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Fatty liver children

Laura Draijer, Marc Benninga, Bart Koot
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in children and adults in industrialized countries. Besides liver-related morbidity, NAFLD is also associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and mortality at adult age. However, despite the high prevalence and serious complications, diagnosing and staging of disease remains complicated due to a lack of accurate screening tools and non-invasive methods to detect fibrosis. Areas covered: Recent insights in epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic evaluation and treatment options in pediatric NAFLD are being reviewed, with a particular focus on new developments in diagnostic tools...
March 15, 2019: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Nicola Spreghini, Stefano Cianfarani, Maria Rita Spreghini, Claudia Brufani, Giuseppe Stefano Morino, Elena Inzaghi, Alessio Convertino, Danilo Fintini, Melania Manco
AIM: To investigate whether GE is affected in children/adolescents with obesity and abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: Cross-sectional study of oral GE (oGE), insulin sensitivity and secretion (calculated on 5 time-points oral glucose tolerance test) and metabolic abnormalities in 1012 patients with overweight/obesity (aged 6.0-17.9 years old). A MetS risk score was calculated on the basis of distribution of fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure...
March 13, 2019: Acta Diabetologica
Sandrine Visentin, Gerard Michel, Claire Oudin, Beatrice Cousin, Benedicte Gaborit, Ines Abdesselam, Marie Maraninchi, Marion Nowicki, Rene Valero, Maxime Guye, Monique Bernard, Pascal Auquier, Herve Chambost, Marie-Christine Alessi, Sophie Beliard
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The number of long-term survivors of childhood acute leukemia (AL) is substantially growing. These patients are at high risk for metabolic syndrome (MS), especially those who received total body irradiation (TBI). The consequences of children's irradiation on adipose tissue (AT) development in adulthood are currently unknown. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of TBI on AT of childhood AL survivors. DESIGN: We compared the morphological and functional characteristics of AT among survivors of childhood AL who developed MS and received (n= 12) or not (n=12) TBI...
March 1, 2019: Endocrine Connections
W R Kim, J R Lake, J M Smith, D P Schladt, M A Skeans, S M Noreen, A M Robinson, E Miller, J J Snyder, A K Israni, B L Kasiske
Data on adult liver transplants performed in the US in 2017 are notable for (1) continued growth in numbers of new waitlist registrants (11,514) and of transplants performed (8,082); (2) continued increase in the transplant rate (51.5 per 100 waitlist-years); (3) a precipitous decrease in waitlist registrations and transplants for hepatitis C-related indications; (4) reciprocal increases in waitlist registrants and recipients with alcoholic liver disease and with clinical profiles consistent with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; and (5) continued improvement in graft survival despite changing recipient characteristics such as older age and higher rates of obesity...
February 2019: American Journal of Transplantation
Karrie V Ly, Armstrong Tess, Joanna Yeh, Shahnaz Ghahremani, Grace H Kim, Holden H Wu, Kara L Calkins
OBJECTIVE: Conventional, breath-holding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assesses body composition by measuring fat volumes and proton density fat fraction (PDFF). However, breath-holding MRI is not always feasible in children. This study's objective was to use free-breathing MRI to quantify visceral and subcutaneous fat volumes and PDFFs and correlate these measurements with hepatic PDFF. METHODS: This was an observational, hypothesis-forming study that enrolled two groups of children (ages 6-17 years), healthy children and overweight children with presumed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Yue Sun, Weiran Dai, Yuzhen Liang, Pijian Yang, Qiong Yang, Min Liang, Ning Xia
Purpose: Many studies have reported the relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and bone mineral density (BMD) among adults. However, fewer studies on this topic have been reported in adolescents. We thus conducted a meta-analysis to show the association between NAFLD and BMD in adolescents with obesity. Materials and methods: Computer retrieval was carried out via PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception to September 2018...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Philip Prinz
This review will focus on the question of whether dietary sugars are a relevant determinant in the global rise of overweight and obesity in adults, adolescents, and children. Initially, the review describes the current definitions for sugars in the diet and makes reference to them while analyzing their role in overweight and obesity as well as diet-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cancer. Second, it will focus particularly on sucrose and the question of whether it is the molecular composition of sucrose (glucose and fructose) or its energy content that promotes body weight gain and diet-related diseases...
February 20, 2019: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Kylie Karnebeek, Supriya Thapar, Maartje Willeboordse, Onno C P van Schayck, Anita C E Vreugdenhil
CONTEXT: Childhood obesity increases the risk of diseases as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of comorbidities in school-age children with obesity and to compare its prevalence and the effect of a lifestyle intervention between children in primary and secondary school and between boys and girls. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis and lifestyle intervention. SETTING: Centre for Overweight Adolescent and Children's Healthcare...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Rahim Ullah, Naveed Rauf, Ghulam Nabi, Hamid Ullah, Yi Shen, Yu-Dong Zhou, Junfen Fu
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an acquired metabolic disease characterized by triglycerides (TGs) deposition in liver induced by other factors rather than alcohol consumption. NAFLD significantly contributes to liver diseases in children and adults. NAFLD pathogenesis is associated with age, gender, race and ethnicity. Insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, elevated plasma free fatty acids (FFAs), fatty liver, hepatocyte injury, liver inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, imbalanced pro-inflammatory cytokines, and fibrosis are the characteristics of NAFLD...
2019: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Emer Fitzpatrick
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of paediatric liver disease, affecting 10% of school-aged children and 44-70% of obese children and young people (CYP) in the western world. Encompassing a spectrum from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis and progressive fibrosis, the disease is rapidly becoming the most common indication for liver transplantation. The molecular pathogenesis of NAFLD remains only partially understood. Development and progression of NAFLD is influenced by genetic and nutritional factors, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, gut microbiome, bile acid metabolism and lipid/glucose handling and is closely associated with overweight and obesity...
February 8, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Julio Plaza-Diaz, Francisco Javier Ruiz-Ojeda, Mercedes Gil-Campos, Angel Gil
Probiotics are living microorganisms that confer health benefits to the host when administered in adequate amounts; however, dead bacteria and their components can also exhibit probiotic properties. Bifidobacterium and strains of lactic acid bacteria are the most widely used bacteria that exhibit probiotic properties and are included in many functional foods and dietary supplements. Probiotics have been shown to prevent and ameliorate the course of digestive disorders such as acute, nosocomial, and antibiotic-associated diarrhea; allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis (eczema) and allergic rhinitis in infants; and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and some inflammatory bowel disorders in adults...
January 1, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Anne E Atkins, Beth A Tarini, Emily K Phillips, Amy R U L Calhoun
The Iowa Newborn Screening (NBS) Program began screening for very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD) in 2003. Untreated VLCAD can lead to liver failure, heart failure, and death. Current confirmatory testing recommendations by the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) for VLCAD list molecular and functional analysis (i.e., fibroblast fatty acid oxidation probe) as optional. This can lead to misclassification of VLCAD carriers as false positives. Iowa implemented a comprehensive VLCAD confirmatory testing algorithm at the beginning of 2016 that included both molecular and fibroblast analysis...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Community Genetics
Alessandro Mantovani, Davide Gatti, Giacomo Zoppini, Giuseppe Lippi, Enzo Bonora, Christopher D Byrne, Valerio Nobili, Giovanni Targher
Recent cross-sectional studies have examined the association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and bone mineral density (BMD) in children or adolescents, but these have produced conflicting results. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of these published studies to quantify the magnitude of the association, if any, between NAFLD and BMD. We searched publication databases from January 2000 to September 2018, using predefined keywords to identify relevant observational studies conducted in children or adolescents in which NAFLD was diagnosed either by imaging or by histology, and BMD Z score was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry...
January 31, 2019: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Firdevs Aydın, Nelgin Gerenli, Fatma Dursun, Tülay Öztürk Atasoy, Sevinç Kalın, Heves Kırmızıbekmez
Background Diabetes and hepatosteatosis are dramatically increasing in childhood. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as a common disorder in adulthood, especially with type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, while very few studies are available on liver health in children with type-1 diabetes. Patients and methods One hundred and ten (52 males and 58 females) patients with type-1 diabetes aged between 8 and 18 years were examined. The lipid profile, liver enzymes and hepatobiliary ultrasound findings of patients were investigated in terms of hepatopathies...
January 26, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Paul Clerc, Marialena Mouzaki, Ran D Goldman
Question An overweight 12-year-old male patient with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has had little improvement in liver steatosis or triglyceride levels over the past 2 years. Is omega-3 supplementation useful in managing his condition? Answer Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children is prevalent in the Canadian population and can lead to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, transplant, and reduced life expectancy. There is no recommended pharmacologic treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are associated with small improvements in liver steatosis and triglyceride concentrations...
January 2019: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Giuseppe Iacomino, Paola Russo, Pasquale Marena, Fabio Lauria, Antonella Venezia, Wolfgang Ahrens, Stefaan De Henauw, Pasquale De Luca, Ronja Foraita, Kathrin Günther, Lauren Lissner, Dénes Molnár, Luis A Moreno, Michael Tornaritis, Toomas Veidebaum, Alfonso Siani
Background: Nearly 10 years ago, the World Health Organization reported the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity worldwide as a challenge for public health due to the associated adverse consequences. Epidemiological studies established a firm relationship between an elevated body mass index and chronic conditions such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, heart disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and some types of cancer. Omic studies demonstrated that microRNA (miRNA) profile changes in tissues correlate with a number of diseases, including obesity...
2019: Genes & Nutrition
Giorgio Bedogni, Giuseppe De Matteis, Marta Fabrizi, Anna Alisi, Annalisa Crudele, Fabrizio Pizzolante, Fabrizio Signore, Bruno Dallapiccola, Valerio Nobili, Melania Manco
Context: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is being increasingly diagnosed at younger ages, pointing toward an early-life origin. Objective: To evaluate the frequency and risk factors for bright liver (BL) in 1-year toddlers. Design: Secondary analysis of the 1-year follow-up of the Feeding Study. Setting: General population. Participants: Among 505 mother-toddler pairs, 391 children (77%) underwent liver and abdominal ultrasonography at the 1-year follow-up...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Warren L Shapiro, Elizabeth L Yu, Jennifer C Arin, Karen F Murray, Sabina Ali, Nirav K Desai, Stavra A Xanthakos, Henry C Lin, Naim Alkhouri, Reham Abdou, Stephanie H Abrams, Megan W Butler, Sarah A Faasse, Lynette A Gillis, Timothy A Hadley, Ajay K Jain, Marianne Kavan, Kattayoun Kordy, Peter Lee, Jennifer Panganiban, John F Pohl, Carol Potter, Bryan Rudolph, Shikha S Sundaram, Shivali Joshi, James A Proudfoot, Nidhi P Goyal, Kathryn E Harlow, Kimberly P Newton, Jeffrey B Schwimmer
OBJECTIVES: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common; however, no information is available on how pediatric gastroenterologists in the United States manage NAFLD. Therefore, study objectives were to understand how pediatric gastroenterologists in the US approach the management of NAFLD, and to identify barriers to care for children with NAFLD. METHODS: We performed structured one-on-one interviews to ascertain each individual pediatric gastroenterologist's approach to the management of NAFLD in children...
February 2019: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Andreia Ribeiro, Maria-Jose Igual-Perez, Ermelinda Santos Silva, Etienne M Sokal
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging entity, becoming the most prevalent pediatric chronic liver disease. Its broad spectrum of histological findings, comorbidities, and complications, including cirrhosis and liver failure, can occur in childhood, emphasizing the severity of pediatric NAFLD. Current lifestyle and diet modifications have been linked to the increasing prevalence of NAFLD, including the rise of fructose consumption, a monosaccharide present in foods that contain added sugar, such as sugar-sweetened beverages...
January 2019: Hepatology Communications
Hüseyin Kurku, Müge Atar, Özgür Pirgon, Muammer Büyükinan, Said Sami Erdem, İsa Deniz, Yavuz Turgut Gederet
BACKGROUND: In adult studies, obese subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have been shown to have poor sperm quality, and lower testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the pubertal status and gonadal functions in obese boys with NAFLD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 119 obese and 78 nonobese age-matched adolescents. The obese boys were separated into two groups based on the presence (NAFLD group) or absence of liver steatosis with high transaminases (non-NAFLD group)...
January 7, 2019: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
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