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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30722061/newly-identified-sleep-wake-and-circadian-circuits-as-potential-therapeutic-targets
#1
Anne Venner, William D Todd, Jimmy Fraigne, Hannah Bowrey, Ada Eban-Rothschild, Satvinder Kaur, Christelle Anaclet
Optogenetics and chemogenetics are powerful tools, allowing the specific activation or inhibition of targeted neuronal sub-populations. Application of these techniques to sleep and circadian research has resulted in the unveiling of several neuronal populations that are involved in sleep-wake control, and allowed a comprehensive interrogation of the circuitry through which these nodes are coordinated to orchestrate the sleep-wake cycle. In this review, we discuss six recently described sleep-wake and circadian circuits that show promise as therapeutic targets for sleep medicine...
February 5, 2019: Sleep
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30685848/the-association-between-obstructive-sleep-apnea-during-rem-sleep-and-autonomic-dysfunction-as-measured-by-heart-rate-variability
#2
Seong Min Oh, Sang Ho Choi, Hyun Jik Kim, Kwang Suk Park, Yu Jin Lee
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep on autonomic dysfunction using heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. METHODS: The medical records of adults who underwent nocturnal polysomnography at the Sleep and Chronobiology Center at Seoul National University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. HRV parameters (mean RR interval, the standard deviation of all normal RR intervals [SDNN], square root of the mean squared differences of adjacent RR intervals [RMSSD], normalized low frequency [LF], normalized high frequency [HF], and the ratio of LF to HF [LF/HF]) were measured in 5-min electrocardiogram recordings obtained during W, N2, and R sleep stages...
January 26, 2019: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30665173/apnea-hypopnea-indices-categorized-by-rem-nrem-sleep-and-sleep-positions-in-100-children-with-adenotonsillectomy-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea-disease
#3
Asuka Nagao, Masahiro Komori, Taihei Kajiyama, Mutsumi Shimasaki, Daigo Hirakawa, Taisuke Kobayashi, Masamitsu Hyodo
OBJECTIVES: In pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the relationship between rapid eye movement sleep and upper airway collapse, and between sleep position and airway dimensions are well known. However, the interrelations between these factors and the obstructive apnea hypopnea index (O-AHI) have not been thoroughly investigated. METHODS: A retrospective study including 100 children who underwent adenotonsillectomy between March 2010 and July 2017. Total O-AHI was divided into four subcategories by sleep stage and position...
January 12, 2019: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649360/apnea-hypopnea-index-during-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-with-diabetic-retinopathy-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#4
Akihiro Nishimura, Takatoshi Kasai, Shota Kikuno, Kaoru Nagasawa, Minoru Okubo, Koji Narui, Yasumichi Mori
Context: Recent studies based on home sleep apnea testing (HSAT) reported the potential association of sleep disordered breathing (SDB), such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), with diabetic retinopathy (DR). A few studies showed that the apnea hypopnea index during rapid eye movement sleep (REM-AHI) is associated with glycated hemoglobin and hypertension, two known risk factors for DR. However, there are no studies that have evaluated the association of REM-AHI with DR because previous studies were based on HSAT...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30605946/-chinese-expert-consensus-on-the-assessment-and-management-of-stroke-related-sleep-disorders
#5
(no author information available yet)
Stroke-related sleep disorders (SSD) are common symptoms after stroke, which are common but easily ignored. Studies have shown that sleep disorders in stroke patients would have negative impact on prognosis. However, there is still a lack of consensus and guidance on SSD evaluation and management worldwide. This consensus proposes the concept of SSD based on systemic literature review and discussion with experts. It comprises recommendations of assessment and management for all types of SSD, including insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep apnea, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder, restless leg syndrome/periodic limb movements of sleep, circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders...
January 1, 2019: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30580194/structural-and-functional-brain-alterations-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#6
Xiao Huang, Shi Tang, Xiaojun Lyu, Changqiang Yang, Xiaoping Chen
OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disease with high prevalence, which reportedly influences our eyes, brain, cardiovascular system and endocrine metabolism system. Much of these symptoms are thought to be associated with damage to the brain. However, the basic neural pathophysiologic mechanism underlying these deficits is unclear. In this study, we investigate the specific and common neurostructural/functional abnormalities in OSA patients comparing with healthy people by conducting separate and multimodal meta-analysis of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies...
October 28, 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30578096/self-reporting-versus-clinical-scrutiny-the-value-of-adding-questionnaires-to-the-routine-evaluation-of-seizure-disorders-an-exploratory-study-on-the-differential-diagnosis-between-epilepsy-and-psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures
#7
Elisa Bianchi, Giuseppe Erba, Ettore Beghi, Giorgia Giussani
Questionnaires or symptom lists have proved effective for differentiating epileptic seizures (ES) from psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). However, monitoring the events, corroborated by medical history gathered by experts, remains the gold standard. We directly compared symptoms and characteristic of the events self-reported by patients/eyewitnesses (Questionnaire A/B) with the information contained in the clinical charts of 50 patients with undefined diagnosis undergoing long-term monitoring. Data extracted from medical records were reformatted to fit the questionnaires' templates (A1/B1) for comparison...
December 18, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30573797/marfan-syndrome-improved-clinical-history-results-in-expanded-natural-history
#8
REVIEW
Reed E Pyeritz
Life expectancy for a person with Marfan syndrome has essentially doubled over the past four decades. During this period, the clinical histories of the organs managed routinely have improved, and will continue to be. Prominent examples are the eyes, the heart and aorta, and some features of the skeletal system. Meanwhile, the natural histories of organ systems that have not been subjected to treatment need to be described. This is particularly important as due to the improved life span many symptoms and organ systems are only recently being recognized as being intrinsic to Marfan syndrome...
December 21, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30554324/association-between-rem-sleep-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-obese-and-overweight-adolescents
#9
Orna Sever, Eric J Kezirian, Emily Gillett, Sally L Davidson Ward, Michael Khoo, Iris A Perez
PURPOSE: Overweight and obese children have demonstrated reduced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, affecting energy balance regulation and predisposition to weight gain. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a known cause of decreased REM sleep. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between the percentage of REM sleep, BMI z-score, and OSA severity in overweight and obese adolescents. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 92 (43% female) overweight and obese adolescents (13-17 years old) who underwent overnight polysomnography (PSG) at Children's Hospital Los Angeles between 2010 and 2017...
December 15, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30553182/protective-effects-of-rem-sleep-without-atonia-against-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-patients-with-idiopathic-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#10
Sungyang Jo, Hyun-Woo Kim, Ji Ye Jeon, Sang-Ahm Lee
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the protective effect of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia against obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). METHODS: In this case-control study, patients with idiopathic RBD and OSA (RBD-OSA) were consecutively enrolled and OSA controls without RBD were matched for age, sex, and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Clinical and polysomnographic characteristics were compared between RBD-OSA patients and OSA controls...
November 19, 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30539310/evaluation-of-retinal-vasculature-before-and-after-treatment-of-children-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-hypopnea-syndrome-by-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#11
Haiyun Ye, Ce Zheng, Xiaoping Lan, Limin Zhao, Tong Qiao, Xiaoyan Li, Yidan Zhang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of adenoidectomy on the brains of children with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAS) through observation of the alteration of retinal perfusion by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: Sixty-two children with OSAS (124 eyes; 5.94 ± 1.64 years old; 53.2% boys) were enrolled in this study. Their retinal vascular network density indices, including vascular diameter (VD), vascular area density (VAD), vessel skeleton density (VSD), vessel perimeter index (VPI) on the macular superficial/deep capillary plexus (SCP/DCP), and the size of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) were analyzed by OCTA before treatment and at 1 month after the adenoidectomy...
December 12, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30529776/obstructive-events-in-children-with-prader-willi-syndrome-occur-predominantly-during-rapid-eye-movement-sleep
#12
Anastasia Polytarchou, Georgia Katsouli, Marina Tsaoussoglou, Evangelia Charmandari, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, George Chrousos, Athanasios G Kaditis
OBJECTIVE: Children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) have a high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). In most typically developing children with OSAS, more obstructive apneas and hypopneas occur during rapid eye movement (REM) than during non-REM (NREM) sleep. It was hypothesized that patients with PWS are even more prone to obstructive events in REM sleep than otherwise healthy subjects with OSAS. METHODS: Polysomnographic data of patients with PWS and of typically developing children (controls) with OSAS (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] > 1 episode/h) were analyzed...
October 28, 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30523556/a-false-alarm-of-narcolepsy-obstructive-sleep-apnea-masquerading-as-narcolepsy-and-depression
#13
Dhirendra Paudel, Qiuyan Lin, Caiping Yan, Shuai Liu, Bin Zhang
PURPOSE: We report a case with symptoms and signs of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), depression, and narcolepsy. Polysomnographic (PSG) and multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) findings, clinical characteristics, and diagnostic challenges in this case are discussed. METHODS: A 23-year-old single male presented with excessive daytime sleepiness, low mood, lack of energy, and snoring for 3 years. In addition, he reported excessive weight gain, lack of interest in work, partial loss of muscle tone during excitations, and sleep attacks during work and driving...
December 6, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30481819/sleep-disorders-are-a-prevalent-and-serious-comorbidity-in-dry-eye
#14
Masahiko Ayaki, Kazuo Tsubota, Motoko Kawashima, Taishiro Kishimoto, Masaru Mimura, Kazuno Negishi
Purpose: Sleep is an essential life habit and closely associated with lifespan, diabetes, hypertension, and mental health. Sleep disorders are a prominent, but overlooked problem in patients with dry eye disease (DED), characterized by a poor sleep index, short sleep duration, long sleep latency, and poor subjective sleep. DED and sleep disorders are more prevalent in women than men. Moreover, sleep quality in DED is worse than in other eye diseases, including glaucoma, retinal diseases, cataract, and allergic and chronic conjunctivitis...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30473978/sleep-related-eating-disorder-in-a-patient-with-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Harleen Kaur, Muhammad Umair Jahngir, Junaid H Siddiqui
Sleep disorders constitute a major aspect of the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorders are the most frequently experienced parasomnias in patients with PD. Non-REM sleep disorders like confusional arousals, sleep terrors, sleepwalking, and sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) are also associated with PD. Parasomnias can affect the quality of life of the patients as well as the night time sleep of their bed partners. Hence, it is important for physicians to recognize the occurrence of parasomnias in PD...
September 22, 2018: Curēus
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30465610/obstructive-sleep-apnea-during-rem-sleep-and-daytime-cerebral-functioning-a-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-study-using-high-resolution-spect
#16
Andrée-Ann Baril, Katia Gagnon, Pauline Brayet, Jacques Montplaisir, Julie Carrier, Jean-Paul Soucy, Chantal Lafond, Hélène Blais, Caroline d'Aragon, Jean-François Gagnon, Nadia Gosselin
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) predominantly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep may have impacts on brain health, even in milder OSA cases. Here, we evaluated whether REM sleep OSA is associated with abnormal daytime cerebral functioning using high-resolution single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We tested 96 subjects (25 F, age: 65.2 ± 6.4) with a wide range of OSA severity from no OSA to severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index: 0-97 events/h). More respiratory events during REM sleep were associated with reduced daytime regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortex and in the right insula extending to the frontal cortex...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30464446/nasal-high-flow-but-not-supplemental-o-2-reduces-peripheral-vascular-sympathetic-activity-during-sleep-in-copd-patients
#17
K Fricke, H Schneider, P Biselli, N N Hansel, Z G Zhang, M O Sowho, L Grote
Introduction: Patients with COPD have increased respiratory loads and altered blood gases, both of which affect vascular function and sympathetic activity. Sleep, particularly rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, is known to exacerbate hypoxia and respiratory loads. Therefore, we hypothesize that nasal high flow (NHF), which lowers ventilatory loads, reduces sympathetic activity during sleep and that this effect depends on COPD severity. Methods: We performed full polysomnography in COPD patients (n=17; FEV1 , 1...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30457643/effect-of-therapy-on-choroidal-thickness-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome
#18
Hasim Uslu, Ayşe Yağmur Kanra, Gulgun Cetintas, Mehmet Gurkan Tatar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on choroidal thickness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty distinct eyes of 30 patients with OSAS were evaluated right before and 12 months after CPAP treatment in this prospective observational study. Choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea and with periodic intervals of 500 µm from the foveal center in both temporal and nasal directions using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in enhanced depth imaging mode...
November 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30440284/sleep-posture-classification-using-a-convolutional-neural-network
#19
Sara Mahvash Mohammadi, Majdi Alnowami, Sofia Khan, Derk-Jan Dijk, Adrian Hilton, Kevin Wells
Sleep is a process of rest and renewal that is vital for humans. However, there are several sleep disorders such as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD), sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome (RLS) that can have an impact on a significant portion of the population. These disorders are known to be associated with particular behaviours such as specific body positions and movements. Clinical diagnosis requires patients to undergo polysomnography (PSG) in a sleep unit as a gold standard assessment...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30354806/associations-between-characteristics-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-nocturnal-blood-pressure-surge
#20
Nobuo Sasaki, Michiaki Nagai, Hiroyuki Mizuno, Mitsuo Kuwabara, Satoshi Hoshide, Kazuomi Kario
Research suggests that oxygen desaturation and sleep stage during obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are related to the magnitude of high blood pressure (BP) in a laboratory setting. However, in a clinical setting, these associations have not been well studied. We used a noninvasive oscillometric BP measurement device to investigate the association between oxygen-triggered BP levels at the end of each OSA episode and the characteristics of the preceding OSA episode. In 42 newly diagnosed OSA patients (average age, 63...
November 2018: Hypertension
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