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Computer and Visual

Jeong Hoon Lee, Eun Ju Ha, Ju Han Kim
PURPOSE: To develop a deep learning-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for use in the CT diagnosis of cervical lymph node metastasis (LNM) in patients with thyroid cancer. METHODS: A total of 995 axial CT images that included benign (n = 647) and malignant (n = 348) lymph nodes were collected from 202 patients with thyroid cancer who underwent CT for surgical planning between July 2017 and January 2018. The datasets were randomly split into training (79...
March 15, 2019: European Radiology
Christian A Barrera, Elizabeth Silvestro, Juan S Calle-Toro, Philip V Scribano, Joanne N Wood, M Katherine Henry, Savvas Andronikou
Three-dimensional (3-D) printing is gaining terrain in medical education, presurgical evaluation and recently as forensic evidence in court. Physicians, including radiologists, often provide expert testimony in court cases involving children with rib fractures and other injuries concerning for child physical abuse. Effectively communicating the complexities of fractures and other skeletal findings to nonmedical personnel using standard radiology studies can be challenging, especially during medical courtroom testimony...
March 15, 2019: Pediatric Radiology
Xin-Yun Zhang, Zhen-Kui Sun, Wei-Jun Wei, Zhong-Ling Qiu, Chen-Tian Shen, Hong-Jun Song, Zhong-Min Shi, Quan-Yong Luo
Both osteoarthritis and impingement syndrome are the disorders commonly observed in sports medicine. However, failure in pain alleviation by surgical intervention introduces challenges in the diagnosis and decision-making for orthopedists. Hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) provides both functional and structural information of ankle pathology. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate whether bone tracer uptake by ankle SPECT/CT is related to the lesion type and visual analog scale (VAS) pain score for patients with osteoarthritis and bony impingement...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Haijun Yu, Weiwen Wu, Peijun Chen, Changcheng Gong, Junru Jiang, Shaoyu Wang, Fenglin Liu, Hengyong Yu
Dynamic computed tomography (CT) is usually employed to image motion objects, such as beating heart, coronary artery and cerebral perfusion, etc. Recently, to further improve the temporal resolution for aperiodic industrial process imaging, the swinging multi-source CT (SMCT) systems and the corresponding swinging multi-source prior image constrained compressed sensing (SM-PICCS) method were developed. Since the SM-PICCS uses the L1 -norm of image gradient, the edge structures in the reconstructed images are blurred and motion artifacts are still present...
February 18, 2019: Optics Express
Francesco Arba, Giuseppe Dario Testa, Nicola Limbucci, Sergio Nappini, Leonardo Renieri, Giovanni Pracucci, Patrizia Nencini, Domenico Inzitari
BACKGROUND: Pre-existing small vessel disease (SVD) has been associated with poor functional outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis; however, there are scarce data in patients treated with endovascular therapy. We aimed to investigate the associations between SVD and clinical outcomes in patients treated with endovascular therapy. METHODS: We retrospectivel y evaluated patients with acute ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation receiving endovascular treatment...
March 14, 2019: Neurological Sciences
Santiago González Izard, Juan A Juanes Méndez, Pablo Ruisoto Palomera, Francisco J García-Peñalvo
Virtual and Augmented Reality has experienced a steady growth in medicine in recent years. At the same time, the radiological images play a central role in the diagnosis and planification of surgical approaches. The aim of this study is to present the first attempt to enhanced radiological image visualization using virtual and augmented reality for better planification and monitorization of surgeries. This application allows to move beyond traditional two-dimensional images towards three-dimensional models that can be visualized and manipulated with both Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Medical Systems
Roberto D Tabernero Rico, Juan Antonio Juanes Méndez, Alberto Prats-Galino
A widely known alternative for reading and exchanging digital files is the PDF file, by Adobe. This type of file has become the most used for the electronic exchange of files. It is platform-independent, suitable for the exchange of medical data in electronic academic publication. PDF can support additional resources such image, media, even, three-dimensional surface mesh models. A three-dimensional model of the base of the skull is generated from computed tomography images to provide an overview of the PDF file format, with emphasis on biomedical images...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Systems
Tianjiao Zeng, Hayden K-H So, Edmund Y Lam
We develop an image despeckling method that combines nonlocal self-similarity filters with machine learning, which makes use of convolutional neural network (CNN) denoisers. It consists of three major steps: block matching, CNN despeckling, and group shrinkage. Through the use of block matching, we can take advantage of the similarity across image patches as a regularizer to augment the performance of data-driven denoising using a pre-trained network. The outputs from the CNN denoiser and the group coordinates from block matching are further used to form 3D groups of similar patches, which are then filtered through a wavelet-domain shrinkage...
March 1, 2019: Applied Optics
Maciej M Bartuzel, D Robert Iskander, Iván Marín-Franch, Norberto López-Gil
Experimental visual acuity (VA) of eight subjects was measured using the Freiburg vision test in a custom-made adaptive optics system. Measurements were conducted under one control and five defocus-induced conditions. In the defocus-induced conditions, 1 diopter of myopic defocus was added to the system using the Badal stage, and defocus vibrations with five different levels of amplitude were generated by a deformable mirror at 50 Hz. Computational simulations of the visual Strehl ratio (VSOTF) were performed using average aberrations of each subject recorded in the control condition...
March 1, 2019: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Asli Buyukkurt, Clément Bourguignon, Christina Antinora, Elisabeth Farquhar, Xiaoya Gao, Eloise Passarella, Duncan Sibthorpe, Karine Gou, Sybille Saury, Serge Beaulieu, Kai-Florian Storch, Outi Linnaranta
OBJECTIVE: We present novel dimensional methods to describe the timing of eating in psychopathology. We focused on the relationship between current mood in bipolar disorder (BD) and the stability of the temporal pattern of daily eating events. METHODS: Consenting BD patients (n = 69) from an outpatient, tertiary care clinic completed hourly charts of mood and eating for two weeks. Mood was also evaluated with Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS)...
March 15, 2019: Nutritional Neuroscience
Wen Yao, Fangfang Huang, Xuehai Zhang, Jihua Tang
SUMMARY: We proposed to store large-scale genotype data as integer sparse matrices, which consumed much fewer computing resources for storage and analysis than traditional approaches. In addition, the raw genotype data could be readily recovered from integer sparse matrices. Utilizing this approach, we stored the genotype data of 1612 Asian cultivated rice accessions and 446 Asian wild rice accessions across 8,584,244 SNP sites in the ECOGEMS database with 310 MB of disk usage. Graphical interface for visualization, analysis and download of SNP data were implemented in ECOGEMS, which made it a valuable resource for rice functional genomic studies...
March 14, 2019: Bioinformatics
Nannan Zhang, Yadong Liu, Erwei Yin, Baosong Deng, Lu Cao, Jun Jiang, Zongtan Zhou, Dewen Hu
Although the mechanisms of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) have been well studied, none of them have been implemented with strictly experimental conditions. Our objective was to create an ideal observer condition to exploit the features of SSVEPs. We present here an electroencephalographic (EEG) eye tracking experimental paradigm that provides biofeedback for gaze restriction during the visual stimulation. Specifically, we designed an EEG eye tracking synchronous data recording system for successful trial selection...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Mario Braun, Martin Kronbichler, Fabio Richlan, Stefan Hawelka, Florian Hutzler, Arthur M Jacobs
Neurocognitive studies of visual word recognition have provided information about brain activity correlated with orthographic processing. Some of these studies related the orthographic neighborhood density of letter strings to the amount of hypothetical global lexical activity (GLA) in the brain as simulated by computational models of word recognition. To further investigate this issue, we used GLA of words and nonwords from the multiple read-out model of visual word recognition (MROM) and related this activity to neural correlates of orthographic processing in the brain by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Joshua J Podmore, Toby P Breckon, Nik K N Aznan, Jason D Connolly
Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) harnessing Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEP) manipulate the frequency and phase of visual stimuli to generate predictable oscillations in neural activity. For BCI spellers, oscillations are matched with alphanumeric characters allowing users to select target numbers and letters. Advances in BCI spellers can, in part, be accredited to subject-speci?c optimization, including; 1) custom electrode arrangements, 2) ?lter sub-band assessments and 3) stimulus parameter tuning...
March 13, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Junyu Gao, Tianzhu Zhang, Changsheng Xu
Most existing trackers are either sampling-based or regression-based methods. Sampling-based methods estimate the target state by sampling many target candidates. Although these methods achieve significant performance, they often suffer from a high computational burden. Regression-based methods often learn a computationally efficient regression function to directly predict the geometric distortion between frames. However, most of these methods require large-scale external training videos and are still not very impressive in terms of accuracy...
March 12, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Alfonso Fiorelli, Camilla Poggi, Nicoletta Ardò, Gaetana Messina, Claudio Andreetti, Federico Venuta, Erino Angelo Rendina, Mario Santini, Michele Loizzi, Nicola Serra, Francesco Sollitto, Domenico Loizzi
BACKGROUND: The flow-volume curve is a simple test for diagnosing upper airway obstruction. We evaluated its use to predict recurrence in patients undergoing endoscopic dilation for treatment of benign upper airway stenosis. METHODS: The data of 89 consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic dilation of simple upper airway stenosis were retrospectively reviewed. Morphological distortion of flow-volume loop (visual analysis) and quantitative criteria including MEF50% /MIF50% <0...
March 11, 2019: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Jae-Man Kwak, Erica Kholinne, Yucheng Sun, Sungjoon Lim, Kyoung-Hwan Koh, In-Ho Jeon
PURPOSE: To compare clinical and radiologic outcomes following open (OPEN) and arthroscopic (ARTHRO) osteocapsular arthroplasty for primary elbow osteoarthritis. METHODS: Patients treated with osteocapsular arthroplasty between January 2010 and December 2015 were divided into OPEN and ARTHRO groups. OPEN was performed from January 2010 to October 2012, and ARTHRO from November 2012 to December 2015. OPEN and ARTHRO were performed in 35 and 52 elbows, respectively...
March 11, 2019: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Sumeet Shinde, Shweta Prasad, Yash Saboo, Rishabh Kaushick, Jitender Saini, Pramod Kumar Pal, Madhura Ingalhalikar
Neuromelanin sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (NMS-MRI) has been crucial in identifying abnormalities in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in Parkinson's disease (PD) as PD is characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the SNc. Current techniques employ estimation of contrast ratios of the SNc, visualized on NMS-MRI, to discern PD patients from the healthy controls. However, the extraction of these features is time-consuming and laborious and moreover provides lower prediction accuracies. Furthermore, these do not account for patterns of subtle changes in PD in the SNc...
March 6, 2019: NeuroImage: Clinical
Sorour Mohajerani, Parvaneh Saeedi
Automatic identification of shadow regions in an image is a basic and yet very important task in many computer vision applications such as object detection, target tracking, and visual data analysis. Although shadow detection is a well-studied topic, current methods for identification of shadow are not as accurate as required. In this work, we propose a deep-learning method for shadow detection at a pixel-level that is suitable for single RGB images. The proposed CNN-based method benefits from a novel architecture through which global and local shadow attributes are identified using a new and efficient mapping scheme in the skip connection...
March 11, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Aashish Chaudhary, Sankhesh J Jhaveri, Alvaro Sanchez, Lisa S Avila, Kenneth M Martin, Allison Vacanti, Marcus D Hanwell, Will Schroeder
The visualization toolkit (VTK) is a popular cross-platform, open source toolkit for scientific and medical data visualization, processing, and analysis. It supports a wide variety of data formats, algorithms, and rendering techniques for both polygonal and volumetric data. In particular, VTK's volume rendering module has long provided a comprehensive set of features such as plane clipping, color and opacity transfer functions, lighting, and other controls needed for visualization. However, due to VTK's legacy OpenGL backend and its reliance on a deprecated API, the system did not take advantage of the latest improvements in graphics hardware or the flexibility of a programmable pipeline...
January 2019: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
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