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High content imaging

Mingliang Pei, Guoping Li, Kangwei Ma, Jianan Li, Yuanfan Wang, Peng Liu
Theranostic nanoplatforms have been recognized for imaging-guided diagnosis and chemotherapy of cancer by integrating imaging function into the drug delivery systems (DDSs). Here, a facile approach was developed for the fabrication of polymeric prodrug microspheres by introducing pH sensitive "off-on" fluorochrome Rhodamine 6G into bioreducible cleavable bisulfide crosslinked PEGylated poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PEG-PGMA) microspheres, followed with chemical conjugation of doxorubicin (DOX) via an acid-labile hydrazone linkage...
February 4, 2019: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Akira Takeiri, Kaori Matsuzaki, Shigeki Motoyama, Mariko Yano, Asako Harada, Chiaki Katoh, Kenji Tanaka, Masayuki Mishima
Background: The in vitro micronucleus (MN) test is an important component of a genotoxicity test battery that evaluates chemicals. Although the standard method of manually scoring micronucleated (MNed) cells by microscope is a reliable and standard method, it is laborious and time-consuming. A high-throughput assay system for detecting MN cells automatically has long been desired in the fields of pharmaceutical development or environmental risk monitoring. Although the MN test per se cannot clarify whether the mode of MN induction is aneugenic or clastogenic, this clarification may well be made possible by combining the MN test with an evaluation of γH2AX, a sensitive marker of DNA double strand breaks (DSB)...
2019: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
Yosuke Namba, Akihiko Oshita, Takashi Nishisaka, Maiko Namba, Tamito Sasaki, Yasuhiro Matsugu, Toshiyuki Itamoto
INTRODUCTION: A lymphoepithelial cyst (LEC) of the pancreas is a benign and rare lesion that is difficult to diagnose preoperatively based on imaging studies. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case of a 49-year-old man who presented with weight loss and diarrhea. The serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels were slightly elevated to 6.7 ng/mL (reference value <5.0 ng/mL) and 45 U/mL (reference value <37 U/mL), respectively...
January 30, 2019: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Bruno Henriques, Francesca Coppola, Rui Monteiro, João Pinto, Thainara Viana, Carlo Pretti, Amadeu Soares, Rosa Freitas, Eduarda Pereira
Recently, anthropogenic enrichment of rare earth elements (REEs) have been reported in natural environments, due to increasing use and discharges of hospital/industrial wastewaters. Gadolinium (Gd), which is mainly used as contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging in medical exams, may reach concentrations in water up to two orders of magnitude larger than baseline levels. Nevertheless, in marine systems scarce information is available concerning the toxicity of REE towards inhabiting organisms. This study aimed to evaluate the biochemical impact of anthropogenic Gd in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, which is a species of commercial interest and one of the most accepted pollution bioindicator...
January 27, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Julia Herzen, Dimitrios C Karampinos, Peter Foehr, Lorenz Birnbacher, Manuel Viermetz, Rainer Burgkart, Thomas Baum, Fabian Lohoefer, Moritz Wildgruber, Franz Schilling, Marian Willner, Mathias Marschner, Peter B Noël, Ernst J Rummeny, Franz Pfeiffer, Pia M Jungmann
OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was, to demonstrate the feasibility of high-resolution grating-based X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography (PCCT) for quantitative assessment of cartilage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an experimental setup, 12 osteochondral samples were harvested from n = 6 bovine knees (n = 2 each). From each knee, one cartilage sample was degraded using 2.5% Trypsin. In addition to PCCT and biomechanical cartilage stiffness measurements, 3T and 7T MRI was performed including MSME SE T2 and ME GE T2* mapping sequences for relaxationtime measurements...
2019: PloS One
Wei Zhang, Guanbin Li, Haoyu Ma, Yizhou Yu
Recent advances in deep learning based algorithms have made it feasible to transfer image styles from an example image to other images. However, it is still hard to transfer the style of color sketches due to their unique texture statistics. In this paper, an automatic color sketch generation system is developed from existing real-time style transfer methods. We choose a suitable image from a set of carefully selected color sketch examples as the style target for every content image during training. We also propose a novel style transfer CNN with spatial refinement to realize high-resolution style transfer...
February 12, 2019: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Aaryani Tipirneni-Sajja, Axel J Krafft, Ralf B Loeffler, Ruitian Song, Armita Bahrami, Jane S Hankins, Claudia M Hillenbrand
BACKGROUND: Measuring hepatic R2* by fitting a monoexponential model to the signal decay of a multigradient-echo (mGRE) sequence noninvasively determines hepatic iron content (HIC). Concurrent hepatic steatosis introduces signal oscillations and confounds R2* quantification with standard monoexponential models. PURPOSE: To evaluate an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model for accurate quantification of HIC in the presence of fat using biopsy as the reference...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Paru Patrawalla, Mangala Narasimhan, Lewis Eisen, Ariel L Shiloh, Seth Koenig, Paul Mayo
OBJECTIVE: Training in critical care ultrasonography is an essential tool in critical care medicine and recommended for fellowship programs in pulmonary and critical care medicine. Major barriers to implementing competency-based training in individual fellowship programs include a lack of expert faculty, time, and funding. Our objective was to investigate whether regional collaboration to deliver an introductory critical care ultrasonography course for fellows might overcome these barriers while achieving international training standards...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Margit Bristela, Astrid Skolka, Jaryna Eder, Pavol Szomolanyi, Michael Weber, Eva Piehslinger, Martina Schmid-Schwap, Siegfried Trattnig
INTRODUCTION: T2 mapping, as a quantitative biochemical MRI-technique that provides information on water and collagen fiber content and composition, was shown to be clinically feasible for the evaluation of healthy temporomandibular joints. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to compare the T2 values of whole discs in patients with and without disc dislocation, to evaluate the possible influence of morphological findings on T2 values and to assess the interrater agreement...
February 9, 2019: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Gessica Marchini, Silvia Carnevali, Fabrizio Facchinetti
Cigarette smokers with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are less responsive to glucocorticoids (GCs). The anti-inflammatory action of GCs depends also on their ability to transactivate genes such as GC-induced leucine zipper (GILZ). We investigated the effects of aqueous cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on GILZ transactivation evoked by 17-beclomethasone monopropionate (BMP) or fluticasone propionate (FP) in the presence or absence of the long acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA) bronchodilator formoterol or salmeterol in human primary cultures of human bronchial smooth muscle cells (HBSMC)...
February 9, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Dana A Cavallo, Grace Kong, Daniel M Ells, Deepa R Camenga, Meghan E Morean, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
Rates of e-cigarette use are high among youth, and there is little known about the long-term health effects of e-cigarettes. Since peer influence is a powerful determinant of tobacco use, we aimed to identify message themes about e-cigarettes that youth would use to encourage or discourage peers from using e-cigarettes. We conducted 10 focus groups (N = 69) with non-smokers and smokers from one middle school, high school and college in Connecticut. Participants engaged in a discussion about e-cigarettes, and each participant created one written message to encourage e-cigarette use and one to discourage use among peers...
February 8, 2019: Health Education Research
Naoaki Kunishima, Kotaro Tani, Osamu Kurihara, Eunjoo Kim, Takashi Nakano, Riwa Kishimoto, Hiroki Tsuchiya, Tokuhiko Omatsu, Hideo Tatsuzaki, Takako Tominaga, Sadahiro Watanabe, Nobuhito Ishigure, Makoto Akashi
As a response to the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011, seven TEPCO workers whose exposure doses were expected to be >250 mSv (a tentative dose limit stipulated by the Japanese central authority) attended Japan's National Institute for Radiological Sciences for additional internal dose measurements. The National Institute for Radiological Sciences examination revealed that these workers' internal doses came mainly from their intake of the radionuclide I during emergency operations...
February 9, 2019: Health Physics
Francesco Ciodaro, Francesco Freni, Valentina Katia Mannella, Francesco Gazia, Annunziata Maceri, Rocco Bruno, Bruno Galletti, Francesco Galletti
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the advantages of 3D volume rendering in postoperative control of implants placement compared to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). CASE REPORT We describe 3 patients who underwent HRCT study with and without 3D volume rendering after surgery for cochlear implantation. In 2 patients, the traditional HRCT showed a suspected malposition of the array, excluded only by the rendering reconstruction. In the other patient, thanks to the 3D rendering, we were able to identify the complete migration of the array out of the cochlea and the tip of the electrode near the opening of internal auditory canal, while the traditional images showed only that the array was not rolled up inside the cochlea...
February 12, 2019: American Journal of Case Reports
Daniel Fisch, Artur Yakimovich, Barbara Clough, Joseph Wright, Monique Bunyan, Michael Howell, Jason Mercer, Eva Frickel
For image-based infection biology, accurate unbiased quantification of host-pathogen interactions is essential, yet often performed manually or using limited enumeration employing simple image analysis algorithms based on image segmentation. Host protein recruitment to pathogens is often refractory to accurate automated assessment due to its heterogeneous nature. An intuitive intelligent image analysis program to assess host protein recruitment within general cellular pathogen defense is lacking. We present HRMAn (Host Response to Microbe Analysis), an open-source image analysis platform based on machine learning algorithms and deep learning...
February 12, 2019: ELife
Ana B Castro, Simone Cortellini, Andy Temmerman, Xin Li, Nelson Pinto, Wim Teughels, Marc Quirynen
PURPOSE: The leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin block (L-PRF block) is a composite graft that combines a xenograft that is acting as a scaffold with L-PRF membranes that serve as a bioactive nodule with osteoinductive capacity. This study evaluated the properties of the L-PRF block and its components in terms of release of growth factors, cellular content, and structure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The concentration of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB) and bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP-1) released by a L-PRF membrane (mb) and a L-PRF block were examined with ELISA for five time intervals (0 to 4 hours, 4 hours to 1 day, 1 to 3 days, 3 to 7 days, 7 to 14 days)...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Toshiyuki Mori, Makoto Hirai, Toshihiro Mita
Although it is known that malaria parasites proliferate in the midgut of mosquito vector, their detailed behaviors, from gamete maturation to formation of next generation sporozoite, have not been fully understood at cellular or molecular level. This is mainly attributed to technical difficulties of dissection and whole-mount observation, of delicate and opaque mosquito body contents. In addition, blood pigment surrounding parasites immediately after blood meal also complicates tracing mosquito-stage parasites...
February 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
Ken Nishimura, Hiroshi Ishiwata, Yuta Sakuragi, Yohei Hayashi, Aya Fukuda, Koji Hisatake
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have various degrees of pluripotency, which necessitates selection of PSCs with high pluripotency before their application to regenerative medicine. However, the quality control processes for PSCs are costly and time-consuming, and it is essential to develop inexpensive and less laborious selection methods for translation of PSCs into clinical applications. Here we developed an imaging system, termed Phase Distribution (PD) imaging system, which visualizes subcellular structures quantitatively in unstained and unlabeled cells...
February 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
Mohammad A Ghane, Dina W Yakout, Angela M Mabb
Postsynaptic trafficking of receptors to and from the cell surface is an important mechanism by which neurons modulate their responsiveness to different stimuli. The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, which are responsible for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in neurons, are trafficked to and from the postsynaptic surface to dynamically alter neuronal excitability. AMPA receptor trafficking is essential for synaptic plasticity and can be disrupted in neurological disease...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Pei Liu, Jinghua Ren, Yuxuan Xiong, Zhe Yang, Wei Zhu, Qianyuan He, Zushun Xu, Wenshan He, Jing Wang
Mitochondria, which are a major source of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and apoptosis regulators, are the key organelles that promote tumor cell proliferation, and their dysfunction affects tumor cell behavior. Additionally, mitochondria have been shown to play a central role in the biosynthesis of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), which is a widely used photosensitizer that has been used for tumor detection, monitoring and photodynamic therapy. Nevertheless, photosensitizers administrated exogenously are often restricted by limited bioavailability...
February 2, 2019: Biomaterials
Yan-Wen Bao, Xian-Wu Hua, Yan-Hong Li, Hao-Ran Jia, Fu-Gen Wu
Lysosomal entrapment and liver accumulation are the two main obstacles faced by many anticancer drugs for achieving satisfactory therapeutic outcomes. Here, we develop a facile one-step hydrothermal synthetic route to prepare trace metal (M)-, N-, and O-doped carbon-dominated nanoparticles (termed as MNOCNPs, M = Ni, Pd, or Cu, metal content: < 0.1 mol %) with exceptional photothermal properties (e.g., the ultrahigh extinction coefficient of 32.7 L g-1 cm-1 ), which can simultaneously realize preferable endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeting and specific tumor enrichment without noticeable liver accumulation after poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugation...
February 5, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
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