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Primary Prevention Of Cancer

K Robin Yabroff, Ted Gansler, Richard C Wender, Kevin J Cullen, Otis W Brawley
Between 1991 and 2015, the cancer mortality rate declined dramatically in the United States, reflecting improvements in cancer prevention, screening, treatment, and survivorship care. However, cancer outcomes in the United States vary substantially between populations defined by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, health insurance coverage, and geographic area of residence. Many potentially preventable cancer deaths occur in individuals who did not receive effective cancer prevention, screening, treatment, or survivorship care...
February 20, 2019: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
Caio Vinicius Tranquillini, Wanderley Marques Bernardo, Vitor Ottoboni Brunaldi, Eduardo Turiani de Moura, Sergio Barbosa Marques, Eduardo Guimarães Hourneaux de Moura
BACKGROUND: Polypectomy of colorectal polyps is the mainstay of colorectal cancer prevention. Identification of the best polypectomy technique is imperative. OBJECTIVE: This review aims at comparing efficacy of nine different resection methods for small colorectal polyps (<10 mm). METHODS: We searched and selected only randomized controlled trials. Primary outcome was complete resection rates of small polyps by histological eradication...
October 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Brian M Fung, Keith D Lindor, James H Tabibian
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare cholestatic liver disease characterized by progressive fibroinflammatory destruction of the intra- and/or extrahepatic biliary ducts. While its features and disease course can be variable, most patients with PSC have concurrent inflammatory bowel disease and will eventually develop liver cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease, with liver transplantation representing the only potentially curative option. Importantly, PSC is associated with a significantly increased risk of malignancy compared to the general population, mainly cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and colorectal cancer, with nearly 50% of deaths in patients with PSC being due to cancer...
February 14, 2019: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Miodrag N Krstic, Dragana D Mijac, Dusan D Popovic, Aleksandra Pavlovic Markovic, Tomica Milosavljević
BACKGROUND: Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide next to cardiovascular diseases. Despite the advancement in screening, early diagnosis, and development in treatment technology in last several decades, cancer incidence overall, particularly that of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, is far from being controlled, and is expected to increase worldwide. SUMMARY: Although numerous preclinical and population-based clinical studies have already made important progress in restraining the overall cancer incidence and mortality, the full potential of preventive strategy is still far from being realized, and remains at an early stage...
February 15, 2019: Digestive Diseases
Hirotoshi Iihara, Mototsugu Shimokawa, Masakazu Abe, Yoh Hayasaki, Yukiyoshi Fujita, Yuki Nagasawa, Michiru Sakurai, Rie Matsuoka, Akio Suzuki, Kenichiro Morishige
INTRODUCTION: Carboplatin (CBDCA) administered at a dosage of 4 mg/mL/min or more area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) is considered to be ranked as the highest chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) risk of the moderately emetogenic chemotherapy agents. The complete response (CR) rate for preventing overall CINV, defined as no emetic episodes and no use of rescue medication, for standard triplet antiemetic therapy (5-HT3 RA, 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist; NK1 RA, neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist; DEX, dexamethasone) was approximately 60% in gynaecological cancer patients receiving CBDCA-based therapy...
January 17, 2019: BMJ Open
Ashwini Kannan, Maggie Kirkman, Rasa Ruseckaite, Sue M Evans
OBJECTIVES: To summarise and evaluate evidence from men who had not been diagnosed with prostate cancer about their perspectives on prostate care and prostate cancer. DESIGN: A systematic review of qualitative research, on the perspectives of non-cancerous men regarding prostate cancer prevention and care. SETTING: A wide range of settings including primary and secondary care. PARTICIPANTS: Men from varied demographic backgrounds ranging between 40 to 80 years of age...
January 28, 2019: BMJ Open
Pelin Kaya, Sang R Lee, Young Ho Lee, Sun Woo Kwon, Hyun Yang, Hye Won Lee, Eui-Ju Hong
Curcumae radix is the dry root of Curcuma longa L. (turmeric) that can be used either as a spice or traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the survival benefits and the anti-metastatic activity of curcumae radix extract (CRE) in MCF7 cells and in MMTV-PyMT transgenic mice-a mouse model of breast cancer metastasis. In vitro wound scratch assay revealed that CRE treatment inhibited cell motility and cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. To investigate the effect of CRE in breast cancer metastasis, MMTV-PyMT transgenic female virgin mice were used and randomly divided into two groups...
February 15, 2019: Nutrients
Lu Wang, Sepali Guruge, Gelsomina Montana
ABSTRACTAging and immigration have significantly shaped the population composition in Canada, where immigrants make up increasingly large proportions of the older adult population. This scoping review examines the existing knowledge surrounding older immigrants' access to, and utilization of, primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in the delivery of primary care, preventive care, and mental health care. We applied Arksey and O'Malley's five-stage framework to search databases for Canadian-based, peer-reviewed English-language articles on the topic and examined 31 articles in detail...
February 19, 2019: Canadian Journal on Aging, la Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement
Massimo Rugge, Kentaro Sugano, Carmelo Scarpignato, Diana Sacchi, Walker Jove Oblitas, Antonio Giuseppe Naccarato
Gastric cancer (GC) ranks among the most lethal epithelial malignancies, and its striking mortality rate prompts a global prevention strategy. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) gastritis is the main GC promoter, and the 2014 Global Kyoto conference recognized H. pylori gastritis as a (treatable) infectious disease. It is therefore plausible that any large-scale intervention for H. pylori eradication would result in cleansing the world of the fifth cause of cancer-related death. Atrophic gastritis is the cancerization field in which GCs (both intestinal and diffuse histotypes) mainly develop...
February 17, 2019: Helicobacter
Elena Campello, Luca Spiezia, Angelo Adamo, Paolo Simioni
Fifty-three years after the first description of an inherited prothrombotic condition (antithrombin deficiency), our knowledge on hereditary and acquired causes of hypercoagulability that can predispose carriers to venous thromboembolism (VTE) has greatly improved. Areas covered: Main causes of hereditary thrombophilia are summarized alongside new prothrombotic mutations recently discovered. The main causes of acquired thrombophilia, and namely, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and hyperhomocysteinemia, are also discussed together with other common acquired prothrombotic states characterized by an increase of procoagulant factors and/or a decrease of natural anticoagulants...
February 18, 2019: Expert Review of Hematology
Susan Hasanpour-Heidari, Abdolreza Fazel, Shahryar Semnani, Seyyed-Reza Khandoozi, Taghi Amiriani, SeyedMehdi Sedaghat, Reza Hosseinpoor, Ramin Azarhoush, Mohammad Poorabbasi, Mohammad Naeimi-Tabiei, Gholamreza Roshandel, Freddie Bray, Elisabete Weiderpass
INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the Golestan province, Northern Iran. The purpose of this study is to describe colorectal cancer incidence patterns and trends in the province 2004-2013. METHODS: Data on CRC cases were obtained from the Golestan Population-based Cancer Registry (GPCR). The GPCR is a high-quality cancer registry that collects data on primary cancers according to internationally accepted standard protocols...
February 13, 2019: Cancer Epidemiology
Ranjit Manchanda, Faiza Gaba
BRCA1/BRCA2 genes were discovered in early 1990s and clinical testing for these has been available since the mid-1990s. National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and other international guidelines recommend genetic-testing at a ~10% probability threshold of carrying a BRCA-mutation. A detailed three generation family-history (FH) of cancer is used within complex mathematical models (e.g. BOADICEA, BRCAPRO, Manchester-Scoring-System) or through standardized clinical-criteria to identify individuals who fulfil this probability threshold and can be offered genetic-testing...
February 16, 2019: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Eric J Chow, Kasey J Leger, Neel S Bhatt, Daniel A Mulrooney, Colin J Ross, Sanjeev Aggarwal, Neha Bansal, Matthew J Ehrhardt, Saro H Armenian, Jessica M Scott, Borah Hong
With five-year survival of children with cancer exceeding 80% in developed countries, premature cardiovascular disease is now a major cause of early morbidity and mortality. In addition to the acute and chronic cardiotoxic effects of anthracyclines, related chemotherapeutics, and radiation, a growing number of new molecular targeted agents may also have detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. Survivors of childhood cancer also may have earlier development of conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes, which further increase their risk of serious cardiovascular disease...
February 15, 2019: Cardiovascular Research
Rahul Kumar, Tariq A Bhat, Elise M Walsh, Ajay K Chaudhary, Jordan O'Malley, Johng S Rhim, Jianmin Wang, Carl D Morrison, Kristopher Attwood, Wiam Bshara, James L Mohler, Neelu Yadav, Dhyan Chandra
Although African-American (AA) prostate cancer (PCa) patients tend to develop greater therapeutic resistance and faster PCa recurrence compared to Caucasian-American men, the molecular mechanisms of this racial PCa disparity remain undefined. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive evidence that cytochrome c (CC) deficiency in AA primary tumors and cancer cells abrogates apoptosome-mediated caspase activation and contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction, thereby promoting therapeutic resistance and PCa aggressiveness in AA men...
February 14, 2019: Cancer Research
Fangyuan Zhou, Bing Feng, Haijun Yu, Dangge Wang, Tingting Wang, Yuting Ma, Siling Wang, Yaping Li
Chemoimmunotherapy is reported to activate a robust T cell antitumor immune response by triggering immunogenic cell death (ICD), which has initiated a number of clinical trials. However, current chemoimmunotherapy is restricted to a small fraction of patients due to low drug delivery efficacy and immunosuppression within the tumor microenvironment. A tumor microenvironment-activatable prodrug vesicle for cancer chemoimmunotherapy using ICD is herein reported. The prodrug vesicles are engineered by integrating an oxaliplatin (OXA) prodrug and PEGylated photosensitizer (PS) into a single nanoplatform, which show tumor-specific accumulation, activation, and deep penetration in response to the tumoral acidic and enzymatic microenvironment...
February 14, 2019: Advanced Materials
Emer P O Connel, Vincent Healy, Fidelma Fitzpatrick, Caitriona A Higgins, John P Burke, Deborah A McNamara
BACKGROUND: Unplanned readmission after surgery negatively impacts surgical recovery. Few studies have sought to define predictors of readmission in a rectal cancer cohort alone. Readmission following rectal cancer surgery may be reduced by the identification and modification of factors associated with readmission. OBJECTIVES: This study seeks to characterize the predictors of 30-day readmission following proctectomy for rectal cancer. DESIGN: This study is a retrospective analysis of prospectively gathered cohort data...
February 8, 2019: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Giuseppe Badalamenti, Lorena Incorvaia, Carlo Messina, Emmanuela Musso, Alessandra Casarin, Maria Rita Ricciardi, Ida De Luca, Viviana Bazan, Antonio Russo
PURPOSE: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of the most feared and disturbing adverse events of cancer treatment associated with decreased adherence to effective chemotherapy regimens. For high-risk soft tissue sarcoma patients, receiving multiple-day chemotherapy (MD-CT), antiemetic guidelines recommend a combination of an NK1 receptor antagonist (NK1 -RA), a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (5HT3 -RA), and dexamethasone on each day of the antineoplastic treatment. NEPA is the first oral fixed-dose combination of a highly selective NK1 -RA, netupitant, and second-generation 5HT3 -RA, palonosetron...
February 14, 2019: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Javier Garcia-Bermudez, Lou Baudrier, Erol Can Bayraktar, Yihui Shen, Konnor La, Rohiverth Guarecuco, Burcu Yucel, Danilo Fiore, Bernardo Tavora, Elizaveta Freinkman, Sze Ham Chan, Caroline Lewis, Wei Min, Giorgio Inghirami, David M Sabatini, Kıvanç Birsoy
Cholesterol is essential for cells to grow and proliferate. Normal mammalian cells meet their need for cholesterol through its uptake or de novo synthesis1 , but the extent to which cancer cells rely on each of these pathways remains poorly understood. Here, using a competitive proliferation assay on a pooled collection of DNA-barcoded cell lines, we identify a subset of cancer cells that is auxotrophic for cholesterol and thus highly dependent on its uptake. Through metabolic gene expression analysis, we pinpoint the loss of squalene monooxygenase expression as a cause of cholesterol auxotrophy, particularly in ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) cell lines and primary tumours...
February 13, 2019: Nature
Chunbo He, Xiangmin Lv, Cong Huang, Guohua Hua, Bowen Ma, Xingcheng Chen, Peter C Angeletti, Jixin Dong, Jin Zhou, Zhengfeng Wang, Bo R Rueda, John S Davis, Cheng Wang
Dysfunction of the homeostasis-maintaining systems in specific cell types or tissues renders the organism susceptible to a range of diseases, including cancers. One of the emerging mechanisms for maintaining tissue homeostasis is cellular senescence. Here, we report that the Hippo pathway plays a critical role in controlling the fate of ovarian cells. Hyperactivation of Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), the major effector of the Hippo pathway, induces senescence in cultured primary human ovarian surface epithelial cells (hOSEs)...
February 12, 2019: EMBO Reports
Vid Mlakar, Simona Jurkovic Mlakar, Laurence Lesne, Denis Marino, Komal S Rathi, John M Maris, Marc Ansari, Fabienne Gumy-Pause
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. This cancer has a low frequency of TP53 mutations and its downstream pathway is usually intact. This study assessed the efficacy of the p53 activator, PRIMA-1MET , in inducing neuroblastoma cell death. METHODS: CellTiter 2.0 was used to study susceptibility and specificity of NB cell lines to PRIMA-1MET . Real-time PCR and western blot were used to assess the most common p53 transactivation targets...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
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