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HIV drug complications

Timothy D Becker, Ari R Ho-Foster, Ohemaa B Poku, Shathani Marobela, Haitisha Mehta, Dai Thi Xuan Cao, Lyla S Yang, Lilo I Blank, Vincent Ikageng Dipatane, Letumile Rogers Moeng, Keneilwe Molebatsi, Marlene M Eisenberg, Frances K Barg, Michael B Blank, Philip Renison Opondo, Lawrence H Yang
Mental illness is a common comorbidity of HIV and complicates treatment. In Botswana, stigma impedes treatment of mental illness. We examined explanatory beliefs about mental illness, stigma, and interactions between HIV and mental illness among 42 adults, from HIV clinic and community settings, via thematic analysis of interviews. Respondents endorse witchcraft as a predominant causal belief, in addition to drug abuse and effects of HIV. Respondents describe mental illness as occurring "when the trees blossom," underscoring a conceptualization of it as seasonal, chronic, and often incurable and as worse than HIV...
February 9, 2019: Qualitative Health Research
Lauren Auster, Morgan Sutton, Mary Chandler Gwin, Christopher Nitkin, Tracey L Bonfield
Infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is a complication of lung disease in immunocompromised patients, including those with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis (CF). The most widespread, disease-causing NTM is Mycobacterium avium complex ( MAC ), which colonizes the lungs as a combination of Mycobacterium avium , Mycobacterium intracellulare , and other mycobacterial species. While combination drug therapy exists for MAC colonization, there is no cure...
February 1, 2019: Microorganisms
Vinay Goyal, Arunmozhimaran Elavarasi, Abhishek, Garima Shukla, Madhuri Behari
Introduction: Tubercular meningitis (TBM) is a common cause of chronic meningitis in India; however, there is a paucity of literature on optimum duration and choice of drug therapy. Materials and Methods: This was an ambispective cohort study. Results: Two hundred and forty-four patients of central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS TB) who were seronegative for HIV were studied of whom 198 had TBM and 46 patients had tuberculoma without meningitis...
January 2019: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Mattia Peyracchia, Roberto Verardi, Sergio Raposeiras Rubin, Emad Abu-Assi, Chiara Montrucchio, Leor Perl, Walter Grossomarra, Andrea Calcagno, Pierluigi Omedè, Antonio Montefusco, Stefano Bonora, Claudio Moretti, Maurizio D'Amico, Rinaldi Mauro, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo
BACKGROUND: Pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in HIV-positive patients is related to the interaction between traditional and HIV-specific factors. Limited data are available regarding the prognosis of HIV-positive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: All observational studies evaluating the prognosis of HIV-positive patients treated with PCI were included. In-hospital and long-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE) [composite endpoint of all-cause death or myocardial infarction (MI)] were the primary endpoints, whereas in-hospital and long-term all-cause death, cardiovascular death, MI, stent thrombosis, target vessel revascularization (TVR), target lesion revascularization (TLR), and bleeding complications were the secondary ones...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
J D Pommier, C Laouénan, F Michard, E Papot, P Urios, A Boutten, G Peytavin, C Ghander, S Lariven, G Castanedo, D Moho, R Landman, B Phung, E Perez, Z Julia, D Descamps, P Roland Nicaise, S Le Gac, Y Yazdanpanah, J Guibourdenche, P Yeni
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected transwomen face multiple specific issues. Economic and social marginalization, sex work, substance abuse, hormonal consumption and silicone injection may affect the course of HIV infection and lead to metabolic and endocrine complications. METHODS: A matched case-control study was performed between 2013 and 2015 in a University Hospital and compared metabolic syndrome, thyroid and adrenal functions in HIV-infected transwomen (i.e.; cases) and cisgender HIV-infected men (i...
January 16, 2019: AIDS
Adam J Visconti, Jarrett Sell, Aaron David Greenblatt
More than 750,000 persons in the United States inject opioids, methamphetamine, cocaine, or ketamine, and that number is increasing because of the current opioid epidemic. Persons who inject drugs (PWID) are at higher risk of infectious and noninfectious skin, pulmonary, cardiac, neurologic, and other causes of morbidity and mortality. Nonjudgmental inquiries about current drug use can uncover information about readiness for addiction treatment and identify modifiable risk factors for complications of injection drug use...
January 15, 2019: American Family Physician
Enyuan Cao, Anna Lindgren, Sofia Martinsson, Luojuan Hu, Lennart Lindfors, Kalle Sigfridsson, Urban Skantze, Erik Michaëlsson, Natalie L Trevaskis, Christopher J H Porter
Lymphocytes play a central role in the pathology of a range of chronic conditions such as autoimmune disease, transplant rejection, leukemia, lymphoma HIV/AIDs and cardiometabolic diseases such as atherosclerosis. Current treatments for lymphocyte-associated conditions are incompletely effective and/or complicated by a range of off-target toxicities. One major challenge is poor drug access to lymphocytes via the systemic blood and this may be attributed, at least in part, to the fact that lymphocytes are concentrated within lymph fluid and lymphoid tissues, particularly in gut-associated lymphatics...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Andy Kuo, Janet R Nicholson, Laura Corradini, Maree T Smith
Human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) associated sensory neuropathy (SN) is a frequent complication of HIV infection. It is extremely difficult to alleviate and hence the quality of life of affected individuals is severely and adversely impacted. Stavudine (d4T) is an antiretroviral drug that was widely used globally prior to 2010 and that is still used today in resource-limited settings. Its low cost and relatively good efficacy when included in antiretroviral dosing regimens means that there is a large population of patients with d4T-induced antiretroviral toxic neuropathy (ATN)...
January 1, 2019: Inflammopharmacology
David Mabirizi, Bayobuya Phulu, Wuletaw Churfo, Samson Mwinga, Greatjoy Mazibuko, Evans Sagwa, Lazarus Indongo, Tamara Hafner
The success of the Namibian government's "treatment for all" approach to control and stop the country's HIV epidemic is dependent on an uninterrupted supply of antiretrovirals (ARVs) for people living with HIV. The public health system in Namibia, however, was constrained by an inefficient paper-based pharmaceutical information system resulting in unreliable and inaccessible data, contributing to persistent stock-outs of ARVs and other essential pharmaceuticals. This article describes the incremental implementation of an integrated pharmaceutical management information system to provide timely and reliable commodity and patient data for decision making in Namibia's national antiretroviral therapy (ART) program and the Ministry of Health and Social Services (MoHSS)...
December 27, 2018: Global Health, Science and Practice
Nader Lamaa, Romina Bromberg, Maryam Foroughi, Mauricio Danckers
Septic shock is the most common type of shock in the intensive care unit with an associated mortality close to 50%. Infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare cause of septic shock but carries significant morbidity and mortality. Group B Streptococcus IE (GBS-IE) is an invasive infection with an incidence of approximately 1.7%. It affects immunocompromised patients such as intravenous drug users, alcoholics, those with HIV and elderly among others. IE with severe acute valvular heart disease challenges physicians when assessing fluid status during the early resuscitation in patients with septic shock...
December 4, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Michael McGee, Nicholas Whitehead, Scott Twadell, Nicholas Collins
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary hypertension may be a consequence of intrinsic elevation in pulmonary vasculature resistance or complicate numerous other conditions affecting the cardiac and respiratory systems. In this review we sought to explore the relationship between pulmonary hypertension and intravenous drug use. METHODS: A narrative review was conducted using PubMed MeSH search with further papers were identified using a standard PubMed search with relevant key terms and various synonyms...
December 14, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Yoshitaka Wakabayashi, Yusuke Yoshino, Kazunori Seo, Ichiro Koga, Takatoshi Kitazawa, Yasuo Ota
Osteoporosis is one of the chronic complications seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, and affects patients at high prevalence. The causes of osteoporosis in HIV-infected patients are multiple, and include chronic HIV infection, living habits such as smoking and alcohol consumption, and antiretroviral drug use. Among antiretroviral drugs, protease inhibitors have been reported to be associated with osteoporosis. However, it remains to be determined how anti-HIV drugs affect osteoblast differentiation...
December 2018: Biomedical Reports
Rafael Lessa Costa, José Moreira, Andrea Lorenzo, Cristiane C Lamas
BACKGROUND: Little is studied about complications related to probiotic ingestion. This study proposes to present a synthesis and critical evaluation of the reports and series of cases on the infectious complications related to the ingestion of probiotics, which can raise awareness for the prescribing and use of probiotics for certain groups of patients. METHODS: Systematic review of reports and series of cases researched in the PubMed, SciELO and Scopus databases published until August 2018...
December 12, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Erik Tenland, Nitya Krishnan, Anna Rönnholm, Sadaf Kalsum, Manoj Puthia, Matthias Mörgelin, Mina Davoudi, Magdalena Otrocka, Nader Alaridah, Izabela Glegola-Madejska, Erik Sturegård, Artur Schmidtchen, Maria Lerm, Brian D Robertson, Gabriela Godaly
Tuberculosis has been reaffirmed as the infectious disease causing most deaths in the world. Co-infection with HIV and the increase in multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains complicate treatment and increases mortality rates, making the development of new drugs an urgent priority. In this study we have identified a promising candidate by screening antimicrobial peptides for their capacity to inhibit mycobacterial growth. This non-toxic peptide, NZX, is capable of inhibiting both clinical strains of M...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Vimbai Chibango, Pranitha Maharaj
OBJECTIVE: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is a matter of global concern but is particularly serious in Zimbabwe. A number of strategies have been identified to limit the risk of mother-to-child transmission, including abortion. The aim of the current study was to assess men's and women's roles in decision making about abortion in a setting with a high prevalence of HIV. METHODS: Qualitative research based on eight focus group discussions was conducted among adult men and women in Gokwe North District, Zimbabwe...
November 30, 2018: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
Nripendra Nath Mishra, Ajay Kesharwani, Aakanksha Agarwal, Suja Kizhiyedath Polachira, Reshmi Nair, Satish Kumar Gupta
Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection is the most common cause of genital ulcers. The impact of ulcers also demonstrates a strong link to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Complications, drug resistance, and side-effects of anti-viral drugs make the treatment of HSV-2 infection challenging. Herbal medicines have shown potential against HSV-2 and HIV infections. In this context, polyherbal gel formulation comprising 50% ethanolic extracts from Acacia catechu , Lagerstroemia speciosa , Terminalia chebula and Phyllanthus emblica has been developed...
October 24, 2018: Viruses
Kirsty Brittain, Landon Myer, Nicole Phillips, Lucie D Cluver, Heather J Zar, Dan J Stein, Jacqueline Hoare
Behavioural health risks, including substance use, early sexual debut, bullying and suicidality, are common during adolescence, but may be complicated among perinatally HIV-infected adolescents. However, there are few data exploring these behaviours in sub-Saharan Africa. We compared behavioural health risks (any self-report of substance use, sexual activity, bullying others or suicidality, or a positive urine toxicology screen) among perinatally-infected adolescents ages 9-14 years to that of an HIV-uninfected comparator group; and explored the effect of behavioural health risks on adolescent and caregiver report of adolescent suboptimal adherence (missed antiretroviral therapy dose(s) on ≥1 day during the preceding 30 days) and elevated HIV viral load (≥50 and ≥1000 copies/mL in sensitivity analyses) in multivariable logistic regression models...
October 19, 2018: AIDS Care
L F Ni, H Wang, H Li, Z G Zhang, X M Liu
OBJECTIVE: To improve the understanding of the clinical features of pulmonary cryptococcosis in non-human immunodeficiency virus (non-HIV) infection patients and reduce delay in diagnosis, or misdiagnosis. METHODS: The clinical features, imaging characteristics, laboratory examinations, treatment and prognosis of 34 cases of pulmonary cryptococcosis were retrospectively analyzed. The data were collected from Peking University First Hospital from June 1997 to June 2016...
October 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Joseph Donovan, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Le Tien Dung, Darma Imran, Erlina Burhan, Lam Hong Bao Ngoc, Nguyen Duc Bang, Do Chau Giang, Dang Thi Minh Ha, Jeremy Day, Le Thi Phuong Thao, Nguyen Tt Thuong, Nguyen Nang Vien, Ronald B Geskus, Marcel Wolbers, Raph L Hamers, Reinout van Crevel, Mugi Nursaya, Kartika Maharani, Tran Tinh Hien, Kevin Baird, Nguyen Huu Lan, Evelyne Kestelyn, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Guy E Thwaites
Background:  Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of tuberculosis. Co-infection with HIV increases the risk of developing TBM, complicates treatment, and substantially worsens outcome. Whether corticosteroids confer a survival benefit in HIV-infected patients with TBM remains uncertain. Hepatitis is the most common drug-induced serious adverse event associated with anti-tuberculosis treatment, occurring in 20% of HIV-infected patients. The suggested concentration thresholds for stopping anti-tuberculosis drugs are not evidence-based...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Tyler Finocchio, William Coolidge, Thomas Johnson
The management of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be a complicated specialty within itself, made even more complex when there are so many unanswered questions regarding the care of critically ill patients with HIV. The lack of consensus on the use of antiretroviral medications in the critically ill patient population has contributed to an ongoing clinical debate among intensivists. This review focuses on the pharmacological complications of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the intensive care setting, specifically the initiation of ART in patients newly diagnosed with HIV, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), continuation of ART in those who were on a complete regimen prior to intensive care unit admission, barriers of drug delivery alternatives, and drug-drug interactions...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
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