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Marion Rincel, Philippe Aubert, Julien Chevalier, Pierre-Antoine Grohard, Lilian Basso, Camille Monchaux de Oliveira, Jean Christophe Helbling, Élodie Lévy, Grégoire Chevalier, Marion Leboyer, Gérard Eberl, Sophie Layé, Lucile Capuron, Nathalie Vergnolle, Michel Neunlist, Hélène Boudin, Patricia Lepage, Muriel Darnaudéry
The accumulation of adverse events in utero and during childhood differentially increases the vulnerability to psychiatric diseases in men and women. Gut microbiota is highly sensitive to the early environment and has been recently hypothesized to affect brain development. However, the impact of early-life adversity on gut microbiota, notably with regards to sex differences, remains to be explored. We examined the effects of multifactorial early-life adversity on behavior and microbiota composition in C3H/HeN mice of both sexes exposed to a combination of maternal immune activation, maternal separation (3hr per day from postnatal day (PND)2 to PND14) and maternal unpredictable chronic mild stress...
March 11, 2019: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Maria I Pinto-Sanchez, Elena F Verdu
In the last 30 years, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) has emerged as an intriguing and controversial topic in gastroenterology. The diagnosis of NCGS/NCWS requires a symptomatic reaction to gluten, or wheat-containing food, and remission of symptoms with gluten or wheat challenge, in patients in whom celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded. There have been several randomized clinical trials (RCT) addressing this issue which have produced controversial results. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial in patients with suspected NCGS on GFD, did not reproduce symptoms after gluten intake compared to placebo...
August 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Jae Hak Kim, Sam Ryong Jee
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder. Its diagnosis is based on symptoms, and the Rome IV criteria are recognized as the gold diagnostic standard. The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility (KSNM) recently updated their clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of IBS, which were last issued in 2011. In this updated edition, the KSNM defines IBS as a chronic, recurrent symptom complex that includes abdominal pain or discomfort, changes in bowel habits, and bloating for at least 6 months, which is somewhat broader than the previous definition...
February 25, 2019: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
Adam L Edwinson, Madhusudan Grover
The epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in conjunction with the enteric nervous system (ENS) plays an important role in mediating solute absorption and secretion. A dysregulated ionic movement across the epithelium can result in GI diseases that manifest as either watery diarrhea or constipation. Hirschsprung disease is an example of an ENS disorder characterized by absence of enteric ganglia in distal gut resulting in obstructive phenotype. Receptor rearranged during transfection (RET) gene variants are the most commonly recognized genetic associations with Hirschsprung disease...
April 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Dipesh H Vasant, Peter J Whorwell
BACKGROUND: Despite their high prevalence and advances in the field of neurogastroenterology, there remain few effective treatment options for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). It is recognized that approximately 25% of sufferers will have symptoms refractory to existing therapies, causing significant adverse effects on quality of life and increased healthcare utilization and morbidity. Gut-focused hypnotherapy, when delivered by trained therapists, has been shown to be highly effective in severe refractory FGIDs...
February 27, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Abhilash Paily, Guiseppe Preziosi, Prateesh Trivedi, Anton Emmanuel
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that anti-muscarinic agents alter rectal compliance in SCI patients and that altered rectal compliance relates to bowel symptomatology. Our primary aim was to compare rectal compliance before and after the institution of anti-muscarinics (solifenacin and tolterodine) and an adrenoceptor agonist (mirabegron) in these patients. Additionally, we wanted to evaluate if anorectal manometry differed before and after use of anti-muscarinic agents...
February 25, 2019: Spinal Cord
Jenny Bellodas Sanchez, Mark Kadrofske
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an acute inflammatory disease of the intestine which primarily affects preterm infants and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal intensive care unit. From a clinical standpoint, and during the early course of the disease, NEC can be difficult to distinguish from other diseases and conditions common to the preterm infant, and this warrants the need for specific disease biomarkers. The pathogenesis of NEC is only partly understood but likely involves an altered intestinal barrier immune response to feeding and the developing microbiome...
March 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Dennis A Revicki, Rebecca M Speck, Sara Lavoie, Jorge Puelles, Braden Kuo, Michael Camilleri, Cristina Almansa, Henry P Parkman
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index-Daily Diary, a patient-reported outcome instrument developed to meet US FDA recommendations for a symptom-based clinical trial endpoint in gastroparesis. The ANMS GCSI-DD assesses nausea, early satiety, postprandial fullness, and upper abdominal pain on a severity score from none (0) to very severe (4) and number of vomiting episodes during the past 24 hours...
February 7, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Kahleb Graham, Jaime Belkind-Gerson, Anil Darbari, John T Boyle
BACKGROUND: Neurogastroenterology and motility (NGM) disorders are common and have a high health care burden. Although pediatric gastroenterology fellows are expected to obtain comprehensive training in the diagnosis and management of NGM disorders, there is ongoing concern for unmet training needs and lack of exposure in treating patients who suffer from NGM problems. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cross-section survey of trainees listed as pediatric gastroenterology fellows in North American training programs in 2018 via direct E-mail and the pediatric gastroenterology listserv...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Tae Hee Lee, Seong-Eun Kim, Kyung Sik Park, Jeong Eun Shin, Seon-Young Park, Han Seung Ryu, Jung-Wook Kim, Yoo Jin Lee, Young Sin Cho, Suyeon Park
Background/Aims: The primary aims of this study were to evaluate the content quality of YouTube videos on exercises to help relieve constipation and to assess whether the video source, exercise types, and popularity affected their quality. Methods: Eight gastroenterologists independently evaluated the exercises presented in the constipation YouTube videos for seven items: image quality, usefulness in relieving constipation (quality 1), usefulness for general physical health (quality 2), difficulty in following, activity intensity, fun, and overall quality...
December 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
Dennis A Revicki, Sara Lavoie, Rebecca M Speck, Jorge Puelles, Braden Kuo, Michael Camilleri, Cristina Almansa, Henry P Parkman
BACKGROUND: The American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index-Daily Diary (ANMS GCSI-DD) was developed to meet Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations for patient-reported outcome (PRO) endpoints in gastroparesis studies, including therapeutic trials. The current version of the ANMS GCSI-DD contains five items pertaining to nausea, early satiety, post-prandial fullness, upper abdominal pain, and vomiting. The specific aims of this study were to determine if the appropriate symptoms are included in the ANMS GCSI-DD and to assess the content validity in patients with idiopathic (IG) and diabetic gastroparesis (DG)...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes
Giovanni Barbara, Cesare Cremon, Fernando Azpiroz
We have only recently begun to understand how alterations of the intestinal microbial ecosystem lead to the disruption of host-microbial interactions and are associated with diseases, including functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Although we are still far from understanding the human microbiome, gut microbiota is already a therapeutic target. Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host and may represent a therapeutic option for diseases characterized by dysbiosis such as IBS...
December 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Jutta Keller, Mark Robert Fox, Hans-Dieter Allescher, Thomas Frieling, Karl Hermann Fuchs, Miriam Goebel-Stengel, Christian Pehl, Jörg Schirra, Ivo van der Voort, Martin Storr
Esophageal manometry provides a detailed evaluation of esophageal contractility and, therefore, represents the reference method for diagnosis of esophageal motility disorders. Significance and clinical relevance have been further increased by implementation of high-resolution esophageal manometry (HRM), which reveals the functional anatomy of the esophagus in a visually-intuitive manner. The current 3 rd version of the international Chicago Classification (CC v3.0) gives standardized recommendations on performance and interpretation of HRM and serves as the basis for much of this expert consensus document...
November 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Marcella Pesce, Osvaldo Borrelli, Efstratios Saliakellis, Nikhil Thapar
The bewildering complexity of the enteric nervous system makes it susceptible to develop a wide array of motility disorders, collectively called enteric neuropathies. These gastrointestinal conditions are among the most challenging to manage, mainly given poor characterization of their etiopathophysiology and outcomes. Not surprisingly, therefore, targeted or curative therapies for enteric neuropathies are lacking and management is largely symptomatic. Nonetheless, recent advances in neurogastroenterology have witnessed improvements in established strategies, such as intestinal transplantation and the emergence of new treatments including novel drugs, electrical pacing, and manipulation of fecal microbiota, as well as stem cell and gene therapy...
December 2018: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
Sumei Liu
Neurotrophic factors are traditionally recognized for their roles in differentiation, growth, and survival of specific neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system. Some neurotrophic factors are essential for the development and migration of the enteric nervous system along the fetal and post-natal gut. Over the last two decades, several non-developmental functions of neurotrophic factors have been characterized. In the adult gastrointestinal tract, neurotrophic factors regulate gut sensation, motility, epithelial barrier function, and protect enteric neurons and glial cells from damaging insults in the microenvironment of the gut...
October 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Winfried Neuhuber, Jürgen Wörl
Recent advances in neurogastroenterology have extended and refined our knowledge on the roles monoamines play in physiology and pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract. The catecholamine noradrenaline, as the primary transmitter of postganglionic sympathetic neurons, orchestrates motility and secretory reflexes and controls arterial perfusion as well as immune functions. The catecholamine dopamine is produced by a subpopulation of enteric neurons which possibly use it as transmitter. Serotonin, largely produced by enterochromaffin cells and to a small extent by enteric neurons profoundly affects gut motility, enteric neuron development and is also involved in immunomodulation...
December 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Adam Rich
Zebrafish larvae are transparent and the entire gastrointestinal (GI) tract is easily visualized. Application of a new image analysis technique is reported in this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility (Neurogastroenterol Motil., 2018, volume 30, e13351). The technique quantifies movement in images collected in a timed sequence, and characterizes smooth muscle contractions based on contraction distance and frequency. The technique also reports the contraction amplitude, or the distance moved. This technique, and current spatiotemporal mapping techniques, are essential tools enabling characterization of GI motility patterns in intact physiological settings...
September 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
S Salvatore, L Pensabene, O Borrelli, M Saps, N Thapar, D Concolino, A Staiano, Y Vandenplas
The gut-brain axis has recently emerged as a key modulator of human health and the intestinal microbiome has a well-recognised pivotal role in this strong connection. The aim of this narrative review is to update and summarise the effect and clinical applicability of probiotics in paediatric neurogastroenterology. The Cochrane Database and PubMed were searched using keywords relating to different subtypes of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) and their symptoms, those relating to the CNS and related neurological or behavioural dysfunction as well as 'probiotic' OR 'probiotics'...
September 10, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
Michiko Kano, Patrick Dupont, Qasim Aziz, Shin Fukudo
This review provides a comprehensive overview of brain imaging studies of the brain-gut interaction in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). Functional neuroimaging studies during gut stimulation have shown enhanced brain responses in regions related to sensory processing of the homeostatic condition of the gut (homeostatic afferent) and responses to salience stimuli (salience network), as well as increased and decreased brain activity in the emotional response areas and reduced activation in areas associated with the top-down modulation of visceral afferent signals...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Kyung Ho Song, Hye-Kyung Jung, Hyun Jin Kim, Hoon Sup Koo, Yong Hwan Kwon, Hyun Duk Shin, Hyun Chul Lim, Jeong Eun Shin, Sung Eun Kim, Dae Hyeon Cho, Jeong Hwan Kim, Hyun Jung Kim
In 2011, the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility (KSNM) published clinical practice guidelines on the management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) based on a systematic review of the literature. The KSNM planned to update the clinical practice guidelines to support primary physicians, reduce the socioeconomic burden of IBS, and reflect advances in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. The present revised version of the guidelines is in continuity with the previous version and targets adults diagnosed with, or suspected to have, IBS...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
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