation of any mycobacterial disease is difficult because of low availability of laboratory services in low-resource settings and the inherent paucibacillary nature of mycobacterial disease in childhood...
March 2015: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Ali Akbar Velayati, Parissa Farnia, Mohadese Mozafari, Donya Malekshahian, Shima Seif, Snaz Rahideh, Mehdi Mirsaeidi
INTRODUCTION: While NTM infection is mainly acquired from environmental exposure, monitoring of environmental niches for NTM is not a routine practice. This study aimed to find the prevalence of environmental NTM in soil and water in four highly populated suburbs of Tehran, Iran. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 4014 samples from soil and water resources were collected and studied. Sediments of each treated sample were cultured in Lowenstein-Jensen medium and observed twice per week for growth rate, colony morphology, and pigmentation...
2014: PloS One
Akira Watanabe, Munehiko Morishita
The status of tuberculosis (TB) in Japan was changed to decline and decreased dramatically after The World War II with the great nationwide efforts. Along with the decrease of TB people's attentions to tuberculosis has been reducing significantly, including the medical personnel. In the 1990s, TB returned to increase again, then Emergency Declaration against TB by Minister of Health and Welfare in 1999 drew the public attentions to TB again. Unfortunately, however, there have been many hospitals that cannot deal with TB properly...
December 2013: Kekkaku: [Tuberculosis]
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