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Hiroki Kawana, Kuniyuki Kano, Hideo Shindou, Aska Inoue, Takao Shimizu, Junken Aoki
Lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs) incorporate a fatty acid into the hydroxyl group of lysophospholipids (LPLs) and are critical for determining the fatty acid composition of phospholipids. Previous studies have focused mainly on their molecular identification and their substrate specificity regarding the polar head groups and acyl-CoAs. However, little is known about the positional specificity of the hydroxyl group of the glycerol backbone (sn-2 or sn-1) at which LPLATs introduce a fatty acid. This is mainly due to the instability of LPLs used as an acceptor, especially for LPLs with a fatty acid at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone (sn-2-LPLs), which are essential for the enzymatic assay to determine the positional specificity...
March 7, 2019: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids
Amar B Singh, Chin Fung K Kan, Fredric B Kraemer, Raymond A Sobel, Jingwen Liu
Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (ACSL4) has a unique substrate specificity for arachidonic acid (AA). Hepatic ACSL4 is coregulated with the phospholipid remodeling enzyme lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (LPCAT3) by PPARd to modulate plasma triglyceride metabolism. In this study, we investigated the acute effects of hepatic ACSL4 deficiency on lipid metabolism in adult mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Adenovirus-mediated expression of a mouse ACSL4 shRNA (Ad-shAcsl4) in the liver of HFD-fed mice led to a 43% reduction of hepatic arachidonoyl-CoA synthetase activity and a 53% decrease in ACSL4 protein levels as compared to mice receiving control adenovirus (Ad-shLacZ)...
February 5, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Keisuke Kakisaka, Yuji Suzuki, Yudai Fujiwara, Akiko Suzuki, Jo Kanazawa, Yasuhiro Takikawa
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Lipotoxicity causes liver inflammation, which leads to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is a causal agent of lipotoxicity. Recently, lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) was identified as an enzyme that catalyzes the esterification of LPC, which potentially decreases LPC levels. However, the effect of LPCAT in lipotoxicity of the liver is not fully understood. Our aim was to determine whether LPCAT attenuates lipotoxicity in the liver...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Charles Thomas, Antoine Jalil, Charlène Magnani, Minako Ishibashi, Ronan Queré, Thibaut Bourgeois, Victoria Bergas, Louise Ménégaut, Danish Patoli, Naig Le Guern, Jérôme Labbé, Thomas Gautier, Jean Paul Pais de Barros, Laurent Lagrost, David Masson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: LPCAT3 plays a major role in phospholipid metabolism in the liver and intestine. However, the impact of LPCAT3 on hematopoietic cell and macrophage functions has yet to be described. Our aim was to understand the functions of LPCAT3 in macrophages and to investigate whether LPCAT3 deficiency in hematopoietic cells may affect atherosclerosis development. METHODS: Mice with constitutive Lpcat3 deficiency (Lpcat3-/- ) were generated. We used fetal hematopoietic liver cells to generate WT and Lpcat3-/- macrophages in vitro and to perform hematopoietic cell transplantation in recipient Ldlr-/- mice...
August 2018: Atherosclerosis
Chunyan Feng, Bin Lou, Jibin Dong, Zhiqiang Li, Yunqin Chen, Yue Li, Xuemei Zhang, Xian-Cheng Jiang, Tingbo Ding
Levels of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) influence plasma membrane structure and function. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is synthesized de novo in the Kennedy pathway and then undergoes extensive deacylation/reacylation remodeling via Lands' cycle (non-Kennedy pathway). The reacylation is catalyzed by lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), which adds a polyunsaturated fatty acid at the sn-2 position. Four LPCAT isoforms have been described to date, among which we found LPCAT3 to be the major isoform in adipose tissue, but its exact role in adipogenesis is unclear...
August 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids
Anya Kalsbeek, Jenna Veenstra, Jason Westra, Craig Disselkoen, Kristin Koch, Katelyn A McKenzie, Jacob O'Bott, Jason Vander Woude, Karen Fischer, Greg C Shearer, William S Harris, Nathan L Tintle
Recent analyses have suggested a strong heritable component to circulating fatty acid (FA) levels; however, only a limited number of genes have been identified which associate with FA levels. In order to expand upon a previous genome wide association study done on participants in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort and FA levels, we used data from 2,400 of these individuals for whom red blood cell FA profiles, dietary information and genotypes are available, and then conducted a genome-wide evaluation of potential genetic variants associated with 22 FAs and 15 FA ratios, after adjusting for relevant dietary covariates...
2018: PloS One
Bo Wang, Xin Rong, Elisa N D Palladino, Jiafang Wang, Alan M Fogelman, Martín G Martín, Waddah A Alrefai, David A Ford, Peter Tontonoz
Adequate availability of cellular building blocks, including lipids, is a prerequisite for cellular proliferation, but excess dietary lipids are linked to increased cancer risk. Despite these connections, specific regulatory relationships between membrane composition, intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation, and tumorigenesis are unclear. We reveal an unexpected link between membrane phospholipid remodeling and cholesterol biosynthesis and demonstrate that cholesterol itself acts as a mitogen for ISCs. Inhibition of the phospholipid-remodeling enzyme Lpcat3 increases membrane saturation and stimulates cholesterol biosynthesis, thereby driving ISC proliferation...
February 1, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Chia-Wei Cheng, Ömer H Yilmaz
In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Wang et al. (2018) identify a novel link between Lpcat3-mediated phospholipid remodeling (the Lands cycle) and cholesterol biosynthesis that modulates intestinal stem cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Notably, inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis dampens many of the Lpcat3-deficiency-mediated effects in the intestine.
February 1, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Melissa A Richard, Tianxiao Huan, Symen Ligthart, Rahul Gondalia, Min A Jhun, Jennifer A Brody, Marguerite R Irvin, Riccardo Marioni, Jincheng Shen, Pei-Chien Tsai, May E Montasser, Yucheng Jia, Catriona Syme, Elias L Salfati, Eric Boerwinkle, Weihua Guan, Thomas H Mosley, Jan Bressler, Alanna C Morrison, Chunyu Liu, Michael M Mendelson, André G Uitterlinden, Joyce B van Meurs, Oscar H Franco, Guosheng Zhang, Yun Li, James D Stewart, Joshua C Bis, Bruce M Psaty, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Sharon L R Kardia, Wei Zhao, Stephen T Turner, Devin Absher, Stella Aslibekyan, John M Starr, Allan F McRae, Lifang Hou, Allan C Just, Joel D Schwartz, Pantel S Vokonas, Cristina Menni, Tim D Spector, Alan Shuldiner, Coleen M Damcott, Jerome I Rotter, Walter Palmas, Yongmei Liu, Tomáš Paus, Steve Horvath, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Xiuqing Guo, Zdenka Pausova, Themistocles L Assimes, Nona Sotoodehnia, Jennifer A Smith, Donna K Arnett, Ian J Deary, Andrea A Baccarelli, Jordana T Bell, Eric Whitsel, Abbas Dehghan, Daniel Levy, Myriam Fornage
Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of genetic variants associated with blood pressure (BP), but sequence variation accounts for a small fraction of the phenotypic variance. Epigenetic changes may alter the expression of genes involved in BP regulation and explain part of the missing heritability. We therefore conducted a two-stage meta-analysis of the cross-sectional associations of systolic and diastolic BP with blood-derived genome-wide DNA methylation measured on the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip in 17,010 individuals of European, African American, and Hispanic ancestry...
December 7, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
Xin Rong, Bo Wang, Elisa Nd Palladino, Thomas Q de Aguiar Vallim, David A Ford, Peter Tontonoz
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) is a central regulator of lipogenesis whose activity is controlled by proteolytic cleavage. The metabolic factors that affect its processing are incompletely understood. Here, we show that dynamic changes in the acyl chain composition of ER phospholipids affect SREBP-1c maturation in physiology and disease. The abundance of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine in liver ER is selectively increased in response to feeding and in the setting of obesity-linked insulin resistance...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Hiroki Tanaka, Nobuhiro Zaima, Takeshi Sasaki, Naoto Yamamoto, Kazunori Inuzuka, Tatsuro Yata, Takayuki Iwaki, Kazuo Umemura, Hideto Sano, Yuko Suzuki, Tetsumei Urano, Mitsutoshi Setou, Naoki Unno
Free arachidonic acid (AA) is an important precursor of lipid mediators such as leukotrienes and prostaglandins that induces inflammation and is associated with atherosclerosis progression. Recent studies have shown that lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase-3 (LPCAT3) converts lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and free AA into phosphatidylcholine (PC)-containing AA (arachidonyl-PC) and thereby can regulate intracellular free-AA levels. However, the association between LPCAT3 and atherosclerosis remains to be established...
2017: Journal of Vascular Research
Amar Bahadur Singh, Jingwen Liu
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) regulates many genes involved in lipid metabolism. Hepatic lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (LPCAT3) has critical functions in triglycerides transport and endoplasmic reticulum stress response due to its unique ability to catalyze the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into phospholipids. Previous studies identified liver X receptor as the transcription factor controlling LPCAT3 expression in mouse liver tissue. Here we show that the hepatic LPCAT3 gene is transcriptionally regulated by PPARδ...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sergio Rodriguez-Cuenca, Lauren Whyte, Rachel Hagen, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Maria Fuller
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is a lipogenic enzyme important for the regulation of membrane lipid homeostasis; dysregulation likely contributes to obesity associated metabolic disturbances. SCD1 catalyses the Δ9 desaturation of 12-19 carbon saturated fatty acids to monounsaturated fatty acids. To understand its influence in cellular lipid composition we investigated the effect of genetic ablation of SCD1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes on membrane microdomain lipid composition at the species-specific level. Using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry, we quantified 70 species of ceramide, mono-, di- and trihexosylceramide, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate, phosphatidylinositol and cholesterol in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in which a 90% reduction in scd1 mRNA expression was achieved with siRNA...
2016: PloS One
Mette Korre Andersen, Emil Jørsboe, Camilla Helene Sandholt, Niels Grarup, Marit Eika Jørgensen, Nils Joakim Færgeman, Peter Bjerregaard, Oluf Pedersen, Ida Moltke, Torben Hansen, Anders Albrechtsen
Fatty acids (FAs) are involved in cellular processes important for normal body function, and perturbation of FA balance has been linked to metabolic disturbances, including type 2 diabetes. An individual's level of FAs is affected by diet, lifestyle, and genetic variation. We aimed to improve the understanding of the mechanisms and pathways involved in regulation of FA tissue levels, by identifying genetic loci associated with inter-individual differences in erythrocyte membrane FA levels. We assessed the levels of 22 FAs in the phospholipid fraction of erythrocyte membranes from 2,626 Greenlanders in relation to single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped on the MetaboChip or imputed...
June 2016: PLoS Genetics
Kevin Kolahi, Samantha Louey, Oleg Varlamov, Kent Thornburg
While the human placenta must provide selected long-chain fatty acids to support the developing fetal brain, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the transport process. We tracked the movement of the fluorescently labeled long-chain fatty acid analogue, BODIPY-C12, across the cell layers of living explants of human term placenta. Although all layers took up the fatty acid, rapid esterification of long-chain fatty acids and incorporation into lipid droplets was exclusive to the inner layer cytotrophoblast cells rather than the expected outer syncytiotrophoblast layer...
2016: PloS One
J G Cash, D Y Hui
Previous studies have shown that group 1B phospholipase A2-mediated absorption of lysophospholipids inhibits hepatic fatty acid β-oxidation and contributes directly to postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, leading to increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. The current study tested the possibility that increased expression of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase-3 (LPCAT3), an enzyme that converts lysophosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylcholine in the liver, may alleviate the adverse effects of lysophospholipids absorbed after a lipid-glucose mixed meal...
2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
Bo Wang, Xin Rong, Mark A Duerr, Daniel J Hermanson, Per Niklas Hedde, Jinny S Wong, Thomas Q de Aguiar Vallim, Benjamin F Cravatt, Enrico Gratton, David A Ford, Peter Tontonoz
Phospholipids are important determinants of membrane biophysical properties, but the impact of membrane acyl chain composition on dietary-lipid absorption is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the LXR-responsive phospholipid-remodeling enzyme Lpcat3 modulates intestinal fatty acid and cholesterol absorption and is required for survival on a high-fat diet. Mice lacking Lpcat3 in the intestine thrive on carbohydrate-based chow but lose body weight rapidly and become moribund on a triglyceride-rich diet. Lpcat3-dependent incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into phospholipids is required for the efficient transport of dietary lipids into enterocytes...
March 8, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Inamul Kabir, Zhiqiang Li, Hai H Bui, Ming-Shang Kuo, Guangping Gao, Xian-Cheng Jiang
Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (Lpcat3) is involved in phosphatidylcholine remodeling in the small intestine and liver. We investigated lipid metabolism in inducible intestine-specific and liver-specificLpcat3gene knock-out mice. We producedLpcat3-Flox/villin-Cre-ER(T2)mice, which were treated with tamoxifen (at days 1, 3, 5, and 7), to deleteLpcat3specifically in the small intestine. At day 9 after the treatment, we found that Lpcat3 deficiency in enterocytes significantly reduced polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines in the enterocyte plasma membrane and reduced Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1), CD36, ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1), and ABCG8 levels on the membrane, thus significantly reducing lipid absorption, cholesterol secretion through apoB-dependent and apoB-independent pathways, and plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, and phospholipid levels, as well as body weight...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Zhiqiang Li, Hui Jiang, Tingbo Ding, Caixia Lou, Hai H Bui, Ming-Shang Kuo, Xian-Cheng Jiang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) are structural and functional constituents of cell membranes. The activity of acyltransferase (lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase [LPCAT]) is required for addition of polyunsaturated fatty acids to the sn-2 position of PCs and is therefore required to maintain cell membrane structure and function. LPCAT3 is the most abundant isoform of LPCAT in the small intestine and liver, which are important sites of plasma lipoprotein metabolism...
November 2015: Gastroenterology
Kosuke Taniguchi, Hisako Hikiji, Toshinori Okinaga, Tomomi Hashidate-Yoshida, Hideo Shindou, Wataru Ariyoshi, Takao Shimizu, Kazuhiro Tominaga, Tatsuji Nishihara
Lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs) regulate the diversification of fatty acid composition in biological membranes. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases (LPCATs) are members of the LPLATs that play a role in inflammatory responses. M1 macrophages differentiate in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and are pro-inflammatory, whereas M2 macrophages, which differentiate in response to interleukin-4 (IL-4), are anti-inflammatory and involved in homeostasis and wound healing. In the present study, we showed that LPCATs play an important role in M1/M2-macrophage polarization...
December 2015: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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