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Neurologic Manifestation HIV AIDS

Elena Chiappini, Martina Bianconi, Annalisa Dalzini, Maria Raffaella Petrara, Luisa Galli, Carlo Giaquinto, Anita De Rossi
BACKGROUND: Premature aging and related diseases have been documented in HIV-infected adults. Data are now emerging also regarding accelerated aging process in HIV-infected children. METHODS: A narrative review was performed searching studies on PubMed published in English language in 2004-2017, using appropriate key words, including "aging", "children", "HIV", "AIDS", "immunosenescence", "pathogenesis", "clinical conditions"...
November 11, 2018: Aging
Mvr Ratnam, Abhishek Singh Nayyar, D Santhosh Reddy, B Ruparani, K V Chalapathi, Sania Md Azmi
Context: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an acronym for AIDS caused by a retrovirus known as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which breaks down the body's immune system leaving a patient vulnerable to a host of life-threatening opportunistic infections, neurological disorders or unusual malignancies. According to estimates by the World Health Organization and UNAIDS, 35 million people were living with HIV globally at the end of 2013. The first AIDS case in India was detected in 1986...
May 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Craig Miller, Zaid Abdo, Aaron Ericsson, John Elder, Sue VandeWoude
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally-occurring retrovirus that infects domestic and non-domestic feline species, producing progressive immune depletion that results in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Much has been learned about FIV since it was first described in 1987, particularly in regard to its application as a model to study the closely related lentivirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In particular, FIV and HIV share remarkable structure and sequence organization, utilize parallel modes of receptor-mediated entry, and result in a similar spectrum of immunodeficiency-related diseases due to analogous modes of immune dysfunction...
April 20, 2018: Viruses
Denise C Hsu, Piyanate Sunyakumthorn, Matthew Wegner, Alexandra Schuetz, Decha Silsorn, Jacob D Estes, Claire Deleage, Khamis Tomusange, Samir K Lakhashe, Ruth M Ruprecht, Eric Lombardini, Rawiwan Im-Erbsin, Yanin Kuncharin, Yuwadee Phuang-Ngern, Dutsadee Inthawong, Weerawan Chuenarom, Robin Burke, Merlin L Robb, Lishomwa C Ndhlovu, Jintanat Ananworanich, Victor Valcour, Robert J O'Connell, Serena Spudich, Nelson L Michael, Sandhya Vasan
Studies utilizing highly pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) have largely focused on the immunopathology of the central nervous system (CNS) during end-stage neurological AIDS and SIV encephalitis. However, this may not model pathophysiology in earlier stages of infection. In this nonaccelerated SHIV model, plasma SHIV RNA levels and peripheral blood and colonic CD4+ T cell counts mirrored early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Virology
Yasmin Zeinolabediny, Francesca Caccuri, Laura Colombo, Federica Morelli, Margherita Romeo, Alessandro Rossi, Silvia Schiarea, Carlotta Ciaramelli, Cristina Airoldi, Ria Weston, Liu Donghui, Jerzy Krupinski, Rubén Corpas, Elisa García-Lara, Sara Sarroca, Coral Sanfeliu, Mark Slevin, Arnaldo Caruso, Mario Salmona, Luisa Diomede
Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains an important neurological manifestation that adversely affects a patient's quality of life. HIV-1 matrix protein p17 (p17) has been detected in autoptic brain tissue of HAND individuals who presented early with severe AIDS encephalopathy. We hypothesised that the ability of p17 to misfold may result in the generation of toxic assemblies in the brain and may be relevant for HAND pathogenesis. A multidisciplinary integrated approach has been applied to determine the ability of p17 to form soluble amyloidogenic assemblies in vitro...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
A D Mathur, S Devesh
INTRODUCTION: There are conflicting reports in literature about correlation of CSF viral RNA levels with neurological manifestations in HIV positive patients. Many studies in animals and human subjects have shown that CSF HIV-1 RNA can be useful as a specific marker of HIV induced neuropathology. To the contrary there are studies which show that neurological disease states can occur in absence of significant increase of CSF HIV RNA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted at Base hospital Delhi Cantt, New Delhi, a tertiary care hospitals for HIV patients...
August 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Pavol Beno, Alzbeta Kaiglova, Martin Samohyl
HIV Infection resulting in AIDS remains serious global public health problem. In the fight with the global health problem plays a key role a simple, reliable and fast diagnostics. An important method in diagnostics is the identification and detection of viral capside p24 antigen levels. Fourth generation tests for the diagnostics of HIV infection simultaneously detect the presence of HIV antibodies and p24 antigen. Based on the monitoring of CD4 count, we can estimate the stage in which the infection is, and we can also suggest a therapeutic approach...
January 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Shri Ram Sharma, Masaraf Hussain, Hibu Habung
BACKGROUND: The nervous system is among the most frequent and serious targets of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The infection usually occurs in patients with profound immunosuppression. In 10 - 20% of the patients, the presence of a neurological disease is the first manifestation of symptomatic HIV infection. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: Despite the wide prevalence of neurological manifestations in HIV, there is no study examining the clinical manifestations of this disease in the resource- limited communities from north-eastern parts of India...
January 2017: Neurology India
Veronika Schmidt, Christian Kositz, Karl-Heinz Herbinger, Hélène Carabin, Bernard Ngowi, Ezra Naman, Patricia P Wilkins, John Noh, William Matuja, Andrea Sylvia Winkler
BACKGROUND: The frequency of Taenia solium, a zoonotic helminth, is increasing in many countries of sub-Saharan Africa, where the prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also high. However, little is known about how these two infections interact. The aim of this study was to compare the proportion of HIV positive (+) and negative (-) individuals who are infected with Taenia solium (TSOL) and who present with clinical and neurological manifestations of cysticercosis (CC)...
December 1, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Leah T Le, Serena S Spudich
Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV has transformed from a fatal disease to a chronic illness that often presents with milder central nervous system (CNS) symptoms laced with related confounders. The immune recovery associated with access to cART has led to a new spectrum of immune-mediated presentations of infection, phenotypically distinct from the conditions observed in advanced disease.HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) entails a categorized continuum of disorders reflecting an array of clinical presentation, outcome, and increasing level of severity: asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD)...
August 2016: Seminars in Neurology
Hyun Joo Park, Chin Saeng Cho, Nak Min Kim, Su A Yun, Hee Jung Yoon
The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections continue to increase throughout the world. Although neurologic complications are frequent in individuals with HIV infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), vestibulocochlear neuritis is still a relatively rare manifestation. We report the first case of vestibulocochlear neuritis occurring in an AIDS patient in Korea.
June 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
Virendra Chandrashekhar Patil, Harsha V Patil
BACKGROUND: AIDS has become chronic illness which is well treated with antiretroviral therapy and management of opportunistic infections (OIs). AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The study clinical profile and outcome of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was retrospective observational study carried out over a period of 1 year (January 2011-December 2011). All HIV patients admitted in medicine ward, and ICU were enrolled...
January 2016: Indian journal of sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS
Yu Cai, Lu Yang, Shannon Callen, Shilpa Buch
BACKGROUND: While the advancement of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has transformed the course of HIV/AIDS from a death sentence to a manageable chronic condition, the prevalence of a constellation of neurological disorders collectively termed as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continues to persist in these patients. HAND is characterized by cognitive dysfunction, depression, impaired memory and/or deficits in motor skills. The underlying factors leading to HAND have been the subject of extensive research and are thought to be associated with HIV infection in the CNS combined with robust immune activation of resident cells of the CNS...
2016: Current HIV Research
Elyse J Singer, April D Thames
Behavioral disorders are common in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The differential includes preexisting psychiatric diseases, substance abuse, direct effects of HIV infection, opportunistic infection, and the adverse effects of medical therapies. Many patients have more than one contributing or comorbid problem to explain these behavioral changes. The differential should always include consideration of psychosocial, genetic, and medical causes of disease. Treatment strategies must take into account the coadministration of antiretroviral therapy and the specific neurologic problems common in patients infected with HIV...
February 2016: Neurologic Clinics
Dana Cozzetto, Gonzalo Ballon-Landa
We report on a rare case of foot and ankle clonus as the initial presentation of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a young patient with no known history of HIV or AIDS and no significant past medical or social history. The patient came to the emergency department with a chief complaint of muscle spasms in his lower extremities and unsteadiness in gait. The patient was diagnosed as having bilateral ankle clonus. Work-up revealed an absolute lymphocyte CD4+ count of 18, an HIV viral load of 1,690,000, and a positive John Cunningham virus polymerase chain reaction in the cerebral spinal fluid, indicating that the patient had progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and AIDS...
September 2014: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Ned Sacktor, Kevin Robertson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the changes in the presentation of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) comparing the current combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) treatment era to the pre-cART era. RECENT FINDINGS: The frequency of the most severe stage of HAND, HIV-associated dementia (HAD), has decreased, but the frequencies of milder stages of HAND, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disorder, have increased. In the pre-cART era, HAD was a progressive disorder leading to death within months...
November 2014: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Michael J Peluso, Serena Spudich
The growing recognition of the burden of neurologic disease associated with HIV infection in the last decade has led to renewed efforts to characterize the pathophysiology of the virus within the central nervous system (CNS). The concept of the AIDS-dementia complex is now better understood as a spectrum of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which range from asymptomatic disease to severe impairment. Recent work has shown that even optimally treated patients can experience not only persistent HAND, but also the development of new neurologic abnormalities despite viral suppression...
September 2014: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Serena S Spudich
A shift in focus in the field of neuroHIV was clearly manifest at the 2014 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), where a major emphasis was on the milder forms of neurologic morbidity, including cognitive impairment, seen in well-treated patients. Mechanisms of this persistent abnormality were investigated, including extensive analysis of the prevalence and associations of persistent HIV detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and characterization of persistent CNS immune activation...
May 2014: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Kirsten Ann Donald, Jackie Hoare, Brian Eley, Jo M Wilmshurst
Approximately 3.4 million children worldwide are affected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS with more than 90% of them residing in sub-Saharan Africa, according to the World Health Organization. A significant proportion of the children eligible for treatment with antiretroviral therapy are not currently receiving it. Neurologic manifestations of HIV are common in both adults and children. There is a large spectrum of neurologic conditions that may be caused by the virus; however, early invasion of the central nervous system by the virus, affecting the developing fetal and infant brain, is believed to result in the most common primary HIV-related central nervous system complication, HIV encephalopathy...
March 2014: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
Christelle Ackermann, Savvas Andronikou, Barbara Laughton, Martin Kidd, Els Dobbels, Steve Innes, Ronald van Toorn, Mark Cotton
BACKGROUND: The natural history and manifestation of HIV-related neurologic disease have been ameliorated by combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). We describe the characteristics of white matter signal abnormalities (WMSA) on magnetic resonance imaging in children with HIV-related neurologic disease. METHODS: We reviewed magnetic resonance imaging scans of children with suspected HIV-related neurologic disease despite early ART and correlated with clinical, neurodevelopmental data, virologic markers and time on ART...
August 2014: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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