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Juliana Yang, Yen-I Chen, Shai Friedland, Ian Holmes, Christopher Paiji, Ryan Law, Amy Hosmer, Tyler Stevens, Franco Matheus, Rishi Pawa, Nihar Mathur, Divyesh Sejpal, Sumant Inamdar, Tyler M Berzin, Christopher J DiMaio, Sanchit Gupta, Patrick S Yachimski, Andrea Anderloni, Alessandro Repici, Theodore James, Laith H Jamil, Mel Ona, Simon K Lo, Srinivas Gaddam, Markus Dollhopf, Nuha Alammar, Eugenie Shieh, Majidah Bukhari, Vivek Kumbhari, Vikesh Singh, Olaya Brewer, Omid Sanaei, Lea Fayad, Saowanee Ngamruengphong, Eun Ji Shin, Todd H Baron, Mouen A Khashab
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2019: Endoscopy
Lisa Watkins, Susan McGrattan, Patrick J Sullivan, M Todd Walter
Dams are known to trap pollutants such as metals and PCBs in the sediment that accumulates within their reservoirs. As more attention is paid to microplastics, an emerging contaminant in waterways worldwide, and how they move along rivers, whether microplastic particles also accumulate behind dams is an important question for informing estimates of global river inputs to oceans. In this study, we measured microplastic concentrations above, below, and within the reservoirs of six dams near Ithaca, NY USA. Samples were processed following the wet peroxide oxidation method and visual counting, followed by Raman Spectroscopy validation...
February 3, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Azzurra Ruggeri, Douglas B Markant, Todd M Gureckis, Maria Bretzke, Fei Xu
This paper investigates whether active control of study leads to enhanced learning in 5- to 11-year-old children. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants played a simple memory game with the instruction to try to remember and later recognize a set of 64 objects. In Experiment 3, the goal was to learn the French names for the same objects. For half of the materials presented, participants could decide the order and pacing of study (Active condition). For the other half, they passively observed the study decisions of a previous participant (Yoked condition)...
February 12, 2019: Cognition
Harish S Appiakannan, Daniel R Kestyus, E Todd Weber
Both high-fat diet and chronic circadian disruption have been associated with increased incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. Chronically elevated glucocorticoids, which have considerable impacts on physiological processes such as intermediary metabolism, inflammation, and fat metabolism, have also been implicated in insulin resistance associated with obesity and diabetes. In this study, the effects of high-fat diet (HFD) or chronic circadian challenge in C57BL/6J mice on basal and stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) and blood glucose levels were assessed...
February 12, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Doris M Rubio, Megan E Hamm, Colleen A Mayowski, Seyed Mehdi Nouraie, Alexander Quarshie, Todd Seto, Magda Shaheen, Lourdes E Soto de Laurido, Marie K Norman
The National Institutes of Health has made considerable investments to diversify the biomedical research workforce. Towards this goal, the authors partnered with representatives from several minority serving institutions (MSIs) to develop training for the next generation of researchers. To ensure the most effective training program, the authors conducted a needs assessment with junior and senior investigators from the partnering MSIs. In 2016, the authors conducted focus groups and interviews with 23 junior investigators as well as in-depth interviews with 6 senior investigators from the partnering institutions with the goal of identifying specific areas of training and support that would help junior investigators at MSIs develop and sustain research careers...
February 12, 2019: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
E Lerma-Chippirraz, Marta Pineda-Moncusí, A González-Mena, Jade Soldado-Folgado, H Knobel, M Trenchs-Rodríguez, A Díez-Pérez, Todd T Brown, N García-Giralt, R Güerri-Fernández
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms behind ART-induced bone changes in HIV-infected patients are poorly known. We aimed to analyse changes in inflammatory and bone markers in HIV after tenofovir disoproxil fumarate initiation, and the associations with changes in the bone strength parameters. METHODS: HIV-positive participants starting tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-based ART underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (QDR 4500 SL®, Hologic, Waltham, MA, USA) for bone mineral density (BMD), a microindentation test (OsteoProbe®, Active Life Scientific, Santa Barbara, CA, USA) for bone quality [bone material strength index (BMSi)] and phlebotomy at baseline and 48 weeks after ART...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
N Plevris, C S Chuah, R M Allen, I D Arnott, P N Brennan, S Chaudhary, A M D Churchhouse, S Din, E Donoghue, D R Gaya, M Groome, H M Jafferbhoy, P W Jenkinson, W L Lam, M Lyons, J C Macdonald, M MacMaster, C Mowat, G D Naismith, L F Potts, E Saffouri, J P Seenan, A Sengupta, P Shasi, D I Sutherland, J A Todd, J Veryan, A J M Watson, D A Watts, G R Jones, C W Lees
INTRODUCTION: Vedolizumab is an anti-a4b7 monoclonal antibody that is licensed for the treatment of moderate to severe Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. AIMS: To establish the real-world efficacy and safety of vedolizumab in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Retrospective study involving six NHS health boards in Scotland between June 2015 and November 2017. Inclusion criteria included a diagnosis ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease with objective evidence of active inflammation at baseline (HBI≥5 / Partial Mayo ≥2 plus CRP >5 g/L or faecal calprotectin ≥250 µg/g or inflammation on endoscopy / MRI) and at least one clinical follow up by 12 months...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Patrick R Blackburn, Jaime I Davila, Rory A Jackson, Numrah Fadra, Mazen A Atiq, Beth A Pitel, Asha A Nair, Todd J Van De Walker, Mark G Hessler, Sara K Hovel, Rebecca N Wehrs, Karen J Fritchie, Robert B Jenkins, Kevin C Halling, Katherine B Geiersbach
Primary aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign multiloculated cystic lesion of bone that is defined cytogenetically by USP6 gene rearrangements. Rearrangements involving USP6 are promoter swaps, usually generated by fusion of the non-coding upstream exons of different partner genes with exon 1 or 2 of USP6, thus leading to transcriptional upregulation of full-length USP6 coding sequence. Testing for USP6 rearrangements is used diagnostically to distinguish it from secondary ABC and other giant cell-rich primary bone tumors...
February 14, 2019: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
Brandon B Carlson, Todd J Albert
INTRODUCTION: Intervertebral disc herniation (IDH) can cause back pain and/or radiculopathy and accounts for a significant portion of patients having spinal surgery in the USA. One of the most impactful and well-executed randomized trials to study diagnosis, treatments, and outcomes in patients with three commonly treated spinal conditions was the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT). This study and the subsequent data analyses have resulted in numerous publications related to IDH...
February 15, 2019: International Orthopaedics
Theodore W James, Todd H Baron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: VideoGIE: an official video journal of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Diego A Mesa, Justin Tantiongloc, Marcela Mendoza, Todd P Coleman
The need to reason about uncertainty in large, complex, and multimodal data sets has become increasingly common across modern scientific environments. The ability to transform samples from one distribution <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mi>P</mml:mi> </mml:math> to another distribution <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mi>Q</mml:mi> </mml:math> enables the solution to many problems in machine learning (e...
February 14, 2019: Neural Computation
Matthew Saurette, R Todd Alexander
This review summarizes the work on transcellular intestinal phosphate absorption, arguing why this pathway is not the predominant pathway in humans consuming a "Western" diet. We then highlight the recent evidence which is strongly consistent with paracellular intestinal phosphate absorption mediating the bulk of intestinal phosphate absorption in humans.
February 14, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Paulius V Kuprys, Hidekazu Tsukamoto, Bin Gao, Lin Jia, Jacob McGowan, Craig M Coopersmith, Maria Camargo Moreno, Holly Hulsebus, Avtar S Meena, Flavia M Souza-Smith, Philip Roper, Michelle T Foster, S Vamsee Raju, S Alex Marshall, Mayumi Fujita, Brenda J Curtis, Todd A Wyatt, Pranoti Mandrekar, Elizabeth J Kovacs, Mashkoor A Choudhry
On January 26, 2018, the 23rd annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at the University of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado. The meeting consisted of plenary sessions with oral presentations and a poster presentation session. There were four plenary sessions that covered a wide range of topics relating to alcohol use: Alcohol and Liver Disease; Alcohol, Inflammation and Immune Response; Alcohol and Organ Injury; Heath Consequences and Alcohol Drinking...
August 24, 2018: Alcohol
David A Kalmbach, James L Abelson, J Todd Arnedt, Zhuo Zhao, Jessica R Schubert, Srijan Sen
STUDY OBJECTIVES: While anxiety rates are alarmingly high in short sleeping insomniacs, the relationship between insomnia and anxiety symptoms has not been extensively studied, especially in comparison to the relationship between insomnia and depressive symptoms. Using residency training as a naturalistic stress exposure, we prospectively assessed the role of sleep disturbance and duration on anxiety-risk in response to stress. METHODS: Web-based survey data from 1336 first-year training physicians (interns) prior to and then quarterly across medical internship...
December 14, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Andrew Cyr, J Andrés López, Lorrie Rea, Matthew J Wooller, Todd Loomis, Susanne Mcdermott, Todd M O'Hara
Several species found in the Bering Sea show significant spatial variation in total mercury concentrations ([THg]) longitudinally along the Aleutian Island chain. We assessed [THg] in other members of the Bering Sea food web to better understand the factors shaping regional differences. [THg] and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15 N and δ13 C values) were measured in muscle tissue from 1052 fishes and cephalopods from parts of the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean adjacent to the Aleutian Islands...
January 31, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Kendall E Barrett, Eduardo Aluicio-Sarduy, Aeli P Olson, Christopher J Kutyreff, Paul A Ellison, Todd E Barnhart, Robert J Nickles, Jonathan W Engle
We report a novel, precipitation-based method for the isolation of Mn from Cr targets for cyclotron production of 52g Mn. The separation produces no-carrier-added 52g Mn with a decay corrected radiochemical yield of 85 ± 3% and apparent molar activity for DOTA of 1.3 GBq/μmol. This method reduces stable metallic impurities in the purified 52g Mn compared to previously reported chromatographic methods.
February 1, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Howard J Lee, Andrew Stacey, Todd R Klesert, Craig Wells, Alison Skalet, Charles Bloch, Angela Fung, Stephen R Bowen, Tony P Wong, Dean Shibata, Lia M Halasz, Ramesh Rengan
PURPOSE: The present study examines the relationship between dose to corneal substructures and incidence of corneal toxicity within six months of proton beam therapy (PBT) for uveal melanoma. We aim to develop clinically meaningful dose constraints that can be used to mitigate corneal toxicity. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ninety-two patients were treated with PBT between 2015 and 2017 and evaluated for grade 2+ (GR2+), intervention-requiring corneal toxicity in our prospectively maintained database...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Charles D Fraser, Xun Zhou, Joshua C Grimm, Alejandro Suarez-Pierre, Todd C Crawford, Cecillia Lui, Errol L Bush, Narutoshi Hibino, Marshall L Jacobs, Luca A Vricella, Christian Merlo
BACKGROUND: The impact of size mismatch between donor and recipient in pediatric lung transplantation (PLTx) is currently unknown. Previous studies in adults have suggested that oversized allografts are associated with improved outcomes following lung transplantation. We investigated this relationship in order to quantify its effect on post-transplant outcomes in children. METHODS: The UNOS database was queried for pre-adolescent (age<13) patients undergoing PLTx...
February 11, 2019: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Jung K Mok, Evan D Sheha, Andre M Samuel, Steven J McAnany, Avani S Vaishnav, Todd J Albert, Catherine Himo Gang, Sheeraz Qureshi
STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: The main objectives of this study were to identify epidemiological trends, differences, and complications in patients undergoing surgical treatment for single-level cervical radiculopathy (SLCR). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: SLCR that fails nonoperative management is effectively treated with either anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), cervical disc replacement (CDR), or posterior cervical foraminotomy (PCF)...
February 12, 2019: Clinical Spine Surgery
Liwen Lin, He Xu, Muath Bishawi, FeiFei Feng, Kannan Samy, George Truskey, Andrew S Barbas, Allan D Kirk, Todd V Brennan
The innate immune system is a critical regulator of the adaptive immune responses that lead to allograft rejection. It is increasingly recognized that endogenous molecules released from tissue injury and cell death are potent activators of innate immunity. Mitochondria, ancestrally related to bacteria, possess an array of endogenous innate immune activating molecules. We have recently demonstrated that extracellular mitochondria are abundant in the circulation of deceased organ donors and that their presence correlates with early allograft dysfunction...
February 14, 2019: American Journal of Transplantation
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